Vol 11, No 2 (2020): Semantics of Universal and Specific in the Language and a Text


Linguosemiotics.Paremiology: Modern Trends

Novospasskaya N.V.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):145-150
pages 145-150 views


Modern Russian Studies in Kazakhstan: Professor E.D. Suleimenova (Devoted to 75th Birth Anniversary)

Agmanova A.E., Temirgazina Z.K.


The article is timed to coincide with 75th anniversary of Eleonora Dyusenovna Suleimenova, who is a famous scientist of Kazakhstan, Doctor of Philology, academic of International Higher Education Academy. The contribution of E.D. Suleimenova to the development of modern linguistics is considered in the context of her basic multifaceted scientific, educational and social activities. A special attention is paid to the academic’s fundamental works in General and Contrastive Semantics, Sociolinguistics and Theory of Second Language Acquisition. In the present article some practical research results of Suleimenova have been discussed, those of theoretical foundation of lexicographic principles of metalinguistic units and their realization in two language dictionaries, compiled by her guidance (“Glossary in Linguistics”, Languages of peoples of Kazakhstan” Reference book, “Business Language: Kazakh-Russian Dictionary of collocations”, “Glossary of Sociolinguistic terms”). Some other linguistic and educational ideas of the scientist that have been reflected in the textbooks for both school and university students have also been viewed.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):151-160
pages 151-160 views


Semantic Continuumof Myth

Vladimirova T.E.


Language, the first cultural phenomenon, received textual expression in myths, of which the oldest tell of the mystical relationship of the tribe with the animal. Consideration of the concepts that arose on this basis, and then of “conceptual myths” (OM Freidenberg) about the totem-ancestor makes it possible to analyze their semantic-semantic fields. Moreover, we relied on the cultural-historical concept of G.G. Shpet, which allowed us to trace the evolution and subsequent transformation of the semantic-semantic fields of myth and thus reveal the algorithm for the formation of the mythopoetic tradition, its fading and eternal return. In the center of this work is semantic-semantic fields of myths about the Heavenly deer / moose cow, the cult which stretched over the more than six millennia. Observing the astral objects that served as a spatial-temporal reference point in the hunting and reindeer herding, primitive tribes felt their unity with the star ancestors. For example, two constellations of seven stars, which served the primitive hunters and reindeer breeders as a guide on the way, began to be identified in the russian North with the horned Reindeer Mother / moose cow and her daughter, from which the well-being of people depends. The attempt of comparative-historical reconstruction of semantic-semantic fields in article based on the material of myths about totems-forefathers made it possible to distinguish three main layers. These are 1) the energetically “charged” field of the myth of the shaman visiting the fantastic deer in labor, in which the religious and mythological consciousness received expression; 2) a semantic-semantic field of myths that belong to the artistic and heroic consciousness and narrate about a cultural hero who is ready for a feat for his family-tribal community; 3) the semantic-semantic field of the myth of the Horned mother-deer in the story of Ch. T. Aitmatova’s “White Steamboat (After the Tale)”, the rescue of orphans who became the ancestors of the Bugu tribe (‘deer’), and contains deep thoughts of the author, the bearer of cultural-historical and philosophicalcultural consciousness. As for the semantic-semantic fields, specific to the various interpretations of plots about a moose cow and a calf, close to a household fairy tale, a hunting story and a joke, so they correspond to the scientific and technical type of consciousness that has lost its connection with myth.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):161-174
pages 161-174 views

Structural-Semantic Modeling in Phraseology: Forty Years of Experience and the Prospects

Nikitina T.G.


The purpose of this article is to analyze the experience gained in the field of structural-semantic modeling by domestic and foreign phraseologists working in the mainstream of the scientific school of V. M. Mokienko, the founder of this method, and to present prospects of the method applied to a dynamic system of modern phraseology. The relevance of addressing this issue is determined by the high linguo-cultural and linguo-didactic potential of phraseological modeling, the need to identify opportunities for its use in the study of phraseological layers that have not yet been fully developed. Using the descriptive method to process the data presented in the works on structural-semantic modeling, the author summarizes the results obtained by phraseologists for four decades of active use of the method in historical, etymological and linguoculturological research. The scope of the method’s application to the material of different languages, the breadth of the research spectrum in terms of synchrony/ diachrony is emphasized: from the reconstruction of phraseology at the level of the protolanguage to the modeling of phraseological units-neologisms. The research material was not only scientific sources, but also language material: phraseology of Russian folk dialects, modern urban speech and Internet communication. Using the method of structural-semantic modeling in relation to these phraseological layers, the author demonstrates the possibility of identifying generating models of formation and transformation of phraseological units, which until recently was considered impossible. For the first time, the method of structural-semantic modeling is also considered as one of the phraseographic techniques implemented by V. M. Mokienko and his followers in the field of academic and educational lexicography. Thus, the review of scientific sources presented in the article and the results of the author’s own research prove the productivity of the method of structural-semantic modeling, confirm its relevance and broad prospects in the study of Russian phraseology.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):175-197
pages 175-197 views

Levels of Manifestation of Typological Similarity in Proverbs of Different Languages

Seliverstova E.I.


The relevance of this article is due to the contradiction between the typical position of linguoculturologists, who use proverbs in their studies to illustrate the idea of the national specific mental representations of the world, reflected in the language, on the one hand, and the undeniable similarity in the verbal, logical and semantic structures of the proverbs that we observe when comparing the proverbial material of completely different languages - related and not related: English, German, Russian, Czech, Bulgarian, Chinese, Turkish, Armenian, etc. The object of analysis is composed of proverbs as units by means of which the speakers express their attitude to the world in a figurative form and manifest themselves as carriers of a certain culture. This rapprochement is carried out in several directions. We note the undoubted similarity (1) in the field of thematic areas, chosen to state the results of observation and conclusions, which generalize the experience gained and derive pragmatic meaning from it; (2) at the level of proverbial condensates (mental constructs, ideas) that briefly convey the contents of the proverb - such as “A wife and a husband are different”, “A child inherits the properties of parents”, “A little bad thing spoils a big good”, etc.; (3) at the level of generalized concepts - the signs of them are especially actively reflected in proverbs: the image of gold in its various interpretations is universal - as a standard of a high degree of any characteristic, as a way of solving many life difficulties, etc.; (4) at the level of components that verbalize concepts, become sustainable elements of proverbs, can be opposed or compared. Binomial pairs form the logical and semantic structure of proverbs (“friend” - “alien”, “smart” - “stupid”, “head” - “legs”), move from one unit to another and some of them can have different verbal implementations (“predator” - “victim”: wolf - lamb/sheep/cow ). This analysis allows us to talk about coincidences not only in assessing the importance of individual objects and phenomena, in thoughts about them and associations, in the spectrum of identifiable signs, in verbalization techniques used for matching generalized ideas, and - at last - about a certain reduction in the pathos of the statement about the national specificity of the proverbial space of the particular language.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):198-212
pages 198-212 views

Axiology of Proverbs in the Focus of the Problem of Cognitive-discursive Modeling of Semantics of Russian Proverbs

Semenenko N.N.


The article is devoted to the analysis of the problem of determining the value factor in the semantic structure of proverbs in relation to the problem of cognitive-pragmatic modeling of proverbial semantics. The relevance of the appeal to the value component of paremic semantics is due to the approach to solving the problems of semantics of signs of indirect-derived nomination in the system “Language - text - discourse”, which has already become traditional for anthropocentric linguistics. Paremia is considered as a syncretic sign that combines the properties of a texteme (a language sign) and a statement (a discursive unit). Many features of it’s speech implementation are due to the combination of the properties of a mini-text with a “folded” semantic structure and a discourse unit that contributes to the formation of meaning in it’s space. In the course of determining the essence of the approach to the description of the problem specified linguophilosophical cultural status values, and proposes the author's concept define cognitive-pragmatic status values as linguaitaliana units allocated in the cognitive basis of the values of folk aphorism and implemented in a pragmatic component paramedische values. The description of axiological paremic representation is carried out in line with the cognitive-pragmatic approach to the distinction between axiological and evaluative in the semantic content of proverbs. Grounded in the study of the model description of the axiological accentually pareticheski semantics is illustrated by a thematic group of proverbs and in describing the discursive potential of the proverbs included in the context. The relevance of the study is due to the consideration of paremic semantics as a field of linguosinergic interaction of value and evaluation, expressed in the semantic structure of proverbs.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):213-232
pages 213-232 views

The Adjective “Sacred” in Metalinguisticsof the Language: Functional-semantic Research

Shkuran O.V.


The article is devoted to an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the semantics of the adjective “sacred”, the Indo-European root of which was the basis of the Latin token saker, initially illustrating a multi-pole understanding - from the divine to the demonic, from the sublime to the secularized. Particular attention is paid to the definitions of the adjective in the explanatory, etymological dictionaries of the XІX-XX centuries, in mythological representations, in folklore texts, in calendar, family and other rituals, in phraseology, paremiology, etc. In a historical retrospective, an analysis of changes in the semantics of the adjective “sacred” revealed the pre-Christian, Christian, secularized stages of lexical-semantic variations. A comprehensive study confirms the transformation of not only worldview systems, but also language tools that contribute to the formation in the minds of Russian people of the meta-idea of the adjective “sacred” in order to identify the cultural dominance and actively search and restore its semantic core.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):233-249
pages 233-249 views

Symbol of Mouse in Slavonic and Chinese Linguocultures

Koval V.I.


The article describes in comparative aspect the main symbolic meanings of the zoononym mouse in Slavic and Chinese linguocultures. The study of animal symbolism in Russian (wider - Slavic) and Chinese cultural traditions is one of the current trends in modern linguistics, which, on the one hand, has a pronounced anthropocentric orientation, and on the other, is characterized by a noticeable increase in interest in the Chinese language and culture of China in different countries of the world. Turning to the study of complex and ambiguous symbolism of the mouse is quite timely and taking into account the confinement of 2020 to the year of the White Rat / Mouse. The purpose of the study is to identify similar and specific for each culture features of perception and characteristics of the mouse as an animal, which has a significant impact on everyday life. The tasks of the work include identifying the sources of the appearance of a negatively connotated mouse image in culture, determining the ambivalent nature of rituals, customs and ritual actions, the object of which are mice, as well as revealing the contents of the “Mouse Wedding” custom in Chinese and South Slavic traditions. The analysis of the actual material (stable phrases, folklore texts, ethnocultural records, traditional drawings) showed, on the one hand, the mostly negative symbolism of the mouse in the Slavic spiritual culture, and on the other, the perception of the mouse as an animal, bringing material wealth and prosperity, in the traditional picture of the world the Chinese. At the same time, it was established that both the Slavs and the Chinese use a number of magic tricks aimed at fighting mice that cause considerable damage to the peasant economy. Significant for the linguoculturological analysis of the mouse image is the appeal to oriental folklore texts, as well as to traditional popular prints of Chinese and Russians, reflecting differently the symbolism of mice and their relation to the main enemy - the cat.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):250-264
pages 250-264 views


Paremias in Modern Linguistics: Approaches to Study, Text-Forming and Linguocultural Potential

Bredis M.A., Dimoglo M.S., Lomakina O.V.


The article deals with the consideration of the paremic text in the modern linguistic paradigm: approaches to the researches are presented, the text-forming and linguocultural potential of individual units is shown. The direct observation method was used as the main method in this work, followed by the use of descriptive-analytical, comparative, contextual and linguistic and cultural methods. The Study is based on examples from lexicographic sources and illustrations from the Internet. The article provides an overview of the main aspects of the paremiological studies. Paremias are considered as a folklore genre, the thematic and ideographic principle of classifying paremias is presented, the aspects of cultural linguistics (linguoculturological) and translation studies are substantiated, and peculiarities of historical and etymological discursive (functional) analysis are shown. Comparative linguistic and cultural analysis is recognized by the authors of the paper as an integrative aspect of the paremiological material description. The article analyzes the text-forming and linguoculturological potential of the paremiology in different languages. As an example of the realization of the text-forming potential of paremias, the functioning of the proverb Не рой другому яму - сам в нее попадешь (упадешь) (He who digs a pit for others may fall himself therein) is studied as the verbal part of the Russian and Lithuanian demotivators. The paper provides a linguistic and cultural analysis of paremias with a toponymical component in different languages. Despite the abundance of various toponyms, which are characteristic for different countries, in these proverbs are dominated the international component, which is associated with the universal laws of human thinking, which makes it possible to find their semantic equivalents in various languages. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that paremias are considered in various aspects from the standpoint of modern humanistic education. With the development of social communications in modern society, an intercultural connection is being strengthened, requiring linguocultural commentary.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):265-284
pages 265-284 views

Peculiarities of the Phraseological Content of Perm Old Believer Dialects

Podyukov I.A.


The article devoted to the underinvestigated problem of folk religious speech is addressed to the peculiarities of set expressions and word-combinations, their thematic stratification, figurativeness and symbolism recorded in the verbal communication of Old Believers of Perm Krai. Phraseological nominations of different forms of Old Believer ritual practice (names of prayer modes, kinds of religious texts, holidays, naming of attributes of religious ritualism, ritual clothes, etiquette formulae of food and behavioural prohibitions) are investigated. The aim of the description of the Old Believer phraseology is discovering its connection with categories and attributes of old Belief, its modern state characteristics. It has been stated that the significant part of Old Belief phraseology is imparted by the existential semantics and reflects dominating of the religious basis in everyday life typical of Old Believer culture. With the help of phraseological facts there have been noted specific features of sacral (wedding and funeral) tradition of Old Believer consents. The conclusion is drawn that the phraseological layer in question in content and ways of expression differs from the set component nominations of folk Orthodoxy. It has fixed phraseological units that discover the main faith dogmata (God, sin, salvation) and formulate ideological convictions of its followers. Phraseological units of Old Believer dialects can be considered to be the means of identification of a confessional group, as a source of knowledge about the clergy experience of tradition bearers and about the peculiarities of way of life of Old Believers. It has been stated that the functioning of phraseological units is characterized by the variety that is mainly determined by the oral being of this form of culture, by the presence of different Old Believer dissents in Perm Krai. The modern state of folk Old Believer phraseology is explained by the fact that many consents don’t have any worked out dogmatics and a rigid canonical form, it indicates gradual abolishing of tradition.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):285-300
pages 285-300 views

The Implementation of the Conception of Friendship on the Basis of Comparative Structural-semantic Analysis of English and Russian Proverbs

Orlova T.G.


The article is devoted to the study of the conception of friendship based on the results of comparative structural-semantic analysis of English and Russian proverbs about friendship. The study includes two complementary steps. The first step consists in formulating the main aspects of the conception of friendship. The second consists in comparing fragments of this proverbial field, which made it possible to explore the implementation of eight aspects of the conception of friendship on the material studied. The clarification of similarities and differences made it possible to identify the specific national and cultural characters of thinking and mentality of the two non-related peoples towards understanding of friendship. The relevance of the study is determined by the novelty of the proposed approach to the study of the conception of friendship based on the comparative structural and semantic analysis of proverbs of two linguistic-cultural ethnic groups, as well as the insufficient knowledge of proverbs expressing the concept of “friendship” from the point of view of identifying their figurative and motivational basis, figurative means (metaphor, metonymy, comparison, personification, gradation, hyperbole, irony, allegory, antithesis), semantics of lexical components, syntactic structures (repetitions, parallelism, ellipsis, compression), expressive means, as well as rhythmic organization. There were selected and systematized similar and unique meanings of English and Russian proverbs as a result of research on the material of these languages. The analysis of these meanings allowed us to explore conception of friendship, thereby providing the basis for deeper rethinking both the conception and the proverbial material. As the part of the study there were observed differences in understanding of a person, personal relationships with others, mutual help, etc. These differences are largely due to the different origins of English and Russian proverbs. Most of the English proverbs are short sayings, which were formed under the influence of Latin expressions and quotations from Bible. Most of the Russian proverbs are peasant by origin and therefore they are closely connected with a specific and imaginative perception of the world. Their expressiveness is much higher at the expense of using the means of oral folk creativity. This analysis made it possible to reveal the role of linguistic means in expressing the mentality of the representatives of both peoples.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):301-318
pages 301-318 views

Phraseological Units with the Word “Bread” in Russian, Frenchand Italian Linguocultures

Kaskova M.E., Ustinova O.V., Bolshakova E.K.


Language is not only a means of communication between people, but also the cultural memory of the speakers of this language. We believe that in linguistic units there is cultural information that indicates the existence of a category that correlates language and culture, and makes it possible to describe their interaction. A way of verbalizing a culture using linguistic signs is called cultural connotation. Cultural categories are a kind of stereotypes, symbols, standards, mythologemes, archetypes, rituals and other signs of both national and universal culture. The linguistic picture of the world is one of the key concepts that characterize the peculiarity of the relationship between people and the world around them, because “captures a certain image of the world, which is never a mirror image of the world”. The national specificity is revealed in phraseology most of all. It is the phraseological composition of the language that most fully reflects the features of speech behavior, the specificity of the national mentality, manifested through cultural codes. The phraseological image is essential in modeling the linguistic picture of the world of a particular people. In this article, the subject of research are Russian, French and Italian phraseological units with the word “bread” from the point of view of linguoculturology, which allows us to identify the national-cultural identity of the phraseological units under consideration. We believe that the internal form of the phraseological unit contains a certain cultural code, that is, with the help of phraseological units it is possible to characterize representatives of one or another nationality. The subject of this article is a comparative analysis of phraseological units that have the word “bread” as the main component. The object of research is the features of the use of this word as a fragment of the lexical and phraseological systems of the Russian, French and Italian languages. The article compares phraseological units with the “bread” component, which historically goes back to free phrases, analyzes the processes of rethinking both the whole expression and its components. Using the example of phraseological units, we will analize how the lexeme “bread” loses its literal meaning “food” and acquires a new content, introducing new meaning into the semantic structure of the phraseological phrase. The problem under study is very relevant, because it is caused by the growing interest in modern linguistics to study of the mechanisms of secondary nomination in different languages and the identification on the material of phraseological units of specific features of verbal thinking and perception of the surrounding reality by language groups.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):319-329
pages 319-329 views


Film Naming: Book Titles and Film Titles

Krasina E.A., Rybinok E.S., Moctar A.


The studies of a film text as a polycoded textual phenomena involve the studies of its integral components, such as film story and screenplay, reflecting storyline or plot of a literary text that serves as a precedential text to filming and as an immediate constituent of a film itself. Film title combines the features of a book or story title and functions as a precedential phenomenon as well, but is an integral part of the process of film promotion and release, and in cinematographic sphere it’s of crucial importance. In fact, the original book or story titles used to change especially with time and audience involved, when filming remaking changes to TV series and miniseries, or films are followed by sequels and prequels so that not to make something like Jaws 3 or Indiana Jones 5 . Anyhow, most of film titles fully repeat or at least conserve the title of a literary text, still it’s often amplified to make difference or to emphasize the idea that the screenplay is a new one just the story to be continued, e.g., Jaws-3D: The Revenge. Not very often the changes are marked graphically as of Romeo + Juliet or Romeo & Julie t, so that to hint a new turnoff the plot to the audience. It’s obvious that film titles often use names of main characters either for series or episode titles or to form a film franchise like that of Jurassic Park or Indiana Jones ones. As people started to use different IT gadgets they used to read books less and less, and film stories tend to make a new book form when a book is no longer a precedent to a film. Thus the cycle of “book title → film title” was completed by a part of “film title → book title (or book itself” to reflect the reverse trend, which is known worldwide.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):330-340
pages 330-340 views

Trope as the Result of Semiotic Interpolation of Verbal and Non-verbal Units in Heterogeneous Text(Case Study of Film Text “Faust” by A. Sokurov)

Evgrafova Y.A.


Homogeneous texts are being replaced by heterogeneous texts that are called audio-visual ones; texts and teletexts belong to the most formed of them. On the ground of cinema and television the texts with the unique structure that combines verbal and non-verbal sense carriers apoeared. The aim of this work is to describe peculiarities of meaning articulation in the dynamic scope of such screen texts. To reach the aim the task to show how the basic elements of the screen “language” materialize in verbal and non-verbal units of the screen “speech” of polycode-multimodal text and how it constructs the general meaning of audio-visual narration is set. Also contamination of levels of meaning is being studied in this work and how it influences the trope. The research is being held on the case of the film text “Faust” by A. Sokurov. The analysis is being done on the space-time continuum, i.e. with the consideration of the movement in the film text. Units of the screen “speech” are being extracted from the chosen segments and analysed as the main sources of the meaning of audio-visual message as a whole; also the peculiarities of the meaning articulation on the denotational and connotational levels in space-time scope of polycode-multimodal text are being described. Apart from that, the process of semiotic interpolation of verbal and non-verbal units that leads to the generating of the transitional meaning and of the trope on the grounds of displacement and adjacency of the meanings is being studied. The author comes to the conclusion that integrity of verbal and non-verbal units in the space-time scope of the polycode-multimodal text, that results in trope generation, also leads to the semiotic situation of simulacrativity, whose main goal is to make the spectator believe that what is happening on the screen is real. This article is aimed at students, post-graduates, professors, linguists and others interested in general and linguistic semiotics.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):341-356
pages 341-356 views

Intertextuality of the Small Texts of the French Film Discourse

Anisimov V.E.


This article analyses the intertextuality of the functional and pragmatic elements of the film text (film title, synopsis, slogan) that are a direct part of the film text’s semiotic space. The pragmatic orientation of the film title, synopsis and slogan with their main task (targeted audience capture) largely determines the pragmatic nature of intertextual allusions that occur in these film text elements. The purpose of this work is to prove the presence of intertextual connections in the functional and pragmatic elements of the film text and to consider in depth the internal intertextuality of these elements. In the course of the study, we made the following conclusions: the most acceptable for the analysis of the functional and pragmatic elements of the film text is the theory of transtextuality by G. Genette, through which the intertextuality of the film title, synopsis and slogan must be considered on the basis of the paratextuality, metatextuality and hypertextuality. The intertextuality of the functional and pragmatic elements of the film text consists in the interaction of film title, synopsis and slogan with the precedent texts and events, as well as the intertextual connection inside the class of these elements. The internal intertextuality of the functional and pragmatic elements of the film text allows the movie title, synopsis, and slogan to ensure the fulfillment of their main function that is to attract to watch the movie as many viewers as possible.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):357-367
pages 357-367 views

Communicative and Emotive Characteristics of the Diplomatic Idiolect

Belyakov M.V., Maksimenko O.I.


This article is devoted to the study of communicatively conditioned professional idiolect and the emotional speech of a diplomat by means of quantitative computer content analysis and semantic analysis. The characteristics of a professional diplomat’s idiolect, changes in speech that have occurred over time are determined. Particular attention is paid to lexical units, a change in connotations, the degree of overall emotional performance, as well as clichés and aphorisms. The concept of “implicitly emotive diplomatic clichés” is introduced, which is characteristic of the type of discourse under study. According to the results of the study, it is concluded that a professional idiolect is expressed in the skillful switching of speech codes, the rejection of pragmatic appraisal, the ability to explicitly express an appraisal using facts and the exact use of changing connotations, as well as implicitly emotive diplomatic clichés, which allows a diplomat through a “delegated subject” express the country’s attitude to current events, but remain within the framework of the diplomatic speech protocol. The study allows us to come closer to a clearer and deeper understanding of the phenomenon of a professional diplomat’s idiolect as a complex set of speech and textual practices aimed at solving complex international problems in a peaceful way, i.e. verbally. The research material was S.V. Lavrov as the Permanent Representative to the UN Security Council speeches on the theme of ‘peacekeeping’ stored in the Security Council digital archive for 1994-2004, as well as the material of the press conference on 01/17/2020 as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):368-383
pages 368-383 views

Transformations of the Language of Diplomatic Correspondence between the Entente Countries and Germany before The First World War

Medvedev Y.Y., Ntsiwou Batiako L.D.


The spheres of official communication, which include public administration, legal proceedings, legislation, etc., are regulated, in contrast to everyday communication. Activities in each of these spheres are subject to precisely defined, strictly established rules that regulate and legitimize it. The diplomatic language is characterized by a special degree of regulation. “The weight of a word” in international politics is extremely heavy, since the fate of entire states and peoples may depend on successful or unsuccessful communication between diplomats. The strict standardization of the diplomatic language should serve as a kind of deterrent against the growth of tension in international relations. The goal of this study is to identify the degree of susceptibility of the diplomatic correspondence language to transformations in the political crisis context (during wartime). The research material is based on the texts from the Orange book, a collection of diplomatic correspondence between warring countries before the outbreak of the First World War. The application of the contextual analysis method made it possible to determine the vector of changes in the diplomatic correspondence language caused by the political crisis: from restraint, emotionlessness, tact and politeness accepted in the diplomatic sphere to ultimatumness, categoricalness, manifestation of emotions and deviation from the principle of objective reflection of events.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):384-397
pages 384-397 views

The Narrative as a Mnemonic Text (Based on “Children of War” Narratives)

Kolysheva O.N.


The article is focuses on the consideration of "children of war" narratives as mnemonic texts united by a common theme and containing memories of the Great Patriotic War in Russia (1941- 1945). The interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of such texts makes it possible to describe the nature of representation of the war in the minds of its eyewitnesses, to trace its rethinking and changing nature of memories. The research material illustrates the distinctive features of the narrative as a mnemonic text, namely the retrospective nature of the narrative, structural and semantic heterogeneity of the texts, linguistic expression of the authenticity of the event series, the interaction of the narrator with the interviewer in the narration, temporal postponement of memories expressed in evaluative judgments, self-examination of the events, reflexion, as well as cognitive "symbiosis" of the past and present, expressed in the using of past and present tenses of verbs in a sentence. The article introduces the notion of mnemonic situation and describes its structure and types: situations of information presence, situations of information loss, situations of information absence and situations of information recovery. In the course of the research, we found examples of interaction of several types of mnemical situation in a sentence or a thematic fragment.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):398-411
pages 398-411 views


Review of the Manual:E.A. Krutko, A.S. Komkova Changing World of Global Business = World Economy Activity: Basics. English for Master’s Program Students

Ishchenko V.G.



RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(2):412-414
pages 412-414 views

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