North Caucasus: the Mountain of Languages and the Language of Mountains

Kuchukova Z.A., Bauaev K.K.


The North Caucasian region is called the Russian Babylon due to its polyethnicity, multilingualism, religious syncretism, ancient mountain ethical codes coexisting along with state institutions of self-organization. Compared to other locales, it still manages to preserve many archaic forms of socio-normative and spiritual culture, although here, too, the first signs of a systemic crisis due to globalization processes are already visible. According to the articles presented in this journal issue, one can judge the current state and prospects for the development of the national languages and literatures of the Abkhaz, Balkars, Dagestanis, Kabardians, Karachays, Chechens, South and North Ossetians. Philosophers, literary scholars, folklorists, linguists raise and try to solve many urgent problems related to oral folk art, the status of the Russian language in the region, mass and literary bilingualism, the quality of literary translation, ethno-gender stereotypes, intertextuality mechanisms, as well as the possibility of using digital technologies in modern philological research.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):158-174
pages 158-174 views


The Last Dagestan European: Nostalgic Myth in Prose and Painting by Khalilbek Musayasul

Sultanov K.K.


The article traces the milestones of the creative biography of the novelist, painter, graphic artist Khalilbek Musayasul, who left Dagestan in the twenties of the twentieth century. His book “The Land of the Last Knights” appeared in German in 1936, and reached his father’s house with a delay of sixty-three years. For the first time in Dagestan culture, the idea of artistic synthesis, which presupposes an organic combination of verbal and visual, declared itself. The three watercolors and twenty-six graphic drawings placed in the text created a special atmosphere of mutual pollination of the word and the brush, when the descriptiveness was translated into the language of the visual image and vice versa. An attempt is made to analyze the value-semantic complementarity of ethno-cultural identity and sensitivity to transcultural innovations, identity and cultural universals. Two notable novels in the twenties of the last century - “Table Mountain” by Y. Slezkin and “Smile of Dionysus” by K. Gamsakhurdia - depict a young Khalilbek, already a “European”, as stated in the first of them. The East and the West came together in his personality and creativity in the sense that Europeanism declared itself not in the loss of dissimilarity, but in the inclusion in the dialogue of supra-ethnic artistic ideas. Meditative autobiographical prose has absorbed not only ethno-uniqueness, but also worldview breadth: the mutual attraction of the hearth-house and the image of the world initiated the “elevation of the small”, which does not lose sight of “the whole”, because “he needs the whole, the whole world... ” - let us refer to the lecture “The Art of the Novel” by T. Mann, a contemporary and interlocutor of Khalilbek (in the photo of 1927 He sits in a Circassian between T. Mann and F. Rubo). At the same time, the confession story, describing rituals, customs, rituals, is focused on the resilience of tradition as a counteraction to the erosion of the cultural and genetic code. The cosmos of national life opens up in its primordial ambiguity, combining the psychomental warehouse and features of mountain etiquette with finely stylized mythological plots, with an unobtrusive resurrection of archetypes and ancient customs of clearly pre-Islamic origin. The spiritual founder of the “Land of the Last Knights” was in no hurry to write off the precepts of ancestors and traditional values according to the department of archival memory, continuing to find in them the core of a positive identity.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):175-192
pages 175-192 views

Second Life of Narts and Daredzans: An Essay on Russian Verse Translations from Ossetian Folk Epos

Khugaev I.S.


The process of recording and publication of the texts of Ossetian folk epic literature has its own history, directly related to the evolution of Ossetian Enlightenment. Its most important landmarks have been registered and described in detail; first of all, the material has been divided into periods and classified in the ethnographic, cultural-historical and sociopolitical aspects. This article is devoted to elaboration on its purely philological characteristics and poetic features. Even an introductory survey lets us single out the main parameters of this vast literary stratum. First, the Ossetian folk epos has been recorded both in Ossetian and in Russian, which fact did reflect the bilingual nature of Ossetian literature. Secondly, the Ossetian folk epos has been represented by two epic cycles: the Nart and the Daredzan sagas. Thirdly, the Ossetian folk epos exists in written form in two literary genres: prosaic and poetic. It is evident that the recording of Ossetian folk epic literature means the fixation of the interior, immanent archetypes of ethnic artistic mentality, and of the peculiar rhythms of folk poetic breathing. In this respect, of special interest are the Russian verse translations and interpretations as texts that: declare this lore at the outside contour of the Ossetian culture and serve as a means of spiritual communications among Russia’s ethnic communities; intrinsically match the internal with the external, and the immanent with the borrowed; and represent a product with a vividly expressed author’s individual inception. These texts, viz. the translations and adaptations of Ossetian folk epos performed at various times by A.Z. Kubalov, S.M. Gorodetsky, G.G. Maliev, D.A. Gatuev, V.A. Dynnik, Rurik Ivnev, as well as the unpublished experiments of Ada Vladimirova and Mussa Khakim, became the subject of this study. In this article, we have put forward the challenge to: perform a general recording of the previously known texts in the chronological order, with the designation of their main peculiarities and most typical circumstances; put into general practice data on the newly found texts of the shown type; and generalize the material according to dynamic and properly poetic criteria.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):193-212
pages 193-212 views

Kabardian Fable: Archetypal Core and Ethnospecific Poetics

Khashir K.O.


Fable artifabulas, which are transhistorical in nature, have many ethnocultural refractions in the literature of different peoples of the world. In this article, with methodological support on the works of I.G. Herder, G.D. Gachev, as well as contemporary Caucasian scholars, the author explores the specifics of the Kabardian fable, taken in the dialectical unity of its stable, archetypal constants and nationally determined contexts. By the example of the fables of K. Atazhukin, A. Dymov, B. Zhanimov, B. Kagermazov, P. Tambiev, B. Tkhamokov, M. Khakuasheva, P. Shekikhachev, T. Sheretlokov, A. Shomakhov, H. Elberdov the law of correlation between moral values declared by poets and the postulates of the Kabardian ethical code “Adyghe Khabze” is shown. Within the framework of historical poetics, the author demonstrates three-stage evolutionary process associated with the transition of fabulists from the practice of borrowing classical subjects to national adaptation, and then to the creation of original texts. Much attention is paid to the decoding of symbolic images.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):213-225
pages 213-225 views

Metaconcepts “Caucasus” and “Asia” as Dominant Constructs of the Ethnic Picture of the World of the Russian-speaking Writer Boris Chipchikov

Shormanova I.A.


The author of the article considers the metaconcepts “Caucasus” and “Asia” as the main ethno-cultural constructs of the work of the Russian-speaking writer Boris Chipchikov. The relevance of the stated topic lies in the fact that the artistic world of the bilingual author, being one of the significant fragments of the world picture, in particular the linguistic world picture, reflects the value system of the linguoculture of those ethnic groups in whose languages the works were created, in this case - the Karachay-Balkar and Russian linguocultures. The study revealed that the semantic core of the ethnic model of creativity of B. Chipchikov is composed of the metaconcepts “Caucasus” and “Asia” with a wide range of components that actualize a variety of associations that reflect the mental preferences, cognitive consciousness of the writer, his ambiguous attitude to the “native”/“to a stranger”. The work uses a number of scientific methods, including methods of conceptual, component, linguocognitive analysis (to characterize metaconcepts and concepts), the method of description (to decipher the results of the study). The results obtained can be used in the further development of the problems of bilingualism, translinguism and transculturation, which are of scientific interest to modern linguists.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):226-236
pages 226-236 views

Postmodernism in the Literature of the North Caucasus: Based on Dina Damian’s Novel “In your World I am a Passer-by”

Kasparova A.V.


The Russian academician G.D. Gachev in the middle of the 20th century put forward the theory of “accelerated development”, according to which the literary systems of minority peoples, which for a number of different reasons were delayed in their development, are able at one moment to join in a single world process and in a short time to catch up and overtake highly developed literature. In the presented article, the legitimacy of the Gachev theory is proved on the example of the North Caucasian postmodern literature, which has developed into a single school. Based on the novel by Dina Damian (a pseudonym of Madina Tlostanova) “I am a passer-by in your world”, it is shown how one “stormy genius” in the person of a Kabardian writer performs a dual task: it raises regional postmodernism to an unprecedented height, and at the same time enriches world literature with innovative poetics and a whole series of original philosophical ideas. The novel solves a number of other tasks related to clarifying the philosophical, historical, social, and aesthetic roots of postmodernism.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):237-251
pages 237-251 views

Karachay-Balkarian Novel: Distant Reading Practice

Berberov A.B.


The article for the first time tests some methods of distant reading on the material of KarachayBalkarian novels. The object of the study is the texts of 55 fiction works in the Karachay-Balkar language (mainly novels). Based on the analyzed texts, as well as some related meta-information, conclusions are drawn about the dynamics of publication activity in relation to Karachay-Balkarian novels - in particular, an unprecedented decrease in such activity since 2011 is indicated (only two published novels were found during this period). For the first time, the method Delta for calculation of intertextual distances (together with tree-like clusterization) was applied to the samples of Karachay-Balkarian literature, once again confirming its high efficiency. In addition to the unmistakable attribution of the analyzed texts, the generated tree structure is characterized by the presence of two branches (Karachay and Balkarian), as well as two sub-branches within the Balkarian branch. At the same time, intraBalkarian dialects are not revealed on the tree. The chronological principle has been found: the work located the furthest on the tree from the other works of the same author is always published either earlier than all the others, or later than all the others.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):252-263
pages 252-263 views


Foreign-Russian Bilingualism in the School System of The Kabardino-Balkarian Republic

Bashieva S.K., Dokhova Z.R., Shogenova M.C.


The article is devoted to the formation of foreign-Russian bilingualism in the education system of Kabardino-Balkaria. The relevance of the problem under consideration is due to the social need for regional bilingualism in a multi-national, multilingual, multicultural republic, which is the CBD, the stable mass character of bilingualism in which is predetermined by the coexistence, cofunctioning of Russian, Kabardian and Balkar languages. The purpose is to consider some trends in the development of bilingualism in the region, since education is the most significant and massively organized sphere of communication that influences the formation of a bilingual personality in a multiethnic and multicultural environment. The paper uses the method of retrospective analysis. Based on the study of the results of all-Union population censuses, which made it possible to trace the dynamics of the formation of foreign-Russian bilingualism, as well as legal and local acts of the Soviet and postSoviet periods that influenced the language situation, the features of the interaction of the Russian language and the languages of the titular peoples of the republic, the factors of the dominance of the Russian language in all functional areas.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):264-274
pages 264-274 views

Linguodidactic Potential of Coordinative Paremiology

Atabieva L.K.


A number of Russian theorists and linguistic teachers have developed a method of the folkloreparemiological approach to the study of the Russian language, which is very successfully implemented in practice. To fill the gap in the general catalog of bilingual theories, the author of the article has developed an «Indian»-Russian paremiological method adapted to solving important ethnolinguodidactic problems. Sharing the results of an experimental lesson at Kabardino-Balkarian State University, the author covers issues related to folklore sources, the teaching potential of coordinative, contrastive, «geographical» proverbs and sayings, as well as the method of language acculturation.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):275-285
pages 275-285 views

Language in System

Historical Memory of Derivational and Form-building Affixes of Dagestanian Languages

Aselderova R.O.


The article deals with the role of scientific etymology in restoring the origin of the word. The historical patterns, nature, and nature of the changes, development, and improvement of the language are analyzed. Attention is paid to the process of restoring historical memory as a powerful tool of knowledge. The article deals with the etymological semantics of the formants of the case system, the genesis of the ergative system, the historical memory of the class indicators of Avar language in correlation with the materials of other Dagestan languages. The paper examines the inner essence of language development in a comparative aspect. The importance of the concept of language development and the reconstruction of the forms of language units in both diachronic and synchronic terms is noted.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):286-296
pages 286-296 views

Archaic Vocabulary in Karachay-Balkar Paroemias

Ketenchiev M.B., Akhmatova M.A., Dodueva A.T.


The relevance of the topic is due to the need to study the functional and semantic characteristics of proverbs and sayings characterized by an anthropocentric orientation, which correlates with the modern regulatory-activity paradigm of studying objects of language and speech. The purpose of the study is a multi-aspect study of paremias with obligatory archaic lexemes reflecting the ethno-cultural realities of the Karachay-Balkarian ethnos. To achieve this goal, the article solves the tasks that are focused on determining the register of paremias with archaisms and historicisms, identifying and describing their functional and semantic features, as well as ethno-cultural significance. The material of the study was the paroemias selected by continuous sampling from the available collections of Karachay-Balkarian proverbs and sayings. The choice of methods of linguistic analysis is determined by the specifics of the material under study. In the work, along with the descriptive method, elements of conceptual, cognitive analyses are used in the context of the problems of ethnolinguistics and linguofolcloristics. Of the particular methods of semantic analysis, taxonomy and linguoculturological interpretation are used. The analysis of the available factual material allows us to come to the conclusion that, according to the lexico-semantic status, archaic words are divided into lexical and semantic archaisms. From the point of view of partial origin, obsolete words are mostly represented by nouns, adjectives and verbs, among which there are both regionalisms and dialectisms belonging to various lexical and thematic groups. Archaic lexemes, due to their ethno-cultural significance, contribute to the reflection of important segments of the Karachay-Balkar linguistic picture of the world encoded in the paroemias.of the Karachay-Balkar linguistic picture of the world encoded in the paroemias.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):297-307
pages 297-307 views


Development of Gender Studies on Ethnocultural Grounds: Problems and Prospects

Tkhagapsoev K.G.


The fact is that gender relations in the Caucasian ethno-social space are not only specific, but also undergo contradictory changes in the context of the general trends of modern Russian sociocultural transformation, requiring close scientific, primarily ethnological attention. However, ethnology in the region still remains under the influence of conservative ideas from the 1990s “on a return to the roots of culture, on the re-Islamization of culture”. In this difficult context, the barriers to the development of gender science in the space of Caucasian ethnic cultures are analyzed with maximum consideration of the characteristics of these cultures. On a wide range of facts and phenomena, the genderological features of the Caucasian ethnic cultures are revealed in detail (especially on the examples of the gender existence of the Adyghe ethnic groups). They are not properly studied, as well as the inconsistency of the stereotypes existing in the Russian discursive arena regarding Caucasian gender culture with facts and realities, which distances the attention of the centers of the country’s humanities from understanding ethno-gender issues. Possible (potential) prospects and horizons for the development of ethnic gender studies in the Caucasian regions are outlined. Considerable attention is paid to the particularly significant role of literary criticism (and philological science in general) in overcoming barriers to the development of gender science in the space of ethnic cultures. At the same time, it is argued that there are growing tendencies towards the formation of literary criticism as the leading science of ethnology, which is objectively facilitated by both the general trends of cultural transformation processes in modern Russia and the current conservative intentions of ethnology in the Caucasian regions.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):308-321
pages 308-321 views

Axiological Dominants Actualized in the Abkhaz Oratory Culture

Agrba L.A.


The article is devoted to the analysis of axiological dominants actualized by the Abkhaz through the public speaking culture. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that the consideration of oratory tradition is given through the prism of the axiological aspect reflected in it. We believe that a deep analysis of public speaking culture that has been mastered by the people living on the territory of Abkhazia over hundreds of centuries, can give an overall picture of its people and the values they share. In the proposed study through structural and semiotic analysis that helped to systematize and describe the axiological guidelines, we tried to identify value dominants of Abkhaz people. The classification of the values has been made. The study revealed a certain hierarchy of values that is reflected in the oratory tradition of Abkhazians.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):322-333
pages 322-333 views

Variation in Translation of Ossetian Sacral Onyms by Means of the Russian and English Languages

Bekoeva I.D.


One of the most important tasks facing the translator is adequacy of the translation. The relevance and topicality of the present study is due to the need of: 1) developing a unified approach to the choice of translation strategies and methods of transferring ethnospecifically coloured sacral onyms by means of the Russian and English languages; 2) describing and analyzing the methods of interptetation of Ossetian precedent sacral onyms. The subject of the research is presented by the semantic, structural and functional characteristics of sacral onyms, as well as extra-linguistic factors of interlingual communication that influence the choice of translation correspondences by means of the target languages. The sources of the illustrative material of the study are presented by text fragments taken from Internet resources and reflecting the representativeness of the analyzed precedent onyms in social communication. The methodological basis of the research is the synchronous principle of linguistic description, which contributes to identifying the peculiarities of the formation of translation correspondences in the context of modern ideas about the strategies of translation of the onymic segment of vocabulary. The complex nature of the research has led to the use of a diverse set of research methods (the method of description, classification and systematization of linguistic material according to certain criteria for processing research materials; comparative analysis of the correspondent texts in different languages; component analysis).The results of the research consist in the systematization of the methods of finding translation correspondences, in order to determine the algorithm for solving the problems facing the translator.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):334-341
pages 334-341 views

Representation of Ethno-Kultural Metaphors in Chechen Poetry

Dovletkireeva L.M., Dalieva E.H.


The author in the article considers the uniqueness of the Chechen poetic picture of the world and the role of metaphor as a figurative means and mechanism of thinking in the translation of ethnocultural meanings. Based on the analysis of the poetic works of Chechen authors, dominant metaphor concepts in Chechen poetry are distinguished, an attempt is made to establish the system, internal structure and connections of metaphorical models, reveal their mental intentions and determine the role of metaphor in creating imagery in the artistic structure of a lyrical text. A practical analysis of the representation of basic ethno-cultural metaphors in a poetic work is carried out on the material of the lyrics of the classics of Chechen literature by M. Isaeva, Sh. Aishanova, A. Dudaeva, M. Mamakaeva, etc. It is revealed how metaphor participates in the creation of artistic reality, how the idea of metaphor, which has developed in cognitive linguistics, correlates with the realization of the symbolic load of the image in the lyrical text. The author defines the dominant ethno-cultural metaphors of the Chechen ethnos “mountain, tower, river, burka, papakha, dzhigit (monk), wolf, eagle” and a number of others and correlates them with the national axiological scale, namely its categories such as “freedom, fearlessness, inflexibility, love for the native land, protection of the motherland, honor, dignity” and others. Attention is drawn to the fact that the author’s picture of the world is under the unconscious influence of his ethnic worldview. The analysis allows us to conclude that the Chechen poetic text implements a single metaphorical complex in which the basic ethno-cultural concepts of the Chechen linguistic worldview interact, complementing and enriching each other.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):342-353
pages 342-353 views

Ethnogender Picture of the World of the Balkars: Based on the Novels by M. Shavaeva “Murat” and “Northern lights”

Uzdenova Z.A.


The article is based on the author’s hypothesis that the devalued “new time” Soviet novels of socialist realism actually contain valuable ethno-gender material. This position is theoretically substantiated and experimentally proved by the author as a result of the analysis of two historical and revolutionary novels “Murat” and “Northern Lights” by the Balkarian writer Minaldan Shavaeva. The main character Asiyat portrays the North Caucasian type of an emancipated woman who challenges patriarchal foundations and preaches the principle of “freedom of the heart”. Much attention is paid to related issues related to ethnocultural codes “kadar” (fate) “taukel” (soul is like a mountain), “cousin”, “leading woman”, “driven man”, “maiden braid”. In the context of gender transformation processes in the North Caucasus, the culture-forming role of the Russian language is also considered.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2022;19(2):354-366
pages 354-366 views

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