Vol 8, No 4 (2017)

Articles
SERGEY YURIEVICH PREOBRAZHENSKY, SCHOLAR AND AUTHOR OF VERSES
Barash O.Y.
Abstract

The article is written in memoria of Sergey Yurievich Preobrahzhensky, linguist and poet. It tackles upon the scientific interests of the scholar, deals with his principal concepts in prosody and other spheres of poetics. Besides, It also contains a brief characteristics and examples of his own poetic work.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):777-787
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THE PROBLEM OF INTER-TEXTILE RELATIONS IN THE LINGUISTIC INTERPRETATION OF ARTISTIC TEXTS: ALLUSIA AND CITATION
Preobrazhensky S.Y.
Abstract

Эта статья С.Ю. Преображенского, содержащая лингвистический анализ таких явлений, как аллюзия и цитата в художественном тексте, была опубликована в 1991 году в сборнике «Проблемы семантики в аспекте преподавания русского языка как иностранного» (М., Изд-во УДН, 1991, тираж 300 экз.). Поскольку автор высоко оценивал и считал актуальной эту статью, предлагаем ее читателям настоящего выпуска «Вестника Российского университета дружбы народов. Серия: Теория языка. Семиотика. Семантика».

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):788-793
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PUSHKIN’S ARION IN ENGLISH: CONCERNING THE PROBLEM OF TRANSLATION ADEQUASY
Nenarokova M.R.
Abstract
He article focuses on ten translations of Alexander Pushkin’s poem Arion into English from the point of view of the translation adequacy. The translations in question were made from 1930 to 2016. They are analyzed from the point of view of form and content. The texts in question were created both by the Russian-speaking and English-speaking translators. Most translators strive to preserve the meter, rhyme and number of lines of the source poem. In the XXIth century there is a growing tendency towards conveying the content of the poem at the expense of its original form, the translators using the artistic means, traditional for their own culture, f.eg. alliteration. Conveying the poem’s ideas constitutes a problem because of the lexical gaps between the two languages. Translators quite often choose a wrong contextual meaning. Word usage mistakes lead sometimes to comic effect.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):794-810
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TO RUN OR TO FLY LIKE AN ARROW FROM THE BOW: VOCABULARY OF MOVEMENT IN THE N.V. GOGOL'S STORY “NEVSKY PROSPECT” AND ITS ITALIAN VERSION
Shkolnikova O.J., Dementieva A.V.
Abstract

The paper examines the lexical means of rendering the concept “movement” in the Russian and Italian languages. On the basis of component analysis we found a number of differential semantic components as a mode of movement, its intensity, purpose, direction and others. The analysis demonstrates a series of differences between Russian and Italian lexical units on the level of semantic structure. It shows how Italian translator tries to find Italian words with meaning equivalent to Russian original.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):811-825
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LEXICO-SEMANTIC REPRESENTATION OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL CATEGORY “LOVE” WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE SPACE-TIME CONTINUUM IN THE POETIC AND EPISTOLARY HERITAGE OF A.K. TOLSTOY
Burdina E.A.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of the definition of “Love” based on the lexico-semantic aspect presented in the lyrics and letters of A.K. Tolstoy. The author investigates the lexemes included in the lexical semantic fields “Love”, “Time”, “Space”, revealing the semantic changes in their semantic structure which occur under the influence of the contextual environment. The lexico-semantic expression of the “chronotope of love” in the analyzed texts of the letters actualizes the local-temporal seme in the structure of lexemes that are not related to the semantics of space and time, which leads to the semantic variety of the A.K. Tolstoy’s epistolary. The representation of the philosophical category “Love” in the poet’s letters is compared with the lexical-semantic expression of this concept in the author’s poetry. The com-parison is made with the help of the dictionary article “Love” from the poetic vocabulary of A.K. Tolstoy’s language, which is currently under development, is used. The comparative analysis allows us to determine the relation of the main philosophical constants “time”, “space”, “movement” to the concepts of “love” and “God”, which are the semantic basis of texts of the letters and poetic works of A.K. Tolstoy. Such a study allows us to determine the range of the main lexical representatives of the “love chronotope” in the consid-ered fragment of the writer’s work, which details the linguistic picture of the author’s world and reveals the worldview of the elite language personality.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):826-837
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THE CREOLIZED ANNOUNCEMENT ON The Economist MAGAZINE COVER
Matulevich T.G.
Abstract

The article deals with the functioning of the creolized texts published on the cover of the British political and economic magazine. The author discusses their peculiarities conditioned by the magazine format. One obvious peculiarity is that, unlike that on the newspaper front page, the magazine-cover creolized text is distanced from the leader with which it goes. Another peculiarity is that its verbal, non-verbal components and their representative fragments are regularty used on the Contents page and with the cover story. A third peculiarity is that it integrates in it the announcement of a special report. As a re-sult it appears in the capacity of both an integrated and integrating entity. The peculiarities ensure surplus encoding, visualize connection between the creolized text and the cover story, help find and identify that story, organize communication making this process comfortable.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):838-846
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CREATIVE TYPES OF SPEECH ADVERTISING SLOGAN AS A TEXT “WITH A CREATIVE TASK”
Mikheeva E.S.
Abstract

The urgency of the work is due to the fact that modern speech activity has a distinct creative character. The research of the creative potential itself in the linguistic system, on the one hand, and linguistic identity (the speaker), on the other, is one of actual directions of modern linguistics. The different definitions of types of speech cannot give a full description of the variety of types of modern Russian speech. One of the steps towards a modern perspective on this issue is the selection and description of creative styles of speech that have a differential feature as the creative transformation of language units into the facts of speech. The appeal to the sphere of creative types of speech allows to understand a new perspective on the main language features. So in modern linguistics is being formed the representation of creative function, therefore there is a need of analysis of this feature in the aspect of its interaction with aesthetic function and linguistic manipulation. Analysis of the implementation of these functions in creative types of speech allows to identify texts with an imaginative task (with imagery in a broad sense), where the realization of the aesthetic function is a necessary condition, and the texts with a creative task, characterized by the realization of creative functions, as well as linguistic manipulation. Despite the fact that some advertising slogans can be combined with several imaginative means to talk about their aesthetic values, ad-vertising slogans should be attributed to the texts with a creative task.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):847-853
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ABOUT SOME PROBLEMS OF ADEQUACY IN TRANSLATION AS ONE OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION FORMS
Mamontov A.S.
Abstract

The article discusses some problems of translation as one of cross-cultural communication forms. In the article there are mainly stressed necessity of vast sociocultural context knowledge by a trans-lator: both foreign and own. Simultaneously in some cases there are brought about necessity of encyclopedic commentary on comperative basis with reconing recepient's of literary text native culture. The author denies as well significance of attempt of obligatory equivalents finding in translator’s language. In the article there are given some examples of literary text by famous writers fragments translation in English with following encyclopedic analysis. Translation activities are analyzed in close connection with language as mean of cross-cultural communication teaching and called upon to solve the problems how in a proper way to eliminate obstacles in the situation of different languages and cultures interaction.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):854-863
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THE VARIANTS OF THE ENGLISH LOAN WORDS IN CHINESE
Hu Peipei -.
Abstract

Through constant language contacts, loan words have become an indivisible part of the Chinese vocabulary. The process of assimilation loan words has long existed in Chinese language. Typical ways of assimilation loan words with English origin in Chinese language are phonetic and semantic ways. In the history of Chinese language, existed a period when the same English loan word could be translated at the same time in phonetic and semantic ways. During the assimilation of English words, exists the fact of replacing semantic way to phonetic way, and vice versa. Till now, in Chinese linguistics “competition” between phonetic borrowing and semantic borrowing is still an open controversy. In their works, Chinese linguists have different views on the use of phonetic and semantic ways. After selection and review of scientific works of Chinese linguists, this article in detail considers different ways of assimilation and possible variants of transfer English loanwords in Chinese language. This work also gives many examples from modern Chinese mass media. For more in-depth comparison and study of semantic and phonetic ways of assimilation words in modern Chinese language, this article uses the method of comparative analysis. The results of the conducted research highlights the trend of using alphabetic abbreviation and using semantic way of assimilation English words in modern Chinese language.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):864-872
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CRITERIA FOR TYPOLOGY OF CONCEPTS IN THE LEGAL DISCOURSE
Fedulova M.N.
Abstract

The public relations are based on a particular system of values which is brought to the society through different conceptual spheres articulated by its own specific semantic area of language. The author says that the semantic area of language and the semantic structure of legal discourse are the reflection of the conceptual sphere of law and can be considered as a criteria in the conceptual analyze of legal language. The problem is to choose a correct criteria for typology of concepts in the legal discourse as a special discourse. Taking into consideration that the legal discourse is a social regulator the cumulative component that depends on a correct lexical unit is very important. The cumulative component is an in-formative intensity of the word semantics that is very important for regulation of public relations. The con-ceptual sphere of the legal discourse is characterized by some specific features. The article says that in addi-tion to the common ontological criteria characterizing any discourse the criteria of semantic intensity can be a base of typology of concepts in the legal discourse. The criteria of semantic intensity, concept volume can be seen in direct (terminological) and in indirect (narrative) forms of expressive repre-sentation in any text.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):873-883
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DICTIONARIES OF TOTALITARIAN ITALY AND ALBANIA
Kosteva V.M.
Abstract

The relevance of the article is defined by the primary appeal to a comparative analysis of the development of lexicography in countries with a totalitarian society. The analyzed material is con-sidered from the point of view of the “totalitarian” linguistics, which is considered as a set of discursive practices inherent to the totalitarian era. The aim of the present article is the confirmation of the hypothesis put forward by the author, that the totalitarian state, regardless of the time frames, generates a special kind of linguistics, which has a set of certain features making it totalitarian type according to the current political semantics. The subject of the study is the lexicographic works of the totalitarian era in Italy and Albania. The research material of this article was the original lexicographic sources from Italy and Albania, as well as scientific works in the field of lexicography devoted to the period of totalitarianism, mainly represented by foreign linguists. The research is conducted in line with the narrative lexicography, which allows to recreate an objective picture of the status and development of linguistics in totalitarian states, which contributes to the rethinking of the linguistic heritage of totalitarian states, and opens further per-spectives in the field of narrative lingvo historigraphy. The obtained results are characterized by a high degree of novelty. It is the first time when the lexicographical practice of totalitarian states is presented as a comparative analysis of the discursive practices of the totalitarian era. Previously, the study of the lexicography of totalitarian states was implemented on the basis of studying specific aspects of the vocabu-lary and was presented fragmentarily, mostly in foreign languages, which significantly limits the access to the works for Russian-speaking readers. The results of this analysis contribute to a General theory of lexicography and lingvo historigraphy of the twentieth century.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):884-891
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PREFIXAL REFLEXIVE VERBS
Grachyova O.A., Kopylova P.A.
Abstract

The main features of Russian prefixal reflexive verbs, which were made only by prefixal-postfixal and prefixal methods of forming, dissimilar in structure and meaning (620 units) are considered in this article. Defined the degree of activity of functioning prefixes of reflexive verbs, quantitative data ranking of verbs according to the degree of usage of certain prefixes. The article provides a thorough and detailed study of the meanings of reflexive verbs with each specific prefix, gives a complete list of all re-flexive verbs of the above-mentioned ways of founding, identifies prefixes which were semantically marked, and prefixes which were semantically unmarked. It concluded directly proportional to the number of re-flexive verbs with certain prefixes on the number of values the possess. The article applied approaches to the analysis of prefixal reflexive verbs - “from form to meaning” and “from meaning to form”, that allowed to establish between them relations of polyfunctionality, homonymy, isofunctionality, interpreted in the field of prefixes. To understand the specificity of this type of morpheme, the article provides a com-parison of the different prefixes, functioning in the same context, emphasizes the importance of such studies for describing the verbal sign of reccurence.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):892-901
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THE PROBLEM OF TRANSLATING THE VERBAL COMPONENT OF THE CREOLIZED TEXT OF THE POLITICAL CARICATURE (Based upon the Material of the Arabic and French Languages)
Dugalich N.M.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the problem of translating the verbal component of the creolized text. The study was conducted on the basis of the Arabic and French languages. The author considers strate-gies for translating the verbal component as an integral part of the creolized text of a political caricature. The object of research of the proposed work is the text of a political caricature. The subject of the article is the peculiarities of translating the verbal component from French and Arabic into Russian in combination with visual and paralinguistic components of the caricature. The relevance of the proposed work is related, on the one hand, to the general linguistic interest in the typology of creolized texts and, on the other, to the lack of comparative studies in the scientific tradition on the basis of the French and Arab political cari-catures. The methodological base of the scientific article is the work of researchers of the creolized text as a special sign system having an integrative communicative effect, E.E. Anisimova, Yu.A. Sorokin, E.F. Tarasov, and linguists, dealing with the problems of theory and tactics of translation, L.S. Barkhudarov, V.N. Komissarov, A.P. Parshin, Ya.I. Retsker. The study was conducted on the basis of more than 100 cari-catures in the Arabic and French languages devoted to political events and political leaders of Algeria, Egypt, Russia, Syria, the United States and France.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):902-911
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POETIC LICENCES IN METATEXTS OF THE 17TH TO EARLY 18TH CENTURIES
Mikhaylenko A.Y.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the problem of of poetic licences’ codification in Church Slavic and Russian linguistic works of the 17th-18th centuries. The object of the study is the codified gram-matical and lexical unequal versification variants based on different kinds of word accidence, responsi-bly used by the authors to solve various problems of versification. The subject of the study is the system of poetic licences in the cultural and linguistic context of different historical periods. The purpose of the study: consideration of poetic licences’ types in Church Slavonic and Russian metatexts. The research is focused the study of poetic licences, recorded in the Church Slavonic grammar of M. Smotritsky and in Rus-sian philological tracts of V. Trediakovski, A. Kantemir, Ap. Baibakov, V. Podshivalov. The relevance of the work is determined by a general interest of modern linguistics to research in a history of Russian versification, among which are the problems of the poetry “grammar”, presented in an aspect of diachrony.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):912-919
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THE USING OF FINANCIAL-ECONOMIC TERMS IN SPHERE OF TREASURY (on the Material of the Uzbek, the English, the Russian Languages)
Abdullayeva S.N.
Abstract

This article deals with the problem of functioning of financial-economic terms in sphere of treasury on the material of the Uzbek language, which compared with the English and the Russian lan-guages. The archetypal national and borrowed words are analyzed in aspect of equivalence/nonequivalence. An attempt of definition the main and peripheral terms is made in one synonymic row. There is drawn a con-clusion, that in the borrowed terms from the European and the Oriental (the Arabic and the Persian) lan-guages equally function in the modern Uzbek language. The comparative analysis of the material of the Uzbek language and the material of the English and the Russian languages allows to reveal the dominant functioning of borrowed financial-economic terms in sphere of treasury in the Uzbek language. Term “kazna” (treasury, exchequer) is origin of the Arabic language, which was borrowed by the Turkic languages with adoption of Muslim religion. The borrowed term “kazna” (treasury) was used in the same sense as in the Arabic language (treasure, keeper of treasure in government system), but the meaning of that term became wider with time. The notion and term “kazna” were accepted in the European languages from the Turkic languages (or directly from the Arabic language). That term is used in the same senses in all recipient languages. Differences between in senses of recipient languages lie on pronunciation and spelling of that word. Notion and term “kazna” went a long way in formation and development of financial-economic aspect, both Arabic world and countries, which approved that notion and term.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):920-929
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TRANSLATING IDIOMS OF COLOUR (an Examination of the Relationship of Idioms of Colour Between English, Arabic and Spanish Languages)
Fityan Reema -., Azcutia Maite -.
Abstract

Nowadays, human communication is considered to be one of the most important topics occupying the minds of linguists, anthropologists, psychologists, and philosophers. Since it is the most important means for communication among human beings, the relation between language, history, culture, worldview and their mutual interactions have high significance. The inextricable connection highlights different indications of conventionalized language including the idiomatic expressions as one of the important and pervasive language uses reflecting culture in real life. Like different sorts of figurative language, idioms give off an impression of being the common decoders of traditions, social convictions, social traditions, and standards. Idioms, as a major component of native-like correspondence, empower a language learner to comprehend the thoughts, feelings and perspectives of the speakers of target language. Therefore, learning idioms provides learners a good opportunity to get data about the basic parameters of a language.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):930-938
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GENRE FEATURES OF BLOGS AS ELECTRONIC MEANS OF MASS COMMUNICATION
Shlyakhovoy D.A.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the communicative field of blogs in their stylistic, genre and dis-course aspects. The urgency of the work is due to the fact that the theory of internet-communicational doesn’t emphasize blog as a separate genre with its own characteristics. The target of research is blog-discourse as a computer-mediated communicative medium, and the scope of research is blog as a macro-genre. The linguist do not separate the blog from other communicative internet-genres, though a new sphere in the internet-communication had been already developed - the studies of virtual genres. The Definition of the blog-genre is complicated by the manysidedness of the internet-blog and by the variety of its study methods. Blog is always a macro-genre of the internet-communication, and a separate publication in blog, named post or posting, forms micro-genres of a blog. And only a diary-blog exists as a macro-genre and has no posts micro-genres. As well as one blog can contain several micro-genres, what is yet more proof that any classification is roughening the true correlation of targets of research. Blogs can also be a medium for building a social network as one of the internet-communication systems and one of the essential parts of the modern internet-discourse.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):939-948
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ROLE OF EXTRALINGUISTIC FACTORS IN THE FORMATION OF LANGUAGE PERSONALITY OF BILINGUAL CHILD
Kytina V.V.
Abstract

This article describes the influence of extralinguistic factors on the formation of linguistic identity of bilingual child. The problem of multilingualism is determined by extralinguistic factors, indicating that modern society and the processes occurring in it are forcing people to change their lives, and with it language. The relevance of the study determined that polylingual in the world than monolingual. And the children’s bilingualism is characteristic for half of the population on our planet. The phenomenon of multilingualism is not a given, and the need for continued development taken first by parents and caregivers, the teachers, and then by the children. We do not choose if the child will be bilingual, and he forced to become bilingual due to differences in family language, environment, and relation to a specific life situation. A bilingual child is a member of several societies, more ethnosociology (because the society that surrounds the baby carrier one national picture of the world, and the family is the bearer of another national pic-ture of the world). It is the tandem of parents and teachers is a point of support for the polylingual child. In this process, form a view about the world around himself and about the features of every ethnic group and about his belonging them. We can assume that we are talking about the formation of such concepts as “man of peace”.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):949-956
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COMPARATIVE COGNITIVE ANALYSIS OF LEXICAL GROUPS AND SEMANTIC FIELDS OF THE VERBS DENOTING THE NOTIONS “OPEN” AND “HIDE” IN ENGLISH, ARMENIAN AND RUSSIAN LANGUAGES
Baghdasaryan V.F.
Abstract

The relevance of this study is due to the fact that in modern scientific research there is a change in scientific paradigms in the study of language as a poly-paradigmatic system. Thus, the per-ception of a particular word is considered through apprehending the concept behind the verbal code. Within this framework, both the perceptual experience and the previously formed body of knowledge on a sign operate. Verbs denoting the notions “open” and “hide” are studied to reconstruct an integral picture of these processes. The author identified and analyzed the lexical groups and semantic fields in the three lan-guages under the study, and identified the common and distinctive features of the semantic prototypes of the lexico-semantic groups. The data is collected from modern dictionaries and national corpuses. The findings of the cognitive linguistic analysis using the contrastive systems in three related languages allow to reconstruct an integral linguistic picture in studying the notions “open” and “hide”. The study combined the content elements revealed during the processing of the findings of the free associative experiment with the cognitive linguistic analysis of the lexico-semantic groups under the study. The verbs in the lexico-semantic group under the study reflect the features of the national linguistic and cognitive worldview and identify a number of semantic features that make it possible to obtain their comprehensive picture. The research findings allow reconstructing mental representations and stereotyped associations, and re-flecting on broad cultural processes in the history of these three nations.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):957-962
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THE EXPRESSION OF THE CONCEPT OF POSSESSION IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE BY MEANS OF THE ABSOLUTE FORM OF THE GENITIVE CASE AND ITS EQUIVALENTS IN THE AZERBAIJANI LANGUAGE
Akhmedova Z.M.
Abstract

The Azerbaijani and English languages, drawn to the study, belong to different language families from the point of view of morphological and genealogical structure. Therefore, the expression of the concept of possession reveals some similar and distinctive features between these languages. Posses-sion is expressed by special means in every language. The essence of the concept of possession can be more clearly seen in the field of the case system, which is mainly embodied in the genitive case. Some fea-tures that are common to all languages are considered to be universal, for instance, personal pronouns (possessive constructions) and possessive case endings. This article deals with the absolute form of the genitive case, one of the means of expressing the concept of possession in the English language, and its equivalents in the Azerbaijani language. The scientific novelty of the article is that although the absolute form of the genitive case has been studied in the English language to a certain extent, the equivalents of this form in the Azerbaijani language have not become the objects of typological research so far; similar and distinctive features inherent in these equivalents have not been compared. From this point of view, this article has an important significance and can be considered one of the first steps in the field of comparative study of the Azerbaijani and English languages.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):963-974
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ANTIPAREMIA IN RUSSIAN, FRENCH AND MALAGASY LANGUAGES
Antsa Miangola Malala Rahadraniriana -.
Abstract

The proposed article presents a linguistic description of the phenomenon of antiparemia, which existence is usually ignored by researchers. At the present time, due to the development of the theory of the linguistic picture of the world, this linguistic problem becomes topical in a number of living languages of the world. The objectives of this research are: to identify the causes and mechanisms of the anti-paremia in different languages, to consider a general issue of the theory of development of antiparemia in the linguis-tic sphere, and to analyze the transformation of paremia or proverbs into antiparemia. The research material is based on the paremia and antiparemia in Russian, French and Malagasy languages. The subject of this study is the methods of transformation of the proverb. We have selected examples of proverbial sayings of the thematic group “multitude of people”, which, in our opinion, is universal in different languages. Our analysis offers theoretical and practical material for linguistic scientists, teachers, culturologists, students studying this phenomenon. Language material is collected by a massive selection of dictionaries, texts of artistic and journalistic literature. Based on the traditional social wisdom, the proverbs fix the stages of the develop-ment of the national cultural world outlook from early times, which spirit the modern generation is trying to preserve. Nevertheless, the world view changes depending on the spiritual life of the generation, causing the apparition of the phenomenon of antiparemia or antiproverbs, which existence has different mains and functions. This is a common topic and our research offers a description of the reasons for these changes.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):975-984
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LATIN IN TATTOO INDUSTRY
Chinina D.S.
Abstract

The issue of the article is a place of Latin in the modern tattoo industry. The role of Latin as one of the most common languages used in the field of body art is discussed. The classification of phrases in Latin that are often used for tattoos is given. In the course of work a statistical study aimed at identifying the most popular forms of Latin in tattoos is conducted. The theme of the article is relevant because it implies a study of the subcultural code, in which Latin plays an integral part. The object of the article is the place of Latin in the modern tattoo industry. The subject of the paper is the usage of Latin in the modern body art. The information for the scientific work is taken from the Internet as well as from national scientific literature. In conclusion statistics demonstrate how really widespread usage of Latin in modern tattoo art is. It is also stated that interest to the research of the methods of Latin usage in modern art may give us more profound understanding of the of Latin integration degree today. The article can be applied for courses of Sociolinguistics and the Latin language.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):985-992
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PSYCHOSOCIOLINGUISTIC APPROACH TO STUDYING THE PROCESS CODE SWITCHING IN BILINGVAL ENVIRONMENT
Tutova E.V.
Abstract

Linguists have recently started to explore code switching as a separate aspect. It can be more thoroughly traced in the speech of the bilinguals - people who can operate both languages equally and choose one of them in a suitable situation. However, linguists argue if code-switching is always moti-vated or are bilinguals influenced by the language factors.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):993-998
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HISTORICAL FORMING OF ETIQUETTE WORDS
Nauryzova A.K.
Abstract

The article deals with the role of addressing by Name or Family name, and its stylistic usage. Etiquette words characterize interrelation of speakers, which shows the degree of their relationship. Each nation in accordance with its national features and psychology uses variously etiquette words in ad-dressing to someone, sometimes with name, middle name and family names in a different way. The given work describes the usage of etiquette words in communication of Karakalpak people. To be considered a member of certain social groups, a certain nationality, the people, tribal and other state, economic, political or cultural organizations (men, women, the elderly, youth, children, rural and urban residents) make them act according to the respective plans and procedures, obey them, follow schematic stereotypes that are inherent only to them. Similarly, the totality of the culture of action ripened, formed in the relations between people and who have fallen into a definite system, have recently been called the term etiquette. Etiquette is a philosophical, ethical and, on the other hand, pedagogical concept; Ie, they are con-sidered as a set of actions, ordered and systematized among people. After gaining independence and three or four years before it paid great attention to the national languages, national and nationwide rites and traditions, values, after their revival in Uzbekistan and the sovereign Karakalpakstan a new spiritual atmo-sphere was formed, we became even more clearly aware of our identity. Along with the national spiritual and material wealth, special attention is paid to the culture of language, especially its purity. In our opinion, all of this, indeed, is a spiritual unit that has an integral synthesis of speech etiquette, which is firmly linked to all of the above stated. Proceeding from such points of view, taking into account the spiritual requirements of our people and nations, growing at the present stage with each passing day, we believe that the special study of ques-tions of speech etiquette in modern Karakalpak language, its features, to bring in a certain scientific system one of the actual tasks of today's national linguistics. That’s because, any language of nation or nationality definitely has its own specificity of speech etiquette, which is a natural phenomenon. The words of etiquette in modern Karakalpak language constitute the object of research. But the identification of the role of using units of speech etiquette in forming the norms of the literary language, their consideration as the main features of the cultural speech, comparative study of the features of the speech etiquette with the Turkic languages in accordance with the internal laws of the language are con-sidered the subject of the study. Comparative analysis of materials related to speech etiquette is one of the methods of study of the philosophical, everyday, ethical and pedagogical views of the study in the linguistic aspect. We realized this, studying and taking into account the works of representatives of Russian, Uzbek, Kazakh linguistics, who had previously studied this issue with the scientific-theoretical, material points of view. When writing the work, historical, comparative-historical, descriptive methods were applied.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):999-1004
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SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP “GENERAL AND SPECIFIC METHODOLOGY OF PHILOLOGY” Moscow, RUDN University, April, 3-8, 2017
Valentinova O.I.
Abstract

SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP
“GENERAL AND SPECIFIC METHODOLOGY OF PHILOLOGY”
Moscow, RUDN University, April, 3—8, 2017

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1005-1009
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“LATENT MEMORY” OF KET VERB
Polenova G.T.
Abstract

The article deals with relic elements in the structure of the Ket verb. The idea is held that there are no solid rules for the formation of the Ket verb, despite numerous attempts to classify types of verbs in the Ket language. The author applies the term introduced by T.M. Nikolaeva “the latent memory of the language” to the structural elements of the Ket verb. The author’s expeditionary materials are given as examples, whose analysis proves the absence of any firm patterns in the formation of the Ket verb. It is observed as agglutination in the simplest structures, as well as incorporation in complicated forms. It is con-cluded that the Ket verb can cast a light on the morphological stages of language development. The article can be of interest for linguists dealing with diachronic typology.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1010-1019
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SYLLABIC STRUCTURE OF MORPH IN DIFFERENT WORD CLASSES AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEXTS
Vashchekina T.V., Popova E.N.
Abstract

The statement about unity and entirety of language system, interdependency and interaction of different level language elements belongs to the circle of fundamental problems in language theory. Syllable and morpheme correlation studying could clarify language sign two-side nature. The article demon-strates the analysis of syllabic structure of morph in different word classes in conversational, scientific and literary texts. The main method is statistical, analytical and descriptive methods are also used. Consider-ing syllabic structure of morph scientific text differs from conversational and literary ones, nouns and adjectives oppose verbs. The syllabic structure of morph shows the main grammar tendencies which deter-mine the type of the language.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1020-1027
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TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE SPECIFICITY OF RELIGIOUS (ORTHODOX) DISCOURSE: ASSOCIATIONS -VERBAL ASPECT
Kosheleva T.I.
Abstract

The article presents the results of associative experiment aimed at detecting the features of the religious (Orthodox) discourse. As in the speech of Orthodox believers reflects the specificity of the religious worldview, and their associative reactions to verbal stimuli differ from the reactions of un-believers native speakers of Russian. The research urgency is caused by appeal to the Orthodox dis-course, the linguistic interest in which has intensified in connection with the change in society's attitude to the Church.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1028-1032
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THE PROBLEM OF CATEGORIZATION OF THE WORLD AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF THE LANGAUGE DEVELOPMENT (within the Framework of the Salishan Language Squamish)
Ikonnikova O.N.
Abstract

The material of the endangered Salishan language Squamish is of great importance for the universal principle of constructing a diachronic linguistic structure. Based on the analysis of the vocabu-lary and text material of the Salishan language Squamish the author comes to the hypothesis that in the pro-cess of categorization at the initial stages of the language development the world was perceived as a dynamic phenomenon, which led to the dominance of the verbal predicate, that went through the process of nomi-nalization to express arguments of the sentence. The analysis of the means of transferring substantive vocabulary in the Squamish-English dictionary and in the Squamish text indicates that the majority of the linguistic units of the substantive vocabulary of the language are represented by derivatives, which are actually nominal verbal predicates. Thus, the material of the Squamish language, as well as other Salishan languages, suggests that the categorization of the world at the initial stages of the language development was based on the processes of polycategorization / recategorization of the verb, i.e. in the diachronic model of the grammatical categories at the initial stages of the language development, the omnipresence of the verbal predicate dominated, which recycled to perform the function of the argument.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1033-1040
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TO THE PROBLEM OF METALINGUISTIC CONTEXTS IN MASS LITERATURE
Batulina A.V.
Abstract

The article analyses metalinguistic contexts functions. The analysis is based on contempo-rary detective novels domestic authors. Two functional variations of metalinguistic contexts are discussed: communicative reflexives, which provide intellectual comfort for a common reader, and conceptual reflexives, which serve as a means of expression of author’s worldview judgments. Differences in the semantic structure of communicative reflexives, which contain a well - defined set of components, and conceptual reflexives, which are more complex and have a very diverse component compound are also described. Correlation between linguistic status of an object of reflection and the structure of its metalinguistic de-scription, objectified in regularly used for metalinguistic characterization, is identified. Various forms of actualization of metalinguistic contexts, which are considered evidence of social and communicative orienta-tion of mass literature authors on readers of different cultural and linguistic competence, are also analyzed in the article.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1041-1050
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«PHENOMENOLOGICAL MOMENT» IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF G.P. MELNIKOV: STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Zagumennov A.V.
Abstract

The aim of the present article is the experience of constructing the linguistic epistemology of the theoretical developments of G.P. Melnikov in the context of the discussion of the foreign philosophy of science about the influence of E. Husserl’s ideas on structural linguistics. The idea of the article was suggested by the international scientific internship “General and Particular Methodology of Philological Science” from 03.04.2017 to 08.04.2017, as well as some generalizations published in the collective mono-graph “The Systemic View as the Basis of Philological Thought” (2016). Linguistic research methods (description, observation) are transferred to the scientific text as material for the reconstruction of the “phenomenological moment” as a conceptual structure. The article analyzes three lines: the initial internal determinant of the desired construct in the methodology of linguistics, the current external determinant of formal coincidence in some parameters, and the current internal determinant of the evaluation of GP. Melnikov’s own constructions in correlation with a certain epistemological system. The conclusion, which is made in the proposed work, concerns the recognition of G.P. Melnikov, the presence of a phenome-nological moment in the “systemology” he deduced.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1051-1057
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UNITE ET VARIATION DANS LA LANGUE BASQUE
Videgain C.
Abstract
This article represents the results of the work over the Basque Atlas carried out under the auspices of the Basque Language Academy (Bilbao / Bayonne). The text contains a detailed description of the material collecting method, the goals and objectives of this work. The article shows that the need for this kind of dictionary is currents but for a number of reasons, that are analyzed in the presentation, this project could not be realized until 1980-s. The work on the atlas are lasting up to the present moment. The atlas reflects language variability at different levels of its structure (lexical, phonetic / phonological, mor-phological and syntactic). The article analyzes variants of the Basque language, depicts the processes of creating a single language standard, explains the reasons for choosing a certain idiom which serves the basis to the standard. The author shows that, in spite of very special provisions of the Basque language as isolate type of language, from the point of view of genetic typologies, it has something in common as for the lexical forms motivation with its neighboring languages.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1058-1073
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BASQUE LANGUAGE AND BASQUE TOPONYMY: INTERCULTURAL CONTACTS AND STANDARTISATION
Chesnokova O.S., Dzhishkariani L.M.
Abstract

The Basque language (euskera) is an isolate language spoken by about one million people in northeast Spain and southwest France. According to the most common version about its origin the Basque language is of Aquitanian origin. The aim of this article - to study the modern Basque toponymy, to outline its space and boundaries, to consider its current state in Spain in the light of contacts with the Spanish language applying the methods of onomastic and linguocultural research. An important feature of modern Basque toponymy in Spain is the existence of double names (Basque and Spanish), reflecting the centuries-old contacts of the Basque and Spanish languages. Double names are in the process of standardization in the framework of state policy, and the unification of the literary standard Basque language (euskara batua). Language consciousness of modern Basque population preserves the original Basque toponymy as an essential part of national heritage, although in some cases the Spanish toponyms are preferred to the Basque ones (Bilbao, not Bilbo, for example).

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1074-1083
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MINORITY LANGUAGES, MARGINALIZED LANGUAGES, MINORITIZED LANGUAGES OR LANGUAGE IN A MINORITIAL SITUATION? ATTEMPTED DEFINITION AND PERFORMANCES
Pascaud A.
Abstract
The article presents a sociolinguistic typology of languages that make up the categorical field of a linguistic minority. Meanings and connotations behind such concepts as minorization and minoriza-tion are considered, semantic analysis is presented, similarities and differences of such nominations of minority languages, marginalized language, minorized language and a language in a minoritial situation are given. The semantic analysis is supported by the description of situations corresponding to different categories. While creating a typology the author shows the role of extralinguistic quantitative and qualitative parameters influencing the sociolinguistic type of language. He emphasizes that minority and minoritized languages are not synonymous since the first one is primarily based on quantitative parameters of various types, mostly demoligistic, and second one lies on qualitative parameters, macro-sociolinguistic, functional and sociocultural associated with its status. Special attention is drawn to languages that are put into the conditions of migration as they may experience double or triple pressure from the dominant languages due to their initial status.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1084-1102
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CATEGORIZATION OF LANGUAGE NOMINATIONS IN THE SOCIOLINGUISTIC SPACE OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Moskvitcheva S.A., Li Xue -.
Abstract

The article generally presents the languages' sociolinguistic categorization of the people’s Republic of China. The languages' Socio-political nomination of any region are derived from the factors such as social, political, historical, ethnic and linguistic system. The result is to create terminology not with ontological, but with discursive nature. Therefore, in each special case it created a kind of category structure with a unique semantic connections between categories, which leads to a fundamental non-equi-valence of the meanings behind similar nominations in different languages and cultures, which make difficult to adequate translation and transmission of these meanings. The article analyzes prototypical nominations of languages within Sino-Tibetan language space, studies the meanings behind them, shows their specificity in comparison with other language spaces. The main attention is paid to the nominations designating the standard Chinese language in its variants, dialects and national minorities languages. The terminological field of nominations is regarded as fundamentally discursive, that is, as a projection of different types ideologies transforming ontological entities.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1103-1117
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POLITICAL AND SOCIAL STATUS OF “OLD” DIASPORA LANGUAGES IN THE USSR
Nedopekina E.M.
Abstract

For non-indigenous peoples of the USSR, which can be roughly described as “old” Diaspora are Assyrians, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Greeks, Koreans, Mongols, Germans, Persians, Poles, Romanians, Slovaks, Turks, Finns, Gypsies, Czechs. Some of them managed to preserve their national languages for a variety of reasons, languages, others are more subjected to the influence of the Russian language. In some cases the existence of the ethnic group in the Soviet Union has allowed him to acquire script for their language, but there are some examples of the idiom of extinction in the USSR. The article contains at-tempts to determine the social status of the non-autochthonous diasporas languages living in the Soviet Union. Those efforts are based on the political situation in the country, state ideology, the value of the lan-guage for its speakers and the level of its prevalence. The text also offers a brief description of the “old” diasporas languages, some information about the scope of their use and ways of preserving them at the level of each diaspora and the state in general.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1118-1130
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FUNCTIONS OF THE CHUVASH LANGUAGE IN MOSCOW REGION DIASPORA GROUPS
Kutsaeva M.V.
Abstract

This article deals with the functions of the Chuvash language in diaspora groups: it is a titu-lar language in the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, yet mainly spread in diaspora groups, in the case of this study it is a diaspora group, inhabiting Moscow and Moscow region. The survey is based on the study of around 100 Moscow diaspora members, who claim to be ethnic Chuvash. The paper states and covers a number of functions of the Chuvash language in diaspora: symbolic, phatic, empathetic, com-municative, quasi-communicative, conspiratorial functions, as well as makes an attempt at determining a language or languages which help respondents to express their emotions or dreams. As a result, a dis-tribution of the functions of the Chuvash language has been established depending on the first or the second generation, a number of regularities and patterns have been brought to light, that mainly deal with the use of the language under certain circumstances in diaspora groups.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1131-1145
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LANGUAGE SITUATION AND LANGUAGE POLICY IN NIGERIA
Borisova A.A., Ilina N.Y.
Abstract

The article deals with the language situation and language policy in Nigeria which is one of the most polyethnic African states. Sociolinguistic situation in the country is very complex because there are more than 250 ethnic groups in Nigeria which speak 521 languages. English is the official language in the country and serves Nigerian peoples’ way of life. There are discussions about the development of local indigenous languages in a very complicated ethnic and political situation in Nigeria. The English language in Nigeria interacts with numerous indigenous languages and Nigerian Pidgin English. Nigerian Pidgin Eng-lish is a marker of identity and solidarity between the various ethnic groups. There is polarization of com-municative functions of English and Nigerian Pidgin. English has official functions and is on a higher social level and Nigerian Pidgin is on a lower social level and has everyday functions. English plays a major role in introducing Nigerians to modern knowledge, creating new types of thinking and contributing to the development of national self-awareness.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1146-1160
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ETHNOPSYCHOLINGUISTIC ASPECT OF REGIONAL LANGUAGE CONSCIOUSNESS
Balyasnikova O.V., Cherkasova G.A., Stepanova A.A., Ufimtseva N.V.
Abstract

The article analyzes the phenomenon of “regional language consciousness” relying on data of psycholinguistic (associative) experiment held with the Tatar bilingual, residing in the Republic of Tatarstan. The experimental data are compared with the materials of the regional Russian associative dictionary (EVRAS) to determine the similarities and differences in the content of the image of “power” in the language consciousness of the respondents - the Tatar and the Russian. Based on the materials of the pilot study conducted in 2015, we outline the prospective for the analysis of “regional language consciousness” taking into account ethnic factors, language, bilingualism, and region of residence. One of the possible ways of presenting the results is a semantic image of relevant structured semantic areas and subareas in accordance with the characteristics of the data and the general objectives of the research project.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1161-1170
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“ONE’S OWN” VERSUS “ALIEN”: DEVELOPMENT DYNAMICS AND THE MANIPULATIVE POTENTIAL OF “THE COLD WAR” CONCEPT IN THE ENGLISH-POLITICAL DISCOURSE
Ches N.A., Kovalev N.A.
Abstract

The aim of present research is to develop a framework for a diachronic analysis of complex concepts in political discourse. More specifically, the paper seeks to uncover some of the changes that the COLD WAR concept has undergone in political communication over time. In line with Minsky’s theory of frames that defines frames as data structures to represent stereotyped situations, the study shows that there are core elements in the COLD WAR frame that largely remain unaltered. This durable set of elements, however, does not exclude the emergence of new slots as well as novel extensions of the existing ones that can be used to comprehend and conceptualize recent developments in the realm of politics. The data also suggest that complex concepts can serve as a cognitive tool to change people’s hearts and minds by promoting a particular interpretation and evaluation of events or issues.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1171-1177
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CONFLICTOGENETY LEVEL OF THE CONCEPTUAL FIELD “WEALTH / POVERTY” IN THE LINGUISTIC CONCIOUSNESS OF RUSSIANS AND THE CHINESE
Chulkina N.L., Koltsova N.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the perception of poverty and wealth in Chinese and Russian world view and indification of the conflictogenity level of the units included in the “wealth/poverty” conceptual field. The topicality of the research is reasonable for necessity to study the above said concepts as the basic cultural values that determine relationships between people in society and the fields of concern. The topic is especially actual due to deepening relationships between Russia and China and economic, political and social changes that took place in the countries during the last decades. The target of the research is to reveal conflictogenity level of the the units included in the “wealth/poverty” conceptual field, which is represented in language consciousness of Russians and Chinese and directed at production of optimal strategy and tactics of successful intercultural communication. The basic research methods are cognitive ones (method of measuring the semantic similarity of language units; cognitive interpretation of the study results) and psycholinguistic. To collect data about the conceptual field in language consciousness of Chinese the association experiment was conducted. To research Russian language con-sciousness we used data of association dictionaries.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1178-1190
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ORIGINAL AND TRANSLATED FILM TITLES AS SPECIFIC NAMING UNITS
Aleksandrova O.I.
Abstract

The article discusses a problem of film naming and focuses on the film title as a specific naming unit, that is a visual-and-semantic center of a polycode text, connecting multiple codes presented by storylines, ideological and philosophical content, genre characteristics, visuals and sound. The main features of titles as headlines are characterized by integrity and connectivity, they are implement the author's intention. The titles usually comply with the story, idea, philosophy and style of the film, reflect the content and artistic conception. They should be comprehensible, succinct, intriguing, designing as soon as they should be attractive for the target audience. Besides the nominative (nomination and identification), communicative, informative and aesthetic functions, which are common for all headlines, film titles perform the functions of anticipation and attraction, as well as advertising and pragmatic functions. Film titles become important instrument for lfilm providers, since modern cinema overlaps with commercial discourse: the movie is created not only as a piece of art, but also as a market product. Dealing with a foreign movie, film providers face new challenges since the film title should be targeted at the audience of different background. Violating one of these conditions may cause infelicity or translation fails.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1191-1199
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SEMANTIC TRANSFORMATION OF THE GLOBAL BRANDS IN RUSSIAN MASS MEDIA OF THE POST-SOVIET PERIOD
Kryukova I.V.
Abstract

In this article by global brands we mean the names of companies, goods and services well-known all over the world (Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Disneyland etc.). This popularity helps such names get into the linguistic consciousness of many nations. Having conducted a thorough analysis of global brands’ usage in Russian post-Soviet mass media, we have found out that they often develop figurative attitudinal meanings and lose onomastic status in some contexts. In time global brands turn into the vivid metaphors which depict various aspects of Russian life. Semantic transformations of these names demonstrate the fluctuations of Russian value system which have been registered in recent 25 years.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1200-1206
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VARIABILITY OF ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN LANGUAGES IN THE LIGHT OF THE LINGUISTIC CONCEPT OF G.P. MELNIKOV
Markova E.A., Todorova I.D.
Abstract

The article presents the authors’ attempt to explain the territorial and demographic impera-tive of the English language and variability of the Russian language from the position of the linguistic theory of Russian scientist G. P. Melnikov. According to the founder of the theory of World Englishes at the present time in there is no any appropriate methodological basis for the explanation of the English language’s “triumphal march” in linguistics. Many works devoted to the variation of the Russian language, as well as English are not considered from the standpoint of systemic linguistics. It appears to the authors that a sys-tematic approach G. P. Melnikov has great explanatory power in the issue of linguistic vitality of these two languages. The authors rely on the concept of internal determinant as a specific attribute of the system developing in the direction of optimal adaptation to the completion of the super-system functional request and the external determinant that conditions functional requirements of the super-system. The article con-tains the language situations analysis of the Russian language as a language with event determinant and the language situations analysis of the English language as a language with occasional determinant.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1207-1218
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“REALMS OF MEMORY” RECONSTRUCTED IN LITERARY DISCOURSE
Sheypak S.A.
Abstract

The paper suggests that literary discourse provides “realms of memory” that are necessary, according to Pierre Nora, for reconstructing national collective memory. If “realms of memory” are revealed in literary discourse, the selected “realms of memory” will not be overabundant and ideologically determined, as they are in the monumental edition “Realms of Memory” by Pierre Nora. Following Nora’s semiotic approach, the paper argues that “realms of memory” selected in literary discourse should be perceived as nodes in the national collective memory. They shape national memory as a dynamic system since each author give their personal interpretation in his/her work. The paper compares how different are authorial interpretations for the “realms of memory” in two works written in the same period: a collection of poems The Legend of the Ages by Victor Hugo and a novel Les Déracinés by Maurice Barrès. The new actualisations of a “realm of memory” in the literary works allows its new interpretations. However, the intrinsic relationship between the subject who remembers and the object of memory enables to create a “second degree history”, such as it was conceived by Nora, revealing how national memory has been constructed.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1219-1227
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RUSSIAN AS THE INTERIM LANGUAGE IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSFER FROM KAZAKH TO OTHER LANGUAGES
Dildabekova A.K.
Abstract

Until the beginning of the XXI century Kazakh belles-lettres was translated into European languages in the overwhelming majority of cases from the Russian translation. It is a question of the period when translations from the Kazakh language into Russian were carried out not only by their staff, but also by invited specialists. As our research shows, the distortion of information caused by translation fail-ures and mistakes in the Russian language leads to “interference in the information” in other languages, including to English. The article is illustrated by translation errors from the Kazakh language to Russian, and from Russian to English, extracted from the Russian translation of A. Nurpeisov's novel “Blood and Sweat”.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1228-1236
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THE STRUCTURE OF THE SEMIOTIC CATEGORY OF TIME IN A LITERARY TEXT (Based on Novel “The Defector (Nevozvrashchenets)” by A. Kabakov)
Povalko P.Y.
Abstract

The article considers time as the most important semiotic and linguopoetical category of a literary text. The text of A. Kabakov's novel “The Defector (Nevozvrashchenets)” is used to analyse the structure of the temporal category in its semiotic dimensions, namely semantics and pragmatics. It is shown that the contents of semantic fields, which reflect the category of time in the novel, the intersec-tion and interplay between these fields and pragmatic relations based on author's attitudes and reader's interpretation, establish a multi-layered, hierarchical structure of temporality in the fictional text. Moreover, the semantics of fictional time is primarily explained by lexico-grammatical and syntactic linguistic units, while, in terms of pragmatics, the crucial modes of expression are the text organization and the context of the author's intention and the reader's perception. Thus, it is emphasized that the time within fictional text is broader than the time in the language. The results of the text analysis demonstrate how important it is to examine fictional texts from the semiotic viewpoint. It appears that a simultaneous considering of semantics and pragmatics of a text and their correlation and interaction permits us to go beyond the “narrow” grammatical opinion when analys-ing such a complex text category as the time. Taking in consideration linguistic, philosophical, cultural and socio-historical contexts, the researcher expands the boundaries of analysis, increases its authenticity and obtains an opportunity to disclose and interpret all the meanings embedded by the author.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(4):1237-1248
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