Vol 16, No 2 (2019)

To our readers
To our Readers
Sinyachkin V.P.
Abstract
Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):154-155
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LANGUAGE CONSCIOUSNESS
Bilingual Consciousness and its Peculiarities
Ufimtseva N.V.
Abstract

To describe bilingualism, the author employs the approach developed within the Moscow Psycholinguistic School, i.e. the researcher investigates the language consciousness contents (picture of the world) of a bilingual in the first and second languages, with the free associative experiment acting as a tool to access the picture. The associative field of each word-stimulus is regarded a semantic gestalt, where one can define semantic zones, filled differently due to the language the bilingual uses during the experiment. The investigator assumes the picture of the world of any native language speaker or culture bearer is systematized, the systematicity differs from culture to culture, as well as the knowledge systems associated with the equivalent words.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):156-167
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A “Successful Person” as a Value Dominant of the American Liguo-Axiological Worldview
Zenkova T.V.
Abstract

The article deals with the study of an essential for the American culture concept “successful person” through the lens of linguistic axiology. A linguo-axiological approach to language study makes it possible to detect important information about the American axiological world view and gives an opportunity of a more detailed familiarization with the American national character and mindset. The aim of the paper is to reveal and analyze the ways of verbalization of the value component of the concept “successful person” as well as to determine its place in the axiological world view of the representatives of modern American linguistic culture. The research is based on the analysis of various types of English dictionaries: defining, phraseological, etymological, etc. The analysis revealed that the concept under investigation is widely represented in the language on the lexical and phraseological levels, possesses vivid evaluative characteristics and has a branched semantic structure. This concept also acquires in the culture a metaphorical interpretation and is verbalized by a series of metaphors. The concept “successful person” holds one of the dominant positions in the American world view being a realization of the key idea of a national cultural phenomenon “American Dream”.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):168-179
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Adjective Similes as Lexical Universals
Muzheika I.A.
Abstract

The article deals with adjective similes of some Slavonic, Baltic and German languages from the position of typology and linguistics of universals and is aimed at revealing common fixed expressions. This approach corresponds to modern tendency in phraseological researches being set at the end of the last century. Nowadays one of the main tasks of lexical typology is to study the plan of expression rather than the plan of content. The cognitive approach appears to be helpful in achieving this task as its application in typology is recognized as rather productive way of searching for content universals and for the analysis of human knowledge that effects the development of language itself. Our research covers similes of eight languages and this fact verifies conclusions about universals existence. Continuous sampling, descriptive, comparative and cognitive analysis methods are applied in the study. The main results of the study lie in the proof of lexical universals existence among adjective similes of eight languages.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):180-189
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Languages in contact
Bilingual Education and the Problems of Ethnic and Linguistic Identity in the USSR and Modern Russia
Marusenko M.A.
Abstract

The article discusses the relationship of bilingual education with the problems of ethnic and language identification in the USSR and modern Russia. The concept of protecting the rights of national minorities includes an extensive range of linguistic rights and the right to education in minority languages. This right is protected by many international agreements and documents of international organizations and is considered to be an unconditional conquest of fighters for human rights. However, this ignores cases of inconsistencies in ethnic and linguistic identity, which are increasingly frequent in the modern world, and the right of citizens to free ethnic and linguistic self-determination. Planning in the field of bilingual education and teacher training requires objective information on the real number of people willing to study in minority languages, which can be obtained as a result of language monitoring and censuses.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):190-203
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Some of the Aspects of Bilingual Education in Modern Guatemala
Kotenyatkina I.B., Borzenkova A.A., Radovich M.
Abstract

The present article demonstrates the development of the concept of bilingual education in Guatemala, caused by the transition to a new type of society: the knowledge society, where the education is considered as the main principle of economic growth. The special attention is paid to the specific needs of indigenous children from the linguistic and cultural points of view, as well as to the fact that the languages spoken by the local population are not being used as a tool during the teaching process. The article points out that the intercultural communication, as a primary principle of bilingual education, allows to overcome difficult sociolingustic conditions and favours the processes of the personality formation, while offering the possibilities of shaping individuals having both Spanish and indigenous languages and cultures as a basis.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):204-213
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Transcultural Linguo-Conceptual Model of Globalization in a Regional Context
Lugovskaya E.G.
Abstract

The article proposes the approval of the term ‘transcultural’ purposiveness in the terminological definition ‘transcultural linguoconceptual globalization outline (construct)’. This terminological definition refers to the linguocultural socio-emergent formed in the conditions of multilingualism and multiculturalism (in particular Pridnestrovian region). The characteristic of this outline (construct) is presented, the main ways of its description are outlined; some methodological conditions for its analysis are indicated. The terminological difference between the terms ‘intercultural’, ‘cross-cultural’ and ‘transcultural’ reflects the direction of the millennium globalization processes. This difference is determined by the terminological specificity of those scientific knowledge spheres in which these terms are using as a general thing. Despite this, the author shows that the essence of globalization processes can be expressed through the construction of the regional (we mean the multilingual and multicultural regions) transcultural theoretical outline from the linguoconceptual point of view. This is possible if cognitivediscursive patterning operates. When describing the aimed transcultural linguoconceptual outline (construct), the author proposes to point up the interpretation of transculturation as a process of cultural convergence and confluence and an opposite one to ‘acculturation’ or ‘enculturation’. It has an assume prominence in assessing the suggested outline’s effectiveness in a pragmatic measurement and can point the cognitive-discursive sphere’s problem issues. A particular question relating to the issue of a pragmatic estimate of this outline implementation - the appraisal of the second and subsequent languages acquisition by aboriginal persons of multilingual regions - is considered to exemplify this thesis. The author notes that the functional-pragmatic and cognitive-communicative approaches came out of the linguistics anthropocentric paradigm. These approaches are in contrast to ethnic-oriented one. They accentuate the functioning of the language and configures itself as an instrument for transcultural communication in the transcultural world. These approaches allow bilingual to be an active participant in the intercultural communication and socialization.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):214-225
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LITERARY SPACE
Guest Editor’s Letter
Amineva V.R.
Abstract
Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):226-227
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Identity Discourse in Theoretical Works of Tatar Literary Critics at the Beginning of the XX Century
Ibragimov M.I., Galimzyanova E.M.
Abstract

The subject of the research is the identity discourse in literary works of Tatar literary figures at the beginning of the 20th century (G. Ibraghimov, G. Sagdie, G. Battala, N. Dumavie, G. Rakhim). The coexistence of Eastern and European literary terms and concepts, which indicates the reception of works by Russian and European scientists and the transformation of traditional views on literature, caused by Eastern poetics influence, was established in the works under study. The research was carried out in the context of the problem of identity that is relevant to contemporary literary criticism. For the first time, literary works of Tatar writers and scholars are considered as one of discursive practices in which the national identity of Tatar literature is manifested. It is revealed that the discourse of identity in the analyzed works is problematic in two aspects: civilization aspect (the problem of East and West) and national aspect (the problem of literary science as one of the factors of national construction).

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):228-238
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Small Genres of Russian and Tatar Literature: Comparative Poetics
Khabibullina A.Z.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of small genres of Russian and Tatar literature in the aspect of comparative poetics. It is stated that comparative poetics is based on a comparative method which is in its’ turn based on the idea of preservation of national literature originality, involved in a dialogue. The sphere of the uniqueness actualizes the category of genre, that is the problem of genres correlation, their possible correlation in cross-literal space. The factual basis - are the genres of fable and masal in works by I.A. Krylov and G. Tukai. Their history, some aspects of poetics and correlation in multilingual cultures are revealed. It is concluded that, Tukay in his collection of translations of “Pearls” (1909) was the founder of new genre form, which, on the one hand, was close to a Russian fable, on the other hand, took the features of the masal, as well as the Oriental Proverbs, nasihats and other genres associated with the tradition of rhymed prose.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):239-251
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“Historical Avanguard” of the 1960-th: Features of Manifestation in the Tatar Poetry
Zagidullina D.F.
Abstract

In the article specifics of the vanguard phenomena in the Tatar poetry of 1960-s are revealed. On material of the analysis of the extensive case of works of R. Gatash, S. Khakeem, R. Fayzulin, Rob. Akhmetzyanov, etc. it is established that vanguard literature is created with adressing to the prepared reader and characterized by such lines as intellectuality and philosophicality. It is oppositional in relation to official ideology and reflects critical evaluation of the orders existing in the country by means of Aesopian language, expansion of semantic range of traditional images, uses of methods of symbolical typification. The typological community with “historical vanguard” in the Russian literature of the same period is revealed and processes of national and cultural identification of literary and art systems are characterized. Concepts “home ground”, “the people (nation)”, “our past” became the key categories of vanguard in the Tatar poetry of the middle of the XX century promoting creation of new contours of the literature.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):252-265
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The Poetics of Gatash in Russian Translations
Nagumanova E.F.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the consideration of the genre nature of ghazal in Tatar literature of the late XX - early XXI centuries. The focus of research attention is the work of Radif Gatash, whose works are a model of love lyrics. The national poet was able to accommodate new techniques in the traditional genre, to uncover the problems facing modern society. The language of his works is metaphorical, different layers of vocabulary are skillfully combined in the text: the sublimely high-flown style coexists with a “simple” word. The author of the article aims to reveal the principles of the translation of Gatash’s poetry into Russian. In the course of a comparative analysis of the works of V. Khamidullina and A. Karimova, it is concluded that the Russian-speaking audience has the opportunity to experience the full peculiarity of the ghazals of the modern Tatar national poet. At the same time, as the study shows, the installation of the poet-translator itself plays an important role, whose creative search inevitably leads to liberties and transformational changes, which is especially noticeable in the translations of V. Khamidullina.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):266-275
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Motive as Transhistorical Phenomenon in the Story of the Adyghe-Russian Bilingual-Educator of the Nineteenth Century Khan Girey “Circassian Legends”
Kaziyeva A.M., Pliss A.A.
Abstract

The article presents the study of the motive structure of the “Caucasian text” in the works of the North Caucasian literature of the first half of XIX. The following task is defined: to determine the motives specific for the “Caucasian text” of the North Caucasian literature. During the period of national recovery associated with the Decembrist movement, literature was supplemented by a number of works about the Caucasus, written by talented and educated mountaineersCaucasians, such as Sultan Khan Girey, Sultan Kazy Girey, Adil Girey Keshev, Costa Khetagurov, etc. There was a whole literary tradition, which not only poetized the Caucasian world, but also tried to study it ethnographically. The relevance of the article is also connected with the fact that the Caucasian motifs are easily read both in the works of authors writing in Russian, for whom this region is a historical homeland, and Russian writers, gravitating in their own artistic preferences to a variety of trends and stylistic principles - from romantic to postmodern. For some of them, interest in the motives of the Caucasus is determinative for all the creative work. The scientific novelty of the article is that the author for the first time made an attempt to consider the motives typical for the works of Russian and North Caucasian literature about the Caucasus in the context of dialogue of the cultures.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2019;16(2):276-288
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