Vol 21, No 2 (2023): Digital Technologies in Russian Language Teaching: Current State and Prospects

Mediadidactics and electronic means of instruction

Linguistic and didactic potential of social networks in teaching Russian as a foreign language

Azimov E.G., Kulibina N.V., Van V.


Currently, online learning materials in Russian as a foreign language have been actively developed, which set the task of learning through various functions of social services that are popular in the modern world. The aim of the research is to identify and justify the linguodidactic potential of social networks as a means of teaching Russian as a foreign language based on the analysis of their functions and the communicative needs of users. The material of the study included different types of social services, which present educational materials for teaching Russian, available through information retrieval systems. Theoretical (analysis, comparison) and diagnostic (pedagogical observation, oral interviews with teachers and students) methods were used. The obtained results determine the specifics of teaching and learning Russian as a foreign language in social networks. The authors characterize different social groups (age, interests, communication needs), focused on the use of digital resources for learning Russian. The use of social services in teaching Russian considers communicative needs of students, their interests, implements a sociocultural approach to learning, significantly increases the number of students learning Russian, contributes to the promotion of the Russian language on the Internet.

Russian Language Studies. 2023;21(2):133-147
pages 133-147 views

The communicative environment of a synchronous online Russian lesson in Chinese groups

Lebedeva M.Y., Wu D.


The communicative approach to teaching Russian as a foreign language (RFL) implies that the main goal - the acquisition of communication skills - can only be achieved in a stimulative communicative environment. Meanwhile, the online format, which is currently becoming popular, is characterized by limited interaction between the participants of the educational process. Thus, the problem of developing methodological foundations for a productive communicative environment in the process of online teaching is becoming acute for the methodology of teaching RFL. The aim of this study is to describe the features of educational communication, determined by Chinese cultural and educational traditions, on the material of monolingual groups from China studying Russian in Russian universities, and to develop a methodological framework for creating a productive communicative environment for synchronous RFL online lessons, considering the specifics of students' communicative behavior. The study material included 10 synchronous online RFL lessons with a total duration of 15 hours and 51 minutes. Monolingual groups of Chinese students (A2-B2) participated in the lessons. A content analysis method using Atlas.ti software was applied to process the results. Coding was based on a deductive approach with elements of inductive approach; the coding system was based on the category of social presence, operationalized and adapted to the specifics of RFL learning. The prevalence of several communication behavior patterns among Chinese students, which conflict with the current methodological principles, was shown. At the same time, deviations from conventional behavior of Chinese students at the analyzed RFL classes were observed. This suggested that despite the strong influence of cultural attitudes, the parameters of the communicative environment of an online lesson may vary depending on the teacher's efforts. It is argued that the formation of communicative environment of a synchronous online RFL lesson requires that the teacher possesses the ability to manage the interactivity of communication, to form an atmosphere of cooperation and cohesion in the online group, to maintain emotionality of online communication. The study contributes to the development of digital language teaching, forming a scientific basis for creating methodological technologies of a productive educational environment in RFL online teaching.

Russian Language Studies. 2023;21(2):148-162
pages 148-162 views

Digitalization of a textbook on Russian as a foreign language: the experience of Slovak Russianists

Markova E.M., Kraev A.I.


The focus of the study is the new format of Russian as a foreign language textbook - digital, or digitalized. The relevance of the research is determined by the need to create such textbooks due to the changed audience for which they are intended - the generations of so-called millennials and postmillennials, who acquire new information through imagery, speed, technical capabilities. The aim of the research is to analyze a digitalized Russian language textbook for a Slovak secondary school (gymnasium) from the point of view of its conceptual framework, technical features, and design. On the material of the Russian language textbook for Slovak secondary schools “Meetings with Russia. Today” (E. Kollárová et al.) where new technologies are used, the authors analyze a nationally oriented digital textbook, which is an element of Russian-language education in Slovakia. The methods of research include the analysis of theoretical and educational literature, the method of linguodidactic analysis, comparative and descriptive methods. The authors argue that the conceptual foundations of digital textbooks - cognitivism, constructivism, and behaviorism - are aimed at the rational selection of culturally relevant educational content and the construction of a communicatively directed methodological component. Modern technical capabilities allow to include in these textbooks a variety of video, audio, television, and other authentic materials, creating a sense of “living” reality. It is concluded that the main advantages of the new form of the textbook are not only its technical capabilities, but also more effective implementation of its cultural and communicative orientation, as well as eduction (education combined with upbringing,). The problem points of the textbook are the lack of linguistic (lexical, grammatical, phonetic) exercises, as well as the lack of the minimal vocabulary. The effective interaction of the three components - digitalization, edutainment, and cultural orientation - while relying on the language system - determine the prospects of digital textbooks.

Russian Language Studies. 2023;21(2):163-180
pages 163-180 views

The teaching model of mutual checking exercises in online course on Russian as a foreign language

Popova T.I., Kolesova D.V.


Teaching a foreign language within the framework of an online course has its specifics. Control in such courses is characterised by a lack of feedback from the teacher (only self-learning of course materials is assumed), a decrease in the individualization of learning, an increase in the role of students' independent work, which leads to the use of a method of mutual checking and the associated need to develop students' cognitive abilities for self-assessment of the results of mastering an online course. The development of such abilities is particularly relevant in the online course “Russian as a foreign language”, where students need to evaluate texts in a foreign language. The aim of the research is to introduce conceptually a step-by-step training model for introducing peer review tasks within an online course in Russian as a foreign language and evaluate its effectiveness. The peer checking assignments in the block “We write in Russian” from the massive online course “Russian as a foreign language. B1+” on the “Otkrytoye Obrazovaniye” (Open Education) platform were used as the data for the study. The general scientific method of analysis and synthesis, targeted observation and the modeling method were applied. An overview of the main research papers on the forms of control in massive online courses is given. Attention is drawn to such features of control in a distance learning course as the lack of feedback from the teacher, a decrease in the individualization of learning, an increase in the role of students' independent work, and the related need to develop students' cognitive abilities to evaluate a text according to the developed criteria. The stages of formation of the cognitive procedures of different levels are considered - from the level of rules to the cognitive level associated with the students' awareness of their cognitive strategies, their effectiveness, as well as the ability to independently assess their language and speech level. As the result of the study, the authors present a training model of tasks aimed at forming students’ competence of an “expert” who can check the peer checking tasks. It is concluded that students can adequately evaluate each other's academic work, using the proposed evaluation parameters, taking into account the type of the text, its genre, and the typical language means of its implementation. The submitted step-by-step training model of tasks for peer review can be successfully used in teaching other foreign languages at different levels.

Russian Language Studies. 2023;21(2):181-195
pages 181-195 views

Stages of development of digital linguodidactics of Russian as a foreign language

Feyzer Z.I., Dyakova T.A.


The digital transformation of education, the emergence of new digital technologies that expand the linguodidactic base of Russian as a foreign language (RFL), modern conditions for education implementation have become an occasion to study teaching methods in the aspect of digital didactics. The aim of the research is to highlight the stages of development of digital linguodidactics of RFL and to determine the key characteristics of each of them. The material for the study was scientific papers on organizing the learning process with the help of computer technology, the methodological justification for using digital educational resources in teaching RFL, as well as the authors' long-term observations on the formation and development of digital linguodidactics. To achieve this aim, methods of general scientific knowledge were used - analysis, synthesis, induction; linguistic methods of comparative analysis, component and complex analysis of digital educational resources; empirical methods of observation of the development of digital language didactics of RFL over the past decades, comparison of the achievements of each stage in terms of creating digital educational resources and their consolidation and relevance in teaching. The terms “digital competence of the teacher”, “digital didactics”, “digital linguodidactics” are considered. The key concept in the development of the methodology of teaching RFL over the past decades under the influence of the digitalization in the economy and society - the digital competencies of the teacher - has been determined. As a result of the study, four stages in the development of digital linguodidactics of RFL were identified in the article: 1 - late 1980s-1999; 2 - 2000-2010; 3 - 2010-2020; 4 - 2020 - present. For each period, key characteristics were revealed: interactivity and multimedia - stage 1; distance education and visualization - stage 2; digitalization of educational content and mentoring - stage 3; system transformation and rethinking - stage 4. Identifying stages of development of digital linguodidactics of RFL seems promising both for the scientific, educational and methodological base of teaching methods, and for future studies on the process of digital transformation of teaching RFL.

Russian Language Studies. 2023;21(2):196-211
pages 196-211 views

Lexical diversity as a predictor of complexity in textbooks on the Russian language

Churunina A.A., Solnyshkina M.I., Yarmakeev I.E.


The parametric model of the text as a research problem is of paramount importance in modern linguistics and education, since it opens up new approaches to understanding the processes of comprehending texts of various types. In the current study, 17 Russian language textbooks for elementary school were employed to identify correlations between lexical diversity indices and other complexity predictors. The total volume of the corpus compiled for the study is 439,938 words. The two-stage research algorithm included the evaluation of the reference values of text features at the basic level (word length, sentence length, the number of unique, non-repeating words and the number of word forms), evaluation and subsequent contrasting of complexity predictors, i.e. lexical diversity and readability indices. All calculations were performed with the automatic text analyzer RuLingva. The study revealed a positive dynamic of readability and no evidence of lexical diversity increase across grades. An average level of vocabulary diversity and overlaps of every 4th word in the text are fixed. No indication of correlation between text readability and lexical diversity is found. The obtained results can be useful to researchers, textbook authors, and teachers selecting textbooks. The prospects are seen in implementing functional and epidigmatic stratification of the vocabulary of the Russian textbooks under study.

Russian Language Studies. 2023;21(2):212-227
pages 212-227 views

Actual Problems of Russian Language Studies

Determinant grammar of the Russian language as an academic grammar of a new type

Valentinova O.I., Rybakov M.A., Ekshembeeva L.V.


The relevance of the research is caused by the need to find a method that provides a complete and systematic presentation of Russian grammar. The aim of the study is to discuss the prospects for creating a grammar that will clarify the reasons for the features of each level of the language and the principle of mutual functional coordination of all levels. Structural and systemic models for constructing grammatical theory became the object of the study, and a comparative systemic analysis of these models was used as a method. The authors show that there are objective prerequisites for the successful creation of a new model of academic grammar - determinant theory of language developed by the founder of modern systemic linguistics G.P. Melnikov. The most stable property of the language system (internal determinant), acquired as a result of its adaptation to the conditions of communication, makes it possible to explain the interdependence of the composition of vowels and consonants, the structure of the syllable, morpheme and word form, the means of syntactic connection of words in a sentence, the features of the internal form of the language, the non-randomness of the composition of grammatical categories and grammatical ways of expressing them. The internal determinant of the inflectional Russian language, formed in the conditions of poor awareness of the interlocutors about each other, formulated as the need to save the length of the speech stream due to the appearance of a large number of joint-meaning morphemes, makes it possible to explain and link such features of the Russian language as the widespread use of internal inflection and fusion, the preparedness of word forms, methods and functions of affixation, the non-randomness of the grammatical categories of tense, person and case, and ways of expressing them. Research prospects are associated with the uniqueness of the determinant approach, which synthesizes the possibilities of typological and historical approaches and makes it possible to establish the meaning and mutually agreed function of each element of the form. Therefore, it allows to create an academic grammar not of a descriptive, but of an explanatory nature.

Russian Language Studies. 2023;21(2):228-241
pages 228-241 views

The precedent phenomenon of “Crime and Punishment” in Russian media discourse

Chudinov A.P., Segal N.A.


The comprehensive study of the title of the novel “Crime and Punishment” by F.M. Dostoevsky as a source of precedence in the texts of Russian media is presented. The relevance of the research is determined by the need to study fiction as a valuable source of precedence in modern media discourse. Manipulative nature of modern media implies the expansion of the spheres-sources of precedence, appealing to the cultural background of the Russian linguistic culture bearers. The authors prove that the formation of the actual media space is based on a wide set of connotatively marked linguistic means, used as a tool to influence the potential reader. On the example of the precedent construction “Crime and Punishment”, appealing to the title of the famous novel by F.M. Dostoevsky, semantic-pragmatic and transformational features of precedent constructions and the specificity of their associative potential in the perception and interpretation in the Russian linguistic culture are illustrated. The research material includes texts of electronic media covering international, state, and regional issues and problems from 2017 to 2022. The research results are ensured by a wide repertoire of publications reflecting various aspects of society and state development. The card index included contexts (corpus of 120 examples), objectifying important social, economic, and political problems for modern society. The component and contextual analysis, distributive method, linguistic modeling were applied. Further study of the precedent phenomena appealing to fiction could present a valuable fragment of the media picture of the world, including the corpus of texts significant for the Russian linguistic culture.

Russian Language Studies. 2023;21(2):242-253
pages 242-253 views

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