Vol 13, No 2 (2022)


A Poeteme as a Tool for the Analysis of a Lyrical Text in L.A. Novikov’s Concept of Language as Art

Temirgazina Z.K.


The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the methodological, “instrumental” potential of some theoretical concepts developed and deepened in the concept of language as a verbal art by Lev Alekseevich Novikov - poetemе and ostrannenie (alienation). The lyric poetry of Pavel Vasiliev, the Russian Soviet poet (1910-1937), whose work is of a transcultural nature and belongs to the “literature of the borderland”, is analyzed. The poetemes “a steppe - a parent” and “a steppe - an ancient mysterious land” are modeled, allopoets are defined, in which the image of the steppe, key for the poet, is presented; the linguistic means of creating aesthetic imagery in allopoets are identified. The concept of a poeteme allows one to compare different images and interpretations in the poet’s work, draw connecting lines between them and ultimately determine the originality of the individual author’s poetic picture of the world. The method of the ostrannenie was introduced into scientific circulation by V.B. Shklovsky; in Novikov’s concept it appears as an invariant of linguistic imagery, which includes traditional tropes and figures as special cases. For the ostrannenie in his poetics Vasiliev uses the method of breaking stereotypes, which allows him to attract the attention of the reader, making the image unusual and alien. The article provides examples of violation of poetic stereotypes inherent in Russian poetry: the symbol of poetry - a goose feather, sound like silver, as well as a typical for Vasiliev method of violating ethnic stereotypes, for example, appearance: attribution of Asian features to a lyric hero - slanting eyes, cheekbones, etc. Thus, a broad understanding of ostrannenie in Novikov’s theory makes it possible not only to fundamentally unite traditional tropes and figures, but also includes specific individual author’s techniques of poetic technique.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):249-261
pages 249-261 views

Linguosensorics of Death Symbols in Marina Tsvetaeva’s “Poem of Air”: to the 130-th Poetess’s Anniversary

Yakushevich I.V.


The article analyzes the linguistic organization of the two main symbolic situations of the poem - “crossing the celestial sea”, “overcoming the other three celestial spheres and reaching the firmament”. The study was conducted in line with one of the newest branches of linguistics - linvosensory, which studies the verbalization of interoceptive (internal) and proprioceptive (coordination and position in space) sensations. The main method of research is to consider the signifying symbol, its figurative component, as the result of not only external, but also internal perception, considered in the dynamics of sequential (plot) development. The impulse was a draft writing of the poetess about the “disembodication” of the lyrical heroine. The aim of the study is to determine how the linguistic means of the poem convey the internal physiological sensations of death through the images of extraperception. As a result, it was found that the signifier of the symbolic situation “crossing the celestial sea” visualizes such inner feelings as overcoming gravity, coordination of vertical flight, the density of the environment. The signifier is analyzed as part of the lexical paradigm of both individual lexemes and phrases, and sentences united by a common seme ‘water’. Among the linguistic means that formalize the image of the vertical sea, there are metaphors, comparisons, mythologems, semanticized roots -liv-i-lei-, -swim-and-splash-. The signifier of the symbolic situation “overcoming 3, 5 air and firmament” calls only the odd “heaven”. They symbolize the last three breaths of the dying heroine. Archisemes are ‘cut’ (“third air”), ‘sound’ (“fifth air”) and ‘attraction upward’ (“firmament”). All internal sensations are correlated with the five stages of asphyxia. Of particular importance for the objectification of conclusions are biographical information about the time of writing the poem.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):262-279
pages 262-279 views

Cognitive-Pagmatic Characteristics of Fiction Text on the Material of D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak’s Short Story “Emelya the Hunter”

Semenova S.N.


The researcher attempts to give the cognitive and pragmatic characteristics of fiction text (based on D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak’s short story “Emelya the Hunter”). The aim of the work was to build the model of the cognitive type on D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak’s short story and analyze speech realizations in the text. The novelty of this article is a detailed cognitive and pragmatic study of the constituent elements, a description of the mental and linguistic structure (cogniotype) and the interpretation of the received results in the studying process of the structural and content side of the text of the short story “Emelya the Hunter”. The material for the study and analysis in this research was not only the theoretical and practical positions of the scientific works of a number of Russian linguists studying the understanding of any text of various genres of fiction works, but also the linguistic material itself: the short story of D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak “Emelya the Hunter” in Russian. To achieve the aim of the research the following tasks were solved: 1) to build the structure of the cognitive type of the short story “Emelya the Hunter”; 2) to find the terms related to various scientific disciplines; 3) to find phraseological units; 4) to systematize adjectives; 5) to give a cognitive and pragmatic description of the studied text. The author of the present article used such methods as: 1) continuous sampling of vocabulary; 2) classification; 3) quantitative calculation; 4) interpretive. D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak’s short story “Emelya the Hunter” was studied from various positions. A model of the cognitive type of D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak’s short story “Emelya the Hunter” was shown in the form of a structure with main topics and their interrelationships. As a result, scientific terms in Geography and Biology were identified and systematized; phraseological units were found and comments were given to them; adjectives were found and classified by types and systematized in the table; the quantitative and percentage ratios of adjectives were calculated and presented in the table and diagrams. The results of the study showed that phraseological units reflected the people’s value priorities in a certain metaphorical form. The relevance of the research was determined by the importance of the chosen topic and its theoretical and practical significance for the cognitive direction in scientific research.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):280-293
pages 280-293 views

Semantic Potential of the Word: by the Material of the Mythologem of the Holy Marriage of Heaven and Earth

Vladimirova T.E.


The study of the initial semantics of the word and its further development in the history of the language and its speakers, undoubtedly, belongs to the number of topical problems of modern semasiology. Of particular research interest is the disclosure of the historical and etymological origins of the word, which largely predetermine its further development. The focus of this article is the East Slavic mythologeme of the sacred marriage of Heaven-father and Earthmother, the semantics of which has absorbed the sacred mode of pagan existence and Christian value ideas. The material of the study was the myths and proverbs of closely related Belarusian, Rusyn, Russian and Ukrainian languages, which go back to the East Slavic mythologeme of the sacred marriage of Heaven-father and Earth-mother and preserve a common cultural and semantic memory. The undertaken consideration of this mythologeme against the background of the Greek myths about the “beginning of the world” made it possible to characterize its original historical, etymological, ethical and aesthetic features. As a result, an appeal to the history of the word from the standpoint of the concept of evolving consciousness G.G. Shpet led to the conclusion about the special role of cultural memory, which accumulates the accumulated experience of the existence of the word and thereby increases its semantic potential.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):294-306
pages 294-306 views


The Dictionary of the Author’s Language and Explanatory Dictionaries of the Literary Language: System and Quantitative Correlations

Maksimenko O.I.


This article deals with the problem of the correlation of the vocabulary of explanatory dictionaries of the Russian language of different types by S.I. Ozhegov with the vocabulary presented in the author’s dictionary - the Dictionary of the Pushkin language. The system parameters of the ratio were revealed during the analysis of the Large Academic Dictionary, the Small Academic Dictionary, the Dictionary of the Pushkin Language and two pieces by A.S. PushkIn: “The Queen of Spades” and “The Captain’s Daughter”. It is shown that one of the effective methods of studying the system properties of probabilistic objects, such as the lexical composition of a language, is the calculation of the distribution. It is shown that the distribution of words by the number of meanings is one of the essential structural characteristics of vocabulary. The concept of a “semantic trigger” is introduced as a carrier of implicit semantic information that triggers a search for the relevant meaning of a polysemic word in the mind of a native speaker. The analysis of the relationship between the dictionary of the text, the consolidated dictionary of the author’s language and the general language dictionary according to the degree of polysemy of the vocabulary presented in them showed that a consistent increase in average characteristics in the text vocabulary up to maximum in Large Dictionary which is associated with the gradual accumulation of values realized in increasingly extensive text arrays, in increasingly diverse contexts. The observed strengthening of the zone of medium-polysemic words in the general language dictionary in comparison with the idiolect dictionary is a reflection of the fact that the most common, repeated for dictionaries of each of the private spheres (following the service words) are commonly used and broad-thematic words occupying the medium-polysemic zone.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):307-322
pages 307-322 views

‘Crying’ and ‘Children’ in Translations of the one Fragment of the Book of Proverbs: Possible Interpretation or the Digression from the Original?

Khukhuni G.T., Valuitseva I.I., Budman Y.D.


Relevance of the problem . The subject matter related to the rendering of the Holy Writ is relevant, which is backed up in recent decades with the emerging of a large number of the Bible translations into different languages, as well as with the presence of certain fragments in the original that allow for the ambiguous interpretation. The material for the research is a fragment from the Book of Proverbs ( yassēr binḵā kî yēš tiqwā wǝ’el hǎmîṯô ’al tiśśā’ nap̄šeḵā ) (19: 18) (“Punish your son while there is hope, and do not be indignant with his cry”) in a number of the Bible translations (the Synodal translation, the King James Bible, etc.) into various languages, as well as an analysis of comments on them related to different historical periods. Scientific novelty. The paper proves the groundlessness of the statement about the interpolation of the lexeme “cry”, supposedly contained in the Russian Synodal Bible, caused by subjective reasons, and also considers the validity / wrongfulness of replacing the word “son” in it with the inclusive form “children” based on Jewish written sources. The method of the research. The article uses the method of comparative study of various translations of this fragment, identifying its interpretations contained in them and correlating them with the exegetics available in the Jewish tradition. General results: 1) The coincidence of rendering this fragment with that which we find in the King James Bible, while being different from its representation in a number of translations into other languages, allows us to put forward a hypothesis about its possible influence on the Russian text. 2) The availability of such interpretation among some interpreters, both ancient and modern, indicates in this case the absence of any deliberate distortion of the original in the Synodal translation. 3) The use of inclusive and gender-neutral forms for male people in relation to this fragment instead of those presented in the original should be qualified as a deviation from the original, since according to the norms of Biblical Hebrew, such use is permissible only when the word “ son ” is used in the plural form ( bānîm ), while in the singular it is not used in a similar sense.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):323-336
pages 323-336 views

Inferencing and Functional Approach to Text: Based on Simultaneous Interpreting

Korovkina M.Y., Semenov A.L.


A prompt exchange of information requires a thrift in expressive means and makes relevant the processes of verbalizing and reverbalizing sense in bilingual communication. The analysis of various communicative situations in simultaneous interpreting both from English into Russian and Russian into English show specific parameters of generating a text in the target language, which differ from the traditional author’s text generation. The study’s objective is to introduce the notion of inferencing (in the Russian linguistic studies the term inference is used) as a special linguistic tool of eliciting and interpreting sense in the process of translation/interpreting. General linguistic understanding of inference and implication refers to the direct communication between a sender (speaker) and recipient (listener) that produces interrelated notions via independent inferences. The method of sampling and comparing the inferences accumulated empirically and of simulation modelling of simultaneous interpreting can demonstrate that a distinctive feature of indirect communication via interpreter is multi-component system of additional cognitive procedures at the stage of interpreting. The simultaneous interpreting outcomes as the material of research indicate that conveying the sense in interpreting is based on a dynamic process of inferencing, which is a creative search of implicatures and their reverbalization, with an interpreter resorting to his/ her own thesaurus-based resources (mental lexicon) related to the knowledge of domain, which is a subject of communication. The distinctive parameter of inferencing in interpreting is both the generation of inferences and implicatures and a cognitive analytical process of selecting facts from presuppositional knowledge. The study outcomes show that the cognitive analytical process of inferencing is closely related to probabilistic forecasting, which presupposes an accumulation by an interpreter of a sufficient individual base of verified intuitive solutions and referential languagebased interpretations and presuppositions. The study makes a conclusion that of crucial importance for interpreting is inferencing, rather than inference as such.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):337-352
pages 337-352 views

Hypotyposis in Heterogeneous Screen Texts: Case Study of ASMR-Videos

Evgrafova Y.A.


This article examines the peculiarities of the functioning of the rhetorical figure hypotyposis in an atypical for its nature type of the text - a heterogeneous screen text. The relevance of the study is determined by the supremacy of such texts in modern communication and their increasing influence on the formation of public opinion, including the use of implicit manipulations, constructed by rhetorical means. The aim of this article is to examine means of constructing hypotyposis in heterogeneous screen texts. ASMR-videos published on the online platform YouTube were chosen as the research material. Descriptive techniques (observation; generalization; interpretation of observation results; classification; analysis; synthesis; comparison), contextual and distributive analysis, as well as functional-pragmatic analysis were chosen as the research methods. The following results were found in the course of the study. In heterogeneous screen texts, in particular ASMR-videos, the hypotyposis is constructed on the basis of metonymic and metaphorical connection arising between the verbal and non-verbal units in the course of their constellation in the screen “speech”. It is regulated by the analytical synaesthetic code, which has a number of subcodes: auditory-visual, visual-auditory, visual-tactile and visual-objective. The use of hypotyposis in ASMR screen texts “depicts” the invisible - the viewer-recipient experiences certain perceptual sensations from stimuli that do not really exist - a simulation of reality. Besides, a semiotic “nest doll” of codes allows to control the consciousness of the spectator-recipient, creating fascination. This article is aimed at students, graduate students, teachers, linguists, philologists, and anyone else interested in general and linguistic semiotics.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):353-363
pages 353-363 views

Neology Process in the Era of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Spanish and French Media and Social Networks Discourse

Zvereva E.V.


The study aims to explore features of the realization of the neological potential of lexemes created or rethought by the new reality and included in the COVID-19 concept sphere. It identifies the specifics of derivation and lexical-semantic ways of forming these neologisms. The research material includes more than 1000 articles from the most influential Hispanic and French-language publications and correspondence of native speakers in social networks and telephone applications in a synchronous cut over eight months of the pandemic. A vital factor for choice of material refers to the fact that the mentioned channels have formed a global communication environment that intensively contributes to the creation and dissemination of neology products. The methodology rests on the discursive and communicative approaches. It includes analysis and synthesis of theoretical research and applies continuous sampling of research material from the mentioned sources. The study establishes that the multidirectional processes distinguish the media and social networks’ discourse during the pandemic. Changes in the lexical-semantic discourse are carried out by creating neologisms, which, along with borrowings assimilated into the grammatical system or functioning in parallel with the national concept definition, are productive means of replenishing the lexis. The semantic neology’s main mechanisms are metaphorization and metonymization and changes in the semantic volume of a lexeme. Modern new formations perform pragmatic functions, making it possible to strengthen the emotional and modal interaction. The author concludes that neological processes demonstrate each language’s national and cultural originality and establishes that the linguistic norm in Spanish and French discourse does not conflict with the “disruptive” nature of linguistic innovations. The society positively evaluates the formation of individual speech meanings and linguistic meanings and the expansion of their functioning boundaries.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):364-381
pages 364-381 views

A Semantic Field of Perfectionism as a Social and Psychological Concept in Academic Discourse

Filyasova Y.A.


The paper considers perfectionism as a large semantic paradigm comprised of several conceptual categories which belong to the three major scientific areas: sociology, psychology, and medicine. The interest to perfectionism has been increasing progressively since mid2000s, probably, due to accelerating global economic growth and heightened competition. Though perfectionism may seem immediately obvious to be a positive, socially relevant personal characteristic, psychological studies claim the opposite. Theoretical value of this research is that perfectionism was analyzed as a cross-disciplinary phenomenon on the material of a large academic database; that gave an opportunity to shed light on important semantic areas which outline a semantic field of the concept under analysis. The results of a componential analysis show that perfectionism as a dogmatic term occurred as a result of accumulated philosophical views based on the concept of perfection and idealistic goals. Contextual collocations in academic discourse, however, give evidence of destructive cognitive patterns and unattainability of personally and socially relevant goals. The heaviest forms of perfectionism are described as clinical disorders related to physical, mental, and social dysfunctions. Despite the fact that the majority of studies are conducted in the field of psychology, results of semantic field analysis show that perfectionism characterizes certain social population categories and has serious social implications.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):382-395
pages 382-395 views

Event Construal in Text and Image. Gaze Behavior and Discourse Interpretations

Kiose M.I.


The study explores the combinatorial prevalence effect in Event construal techniques in text and image components of heterosemiotic book pages. We hypothesize that their activity and contingency affect their interpretation, here tested in the oculographic experiment and discourse responses check. To proceed, we develop the parametric system applied for 100 book pages annotation and further statistical analysis. This study reveals the relevance of Truth, Type, Relation, Manageability, Completeness, Instantness, Achievement, Evaluation, Space location, Time location, Repeatability, Cause and effect parameter groups in Event construal in text and image as well as their resonance in concomitant activity. To select the samples serving as stimuli in the oculographic experiment, we apply Principal component analysis, which assigns Uniqueness indices to the samples, here ranging from 0.111 to 0.675, and provides diversity of Event construal techniques to be tested in terms of their interpretation. The results evidence that participants applied different text and image attention distribution patterns with longer fixations on text component in case the image displayed physical contact, static and desirable events. When the creation or destruction events, events-achievement, events located in time or causal events were not present in the text, the participants were more likely to address the image, not the text. Parameter activity also affects the choice of Descriptive, Narrative and Speculative discourse responses, with a restricted number of parameters stimulating Narrative discourse, with a restricted in text and vast in image number of parameters stimulating Speculative discourse, which evidences in favor of their more predetermined and predicted character. Hopefully, the results may be used to predict the interpretation effects and to further cognitive linguistic and semiotic research coordination.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):396-415
pages 396-415 views

Stylistic Use of the Grammatical Tense Category in the Middle English Prose

Vyshenskaya Y.P.


The paper proposes some observation experience over exploring stylistic resources of the verbal category of tense in the texts of English belles-lettres presented by its prosaic segment dated by High Middle Ages period. Acquiring by the prosaic form of the belles-lettres text the independent status is the important step in the History of European Literature which chronologically coincides with the period of transferring from Middle Ages to Renaissance. After passing the formation period there appeared verbal coverings of one and the same contents different in stylistic, lexical and grammatical characteristics as well as the use of the national language. In consequence of the consciousness secularization, works of literature characterized by practical appropriation of reality, take some practical orientation. This, in turn, causes some necessity in new ways to describe «tactile materiality of consciousness». The category of tense is chosen as the investigation object by virtue of its dependence on proper to textual structures’ contents and compositional features. The work of literature text continuum is considered as distributed into chronological plans reflected in the verbal tense forms. The period of transferring from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, the period of translation, supposes establishing evaluative correspondences in the stylistic orientative activity with some etalon presented by the antique rhetorical tradition. Style generating processes in the textual space of English literature, facultative when compared with French belles-lettres, are marked by putting on th etalon position the French rhetorical tradition as well. The most eminent instances of the tradition can be found in the romance genre as one of the most representative in the European literary genre system. The English genre variant is used as illustrative material for the analysis procedure done.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):416-432
pages 416-432 views

Formal and Semantic Organization of Hybrid Literary-Legal Discourse

Dziuba E.V., Ryabova I.Y.


The research is carried out through cognitive-discursive paradigm in language learning using the methods of cognitive-discursive, conceptual, contextual, structural-semantic, component, definitional and etymological analysis. The article defines the concept of situational equivalence and sets its parameters in a hybrid literary-legal discourse, which is formed in the narrativedocumentary space, dealing with the content of the novel by I. McEwan “The Children Act” and the real law of 1989, adopted by the British Parliament. At the same time, the hybrid literary-legal discourse, marked - due to the interpenetration of two conceptual spaces - by intertextuality and interdiscursivity, is considered to be a special socio-cultural practice designed to reveal urgent social problems and highlight them not only from a legal, but also from a humanistic aspect. The narrative model of literary-legal discourse is emphasized to generalize the elements of five levels of its formal and meaningful organization: 1) the surface structure of the text (event series, factual information); 2) the “semantic core” of the content; 3) detailing or generalization of the description of the situation; 4) grammatical means of expressing the meaning; 5) proto-text (non-literary text that formed the basis of a literary work; here - “The Children Act”). The concept of situational equivalence is interpreted taking into account three parameters: the identity of the main essential properties of conceptual spaces and their functions; the equivalence of situations from a legal point of view (constant parameters); the presence of additional connotations (variable parameter). The subject of this research is the linguistic markers of legal discourse and the units of a literary text, considered in a comparative aspect from the point of view of their situational equivalence. We also speak about full and partial situational equivalence from the point of view of the presence or absence of the connotative potential of the studied thematic units. The presented conceptual theory is demonstrated by the example of the concept REASONABLENESS, which explicates the idea of rightness (seriousness, correctness, rationality) of professional actions of judicial representatives and their decisions. It is noted that the interpretative potential of this concept is significantly expanded due to the integration of language markers of legal discourse into the narrative space of a literary text; reliance on prototext allows us to identify thematic units of hybrid literary-legal discourse that make up the “semantic core” of the analyzed conceptual space. Due to the fact that the concept obtains additional connotations in the semantic structure of the literary text, thus, the corresponding fragment of the conceptual space of the legal document is also enriched. The study of the concept REASONABLENESS as a special dynamic complex of specific properties and characteristics shows the process of modeling a cognitive phenomenon in the process of hybridization of two conceptual spaces (literary and legal).

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):433-454
pages 433-454 views

Constructed Languages as Semantic and Semiotic Systems

Novikov P.N.


The research aims to explore constructed languages as semantic and semiotic systems by analyzing various types of languages based on their lexical, syntactic, morphological and other features. In order to achieve this goal, the author examines the existing classifications of constructed languages and attempts to establish a connection between purposes of their creation and their linguistic features on various levels. The research topic relevance is determined by a substantial rise in popularity of constructed languages, the emergence of their new roles and functions as well as a multitude of new types of media available for communication in these languages and their distribution. The author argues that the recent development in technology provides constructed language creators and enthusiasts with new non-verbal ways of expression that were previously unavailable and thus facilitates communication. This hypothesis is confirmed by several case studies, including the one of “SolReSol: The Project”, an open-source computer program developed by the author, which automates and improves the implementation of semiotic systems designed back in the 19th century. Furthermore, attention is also drawn to the problem of eurocentrism in constructed languages. The research findings lead to the conclusion that on closer inspection both a priori and a posteriori constructed languages created by native speakers of European languages inevitably reveal a certain percentage of Standard Average European features in their semantic and semiotic systems.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):455-467
pages 455-467 views


Kazakh-Russian Bilingual Practice: Code-Mixing as a Resource in Communicative Interaction

Zharkynbekova S.K., Chernyavskaya V.E.


The present paper discusses the ethnic bilingual practice in Kazakhstan. The focus is on code-switching or, in other term, code-mixing in the Kazakh-Russian and RussianKazakh bilingualism. The bi- and multilingualism is characteristic for Kazakhstan and is caused by multiethnicity of the republic. Within this paper we are interested in identities of persons with more than one cultural background. The idea of the present investigation is a response to the sociolinguistics ‘third wave’, discourse analysis, linguistic anthropology. In this theoretical framework the research focus is on exploring linguistic variation as a medium used by individuals or social groups to evoke the social practice. It is crucial how semiotic ties are set between a linguistic sign and social context, how persistent social attribution is created through linguistic choices. Data collection for this study: we analyzed 300 contexts that show the Kazakh-Russian code-mixing in everyday and internet communication, and in modern Kazakh films reflecting the typical code-mixing practice. The data were gathered by doing observation, documentation, the analysis proceeded in a context-based interpretative way. In the framework suggested we show the code-switching/code-mixing not in terms of interference mistakes as heavily influenced by Russian language and culture, not as “linguistic errors” cases presupposed by low language competence of the speakers, but rather as a dynamic resource to shape the understanding in the communication. There are considerable nuances and complexity in the language mixed practice, that is not to be framed in pejorative terms.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):468-482
pages 468-482 views

Images of Nature in Tuvan, Tatar, Russian, and Spanish Riddles

Chesnokova O.S., Usmanov T.F.


The article offers evidence of contrastive ethnolinguoculturological analysis of images of major natural phenomena (the sun, the moon, the day, the night, the stars, the wind, the rain, the snow/ice) in the riddles of four folk cultures that belong to Turkic (Tuvan and Tatar), Slavic (Russian), and Romance (Spanish) linguocultures, with interpretation of peculiarities of the poetics. Nature binds together different levels of cognition, evokes imaginative associations, refers to the archetypal constants of mythopoetic creativity. Riddles about nature are presented in the verbal creativity of any ethnic group. Theoretically and practically, it is important to develop a unified ethnolinguoculturological approach to study the poetics of thematically identical riddles of multilingual cultures. The subject of the article is riddles about nature, the object is linguistic means that create images of the sun, the moon, the day, the night, the stars, the wind, the rain, the snow/ice in Tuvan, Tatar, Russian-speaking, and Spanish ethnic groups. In the study, around 400 Tuvan, Tatar, Russian and Spanish riddles about nature from books on Tuvan, Tatar, Russian and Spanish folklore were used, along with riddles found on the Internet. The study methods include semantic, interpretative, linguoculturological analysis, culturological commentary, and comparative analysis. The main objective of the article is to analyze models of figurative representation and poetics of nine natural phenomena in four linguocultures. The article establishes that the ethnolinguistic content and poetics of riddles about nature vary depending on objective natural and geographical factors, dominant folk worldview, and typological affiliation of languages. The most numerous and metaphorically branched in all four linguistic cultures were the riddles about the sun, the wind, and the moon . The investigated riddles about nature show the characteristic determinant of the Turkic and the sporadic determinant of the Russian and Spanish riddles. The similarity of the images suggests a Eurasian continuum of riddles about nature.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):483-501
pages 483-501 views

Comparative Analysis of the Russian Adverb чрезвычайно and the Chinese Adverb 非常 in the Meaning of ‘extremely’

Lian J., Lazareva O.V., Lazareva O.S.


The research is devoted to an actual topic - a comparative description of adverbs of degree and measure in the Russian and Chinese languages. The object of the comparative analysis of this study is the adverbs of degree and measure of the Russian and Chinese languages чрезвычайно [chrezvychayno] and 非常 [fēicháng] ‘extremely’. The subject of the study is the similarities and differences in the field of pragmatics and semantic compatibility of the adverbs чрезвычайно [chrezvychayno] and 非常 [fēicháng] ‘extremely’. The purpose of this work is to reveal semantic and pragmatic properties of the adverbs чрезвычайно [chrezvychayno] and 非常 [fēicháng] ‘extremely’. The article involves the following methods: descriptive method, observation method, comparative analysis method, example confirmation method. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that in a comparative study of adverbs чрезвычайно [chrezvychayno] and 非常 [fēicháng] in the strong meaning ‘extremely’ in Russian and Chinese has not been previously carried out. Based on the analysis of theoretical provisions and linguistic material derived from the National Corpus of the Russian Language and Chinese fiction, as well as explanatory dictionaries of Russian and Chinese, we can conclude that despite the coincidence of the semantics of the adverbs чрезвычайно [chrezvychayno] and 非常 [fēicháng] ‘extremely’ their usage varies. To avoid mistakes, it is necessary to take into account the similarities and differences in the field of semantic compatibility and pragmatics of these adverbs. The study can be useful in teaching Russian as a foreign language and theory and practice of translation from Chinese into Russian and vice versa.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):502-517
pages 502-517 views

Comparative Analysis of Communicative Values in Phraseology on the Material of the English, German and Russian Languages

Yusupova S.M.


The article considers the semantics of English, German and Russian idioms representing communicative values, in particular: mutual understanding and conflict. The syntax and semantic properties of idioms are analyzed in the contexts of use, obtained from the British National Corpus, Corpus of Contemporary American English, Corpus of the Institute of the German Language in Mannheim, the National Russian Language Corpus, the correlation of the dictionary and actual meanings of fixed expressions, the specificity of communicative values in different cultures and ways of their conceptualization are revealed. The results of research show that communication has a certain structure, is aimed at obtaining and transmitting information, reaching consensus, building relationships, can lead to either understanding or misunderstanding and dispute. Communication has two or sometimes more sides, one and more participants of communication. Communication is also influenced by social, personal experience and values of a person. Understanding is a consent, reaching a consensus. Thus, all languages reflect such communicative values as: freedom of expression, building a dialogue, sense transmission in speech. The German language emphasizes the value of building communication, the desire to find a common language, an attempt to interact. In Russian - openness, truthfulness as important elements of communication.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):518-535
pages 518-535 views

Metaphorization of Toponyms in Russian and Arabic dy the Material of the Russian and Arabic Press

Ibrahim W.F., Mamontov A.S.


The article is devoted to the study of the features of the metaphorization of toponyms in Russian and Arabic. During the study, more than 1350 articles using metaphorical toponyms were analyzed using the methods of comparative analysis, contextual analysis, descriptive analysis, and quantitative analysis. Studying the works of different researchers on toponyms proved that any toponym has some kind of cultural component, which contributes to the metaphorization of some toponyms. When metaphorizing toponyms turn into symbols. Russian and Arabic journalists metaphorize toponyms, since the metaphor not only expresses the attitude of the author, his assessment of this or that phenomenon of reality, but also influences the reader’s opinion. Toponymic metaphors evoke many additional associations and awaken the cultural memory of the addressee. Some toponyms are subject to deonymization, which is manifested in their writing with a lowercase letter and the use in the plural. According to our observations, the largest group of our material is represented by those toponyms that are associated with war events, which is a natural result of the relevance of the topic “War” in the life of any nation. The toponyms of our material are usually accompanied by territorial, temporal and so on characteristics.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):536-553
pages 536-553 views

Psycholinguistic description of the associative field MEDICINE in the linguistic consciousness of Russian and Chinese speakers

Wei X., Liu L., Wu P.



RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):554-566
pages 554-566 views

The Perception of Medical Doctors on the Part of Hindu, Russian and Kazakh Linguoculture Bearers: Association Experiment

Kuzembayeva G.A., Maigeldiyeva Z.M., Maydangalieva Z.A.


The objective of the article is to study the perception of medical doctors by Hindu, Russian and Kazakh linguoculture bearers by means of cognitive analysis of association data obtained from the psycholinguistic experimental study conducted among Hindi, Russian and Kazakh native speakers. Methods of the research include a free association experiment with a stimulus words डॉक्टर in Hindi, врач in Russian, and дəрігер in Kazakh, modelling the associative field DOCTOR and its cognitive structure, defining the universal and ethno-specific features of medical doctors as perceived by the representatives of Indian, Russian and Kazakh nations. The obtained associative data were distributed according to the frequency criterion, followed by content analysis and categorization. As a result, while comparing association fields in Hindi, Russian, and Kazakh languages the quantitative asymmetry of semantic zones and their associates is revealed. Conceptualization of medical doctors in the Hindu, Russian and Kazakh language consciousness includes both universal and ethno-specific features. The results of the study integrate the experiences of different nations simplifying the perception of their peculiarities, and may have a positive impact on cross-cultural interactions.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2022;13(2):567-580
pages 567-580 views

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