The Perception of Medical Doctors on the Part of Hindu, Russian and Kazakh Linguoculture Bearers: Association Experiment

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The objective of the article is to study the perception of medical doctors by Hindu, Russian and Kazakh linguoculture bearers by means of cognitive analysis of association data obtained from the psycholinguistic experimental study conducted among Hindi, Russian and Kazakh native speakers. Methods of the research include a free association experiment with a stimulus words डॉक्टर in Hindi, врач in Russian, and дəрігер in Kazakh, modelling the associative field DOCTOR and its cognitive structure, defining the universal and ethno-specific features of medical doctors as perceived by the representatives of Indian, Russian and Kazakh nations. The obtained associative data were distributed according to the frequency criterion, followed by content analysis and categorization. As a result, while comparing association fields in Hindi, Russian, and Kazakh languages the quantitative asymmetry of semantic zones and their associates is revealed. Conceptualization of medical doctors in the Hindu, Russian and Kazakh language consciousness includes both universal and ethno-specific features. The results of the study integrate the experiences of different nations simplifying the perception of their peculiarities, and may have a positive impact on cross-cultural interactions.

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Reference to materials of word association tests has gained a particular relevance for the studies with cognitive focus [1]. An association experiment sheds light on human linguistic consciousness and subjective-intuitive world outlook, which is not usually perceived by the native speakers and is not revealed by other research methods, and it has proved to be a reliable tool in psycholinguistics to explore the psychological, categorical, and substantive meaning of words [2—12].

Linguistic consciousness, synonymous to “the image of the world” [13] represents mental images having linguistic equivalents that reflect cultural and mental peculiarities and moral standards of a specific community. This makes linguistic consciousness a tool not only for psychological and linguistic analysis but also for the analysis of cultural perspectives of a community [14]. Thus, the importance of the association experiment in the cross-cultural ethnic language consciousness studies increases day by day.

Uncontrolled associations are a direct projection of internal content of consciousness. They represent the phenomenon of mass consciousness and are able to identify convincingly the national and cultural specifics of the images of consciousness of speakers of different language communities and cultures [15]. Associations act as “a logical link in the contents of consciousness — sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, etc. — in the person’s experience, proving that the appearance in the mind of one of contents entails the appearance of another” [16].

Association field is a specific cognitive structure of the linguistic consciousness, which is involved in the forming of the conceptual picture of the world [17]. Semantic gestalt of an association field [18] reconstructs the knowledge about the surrounding world in the linguistic consciousness of native speakers by means of dividing the reactions of one association field into several semantic zones each of which covers similar features of an object or a phenomenon.

Thus, the data obtained through an association experiment can be interpreted as a consciousness reflection of representatives from different cultures, and is going to reveal the national and cultural specificity of a particular ethnos.

The study is aimed at describing Indians’, Russians’ and Kazakhs’ conceptualization of medical doctors. Being a universal concept inherent in any nation and “an integral part of any modern society” [19], medical doctor, verbally represented by the lexemes “डॉक्टर” in Hindi, “врач” in Russian, and “дәрігер” in Kazakh, is of undoubted interest for research. It is one of the key concepts of the medical discourse, forming the structure of the whole category [20]. The relevance of the study is defined by the interest in one of the key concepts during the times of COVID-19 pandemic and post-pandemic period, the significance of the intersection between culture and language, and the possibility to describe the content and structure of conceptualization of medical doctors in Hindi, Russian and Kazakh languages. Study of perceptions of the concept under study by the Indians, Russians and Kazakhs contributes to fixing the constants of ethnic consciousness and culture, determines the importance and place of medical doctors in lives of the representatives of these ethnic groups.

Data and Methodology

A psycholinguistic study was conducted among the native speakers of Hindi, Russian and Kazakh languages. Verbal associations were collected by means of a free association experiment which represents the specifics of a certain language or culture bearers’ consciousness [21]. The experiment was conducted online, the survey was administered by providing links to Google Forms.

Participants of a free association experiment received the stimulus word doctor in their native language (डॉक्टर/врачəрігер) to provide verbal reactions. The respondents were asked to state the first associations with it that came to mind. The number of responses was not limited.

A total of 300 people (aged 17—23) took part in the experiment. The Russian native speakers were 100 students at Orenburg State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation). The representatives of Indian ethnos comprised of 100 international students of the West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov Medical University. The Kazakh respondents consisted of 100 students of K. Zhubanov Aktobe Regional University (Republic of Kazakhstan).

The association field DOCTOR and its contents in three languages were identified and further on categorized based on the calculation of indices of verbal associations.

Data analysis and Discussion

As a result of the free association experiment, 691 associative responses were received from the representatives of the Kazakh ethnos, 531 — from Indians, and 515 — from Russians. Kazakh students’ responses exceed the responses of Indians and Russians by nearly 30 %.

Based on the frequency of lexical associations, the association field (AF) including the centre (identified by reactions from more than 20 subjects), the near periphery (identified by reactions from 10 to 20 subjects), the far periphery (identified by reactions from less than 10 subjects), and the outer periphery (individual associates) were determined.

The AF structure in three languages is as follows: in Hindi — 103 components, of which 39 components are stated only once (individual associations (IA), in Russian — 181 (124 IA), and in Kazakh — 307 (212 IA).

Features of medical doctors as perceived by the Indian ethnic group are presented in the form of the AF DOCTOR in Table 1.

Table 1 / Таблица 1
The AF डॉक्टर / Ассоциативное поле डॉक्टर

(more than 20)

री / surgery (24), चार / communication (21), रोगी का इतिहास / patients’ history (20)

Near periphery (10-20)

पर्चे / prescription, असुविधाजनक महसूस / uncomfortable feeling (19), उपचार / treatment (17), ऑपरेशन टूल्स / operation tools (16), निदान / diagnose (15), सफेद एप्रन / white gown (13), स्टेथोस्कोप / stethoscope (13)

Far periphery (less than 10)

अच्छा व्यवहार / good behavior, अस्पताल / hospital, ऑक्सीजन मस्क / oxygen mask (9), मेहरबान / kind, स्नायुमामामीटर / sphygmomanometer, दवा / medicine, ऑपरेशन थियेटर / operation theatre, बीमारी / illness, थर्मामीटर / thermometer (8), मूल्यांकन / evaluation (7), ईसीजी / electrocardiogram, सहानुभूति / empathy, ददगार / helpful, सो जाओ / sleep, आवास चिकित्सक / residency doctor (6), डॉक्टर अच्छे स्वभाव है / good nature, ज्ञान / knowledge, उत्तरदायी / responsible, धैर्य / calm (5), इंजेक्शन / injection, आत्मविश्वासी / self-confident, पृथ्वी पर डॉक्टर भगवान / doctor — god on earth, सहायक / helper (4), अच्छा / communication skill, समर्पित / dedicated, लोगों के प्रति उत्कृष्ट व्यवहार / excellent behavior towards people, प्रेरक / motivational, विन्रम / polite, आदरनीय / respectful, सम्मान लोग स्वस्थ, बीमार / respect people, healthy, ill, जिम्मेदार / responsible, विनीत / respectful, सामाजिक / social, समर्थन रोगियों और उनके प्यार / support patients, सांत्वना / sympathetic, लालची / greedy (3), सक्रिय / active, सहायक / assistant, मिलनसार / communicative, अछी सुनने की शमता / good listener, श्रोता / the best listener, अछी बातचीत करने वाला / well communication, कर्तव्य के लिए ईमानदार / conscientious to duty, ईश्वर / god, अच्छा इंसान । / good human, अच्छा व्यक्तित्व / good personality, बुद्धिमान / intelligent, दयालु स्वभाव । / kind nature, खुले दिमाग / open mind, सकारात्मक सोच / positive thinking, हमेशा सकारात्मक सोचे / always think positive, पेशेवर / professional, वास्थ्य के रूप में अच्छी तरह से इलाज बीमारी को बढ़ावा देने के / promote health as well as treat disease, समय का पांबनद / punctuate of time, मरीजो को अतिरिक्त समय / works over time for the patient, इज्जतदार / respected, गैरजिम्मेदार / irresponsible, लापरवाह / careless, अच्छी सम्पर्क योग्यता / good communication skills (2)

Outer periphery Individual associations

अच्छे से सुनने वाला / active listener, हमेशा धन के लिए काम करना / always work for money, जागरूकता / attention, चौकस / attentive, सावधान / attentive, खुद से पहले मरीजो की सोचने वाला ।। / before thinking of himself he/she should take care of patient, खुली सोच वाला / broad-minded, सक्षम / capable, सावधानी से / careful, देखभाल करना / caring, भरोसेबन्द ।। / comforter, मजबूत कौशल संवाद / strong मजबूत संचार / strong communication, रोगी के साथ के बारे में अच्छा संचार / good communication with patient, दयालु / compassionate, सक्ष्म / competent, एकाग्र दिमाग । / concentrative mind, आश्वस्त / confident, रोगी को विश्वास हो सकता है / can be confident to patient, सहायक / cooperative, रोगी के साथ सहयोग करना / cooperate with patient, अनुशासन / discipline, मदद लोगों तक पहुँचने के लिए आसान / easy to reach to help people, शिक्षित / educated, प्रभावी / effective, दकस्ता / efficiency, भावना के लिए सहानुभूति empathy for feeling, हर समय मुस्कान / every time smile, आगे की सोचने वाला / forward thinker, दोस्त / friend, अनुकूल / friendly, निष्पक्ष सलाह दें / give unbiased advice, अच्छा भाग लेने के कौशल / good attending skill, सादा स्वभाव । / normal behavior, अच्छा व्यवहार / well behavior, मरीज की अच्छी देखभाल प्रदाता / good care provider of the patient, अच्छा नैदानिक (good diagnostic), अच्छी आदते / good habits, डॉक्टर एक अच्छा आदमी है / doctor is a nice man, एक अच्छा इंसान / nice human being, मन ठाक नहीं है / feelingless, लोगों के प्रति उत्कृष्ट व्यवहार / good inspired personality, पेटेंट के साथ अच्छे संबंध डॉक्टर / good relationship between doctor and patient, इज्जतदार / good reputation, प्रतिष्ठित व्यक्ति / reputed person, रोगी के खिलाफ अच्छा विचार / good thought about patient, उच्च शिक्षित / highly qualified, ईमानदार / honest, अप्राप्य / inattentive, उच्च वेतन / high salary, माननीय / honourable, नम्र / humble, समाज में डॉक्टर के महत्व / importance of doctors in society, दयालु वयक्तित्व / kind attitude, जिम्मेदारी प्रेमी / low responsibility, कोई व्यक्तिगत जीवन / no personal life, विश्वास नही / not confident, प्रेम धन / love money, नर्स / nurse, मलहम / ointment, सब्र / patience, धीरज patience, कोई भी स्थिति को सँभालने वाला । / perfect in handling any situation, अच्छा / personality, व्यक्तिगत विशेषताओं / personal characteristics, शिष्टतापूर्वक / polite, व्यावसायिकता  / professionalism, आदरणीय / respected, लोगों के प्रति उत्कृष्ट व्यवहार / respective behavior for people, समाज में सबसे सम्मानित व्यक्ति / the most respected person in society, संतोषजनक / satisfactory, ईमानदार / sincere, स्मार्ट / smart, मजबुत । / strong, मजबूत साख / strong credentials, तेज दिमाग  । / super-fast mind, सर्वोत्तम उपलब्ध जानकारी वाले लोगों का समर्थन करना / support people with best available information, मरीज की भावना को समझना / understand patients feeling, अच्छी तरह से मनोविज्ञान के बारे में ज्ञान / well knowledge about psychology, सुयोग्यता प्राप्त / well-qualified, स्वास्थ्य देखभाल टीम के अन्य सदस्यों के साथ मिलकर काम करना / work cooperative with other members of healthcare team

Source: authors’ elaboration based on the association experiment

Table 2 / Таблица 2
The AF ВРАЧ / Ассоциативное поле ВРАЧ

(more than 20)

белый халат / white gown (48), больница / hospital (38), (скорая) помощь / (ambulance) help (35), лечение / лечащий / лечит / лечить / treatment (21)

Near periphery (10-20)

здоровье / health, болезнь / illness (16), лекарства / drugs, спасение (спасать / спасатель / спасает жизни) / save lives (rescuer) (14), доктор / physician, укол / injection (11)

Far periphery (less than 10)

медицина / medicine, справка (о болезни) / medical illness certificate (9), боль / pain (8), работа / work (8), маска / mask (7), жизнь / life, таблетки / pills (6), диагноз (диагностика) / diagnosis, очереди / queues, страх / fear (5), доверие / trust, специалист / specialist, стетоскоп / stethoscope, человек / person, ум (умный) / (smart) mind (4), волнение / excitement, градусник / thermometer, интересная и тяжёлая профессия / interesting and difficult profession, мужчина (средних лет) / man (middle-aged), надежда / hope, операция / operation, осмотр / examination, ответственный (ответственность) / responsible, профессионал / professional, смерть / death, стоматолог / dentist, строгий (строгость) / strict (severity), температура / temperature, труд / labor, шприц / syringe (3), Айболит / Aibolit, бедный (беден) / poor, внимательный / considerate, деньги / money, добрый / kind, звонки пациентов / calls from patients, капельница / drip, ковид / COVID, компетентный (компетентность) / competent (competence), кровь / blood, недовольство / dissatisfaction, опыт / experience, симптомы / symptoms, страдания (страдание) / suffering, терапевт / therapist, уважение / respect, эксперт / expert (2)

Outer periphery Individual associations

Айна Бакеева / Aina Bakeeva, амбулаторная карта / outpatient card, анализ / analysis, анамнез / anamnesis, аптека / pharmacy, бахилы / shoe covers, благодарность / gratitude, благородный / noble, бессонные ночи / sleepless nights, болен / sick, безопасность / safety, беспомощность / helplessness, бинт / bandage, богатство / wealth, важная работа / important work, вакцина / vaccine, вежливость / politeness, врачиня / woman doctor, гастроэнтеролог / gastroenterologist, герои / heroes, горло / throat, герб медицины / symbol of medicine, грач / rook, грубость / rudeness, грязная / dirty, давление на врача / pressure on the doctor, Даниил / Daniil, дежурство / duty, диспансеризация / prophylactic medical examination, добро, доброта / kindness, друг / friend, женщина / woman, забота / care, занятость кабинета / fulness of office, запах стоматолога / smell of a dentist, защитник / defender, знакомство / acquaintance, знакомые из мед. колледжа / acquaintances from the medical college, знание медицинских терминов / knowledge of medical terms, игла / needle, информация / information, качество / quality, квалификация / qualifications, клизма / enema, клятва / oath, колит прививку чтобы не заболеть ковидом / vaccinating to not get covid, консультации / consultation, крики / screaming, кроксы / crocs, кушетка / couch, латынь / latin, маленькая зарплата / small salary, мама / mom, медикаменты / medicines, медики / doctors, медицинская карточка / medical card, медицинское оборудование / medical equipment, мораль / morality, МРТ / MRI, невнимателен / inattentive, невозможность попасть к нему / impossibility to get to him, неуверенность / insecurity, низкие зарплаты / low salaries, обман / deceit, образованный / educated, общение / communication, операционная / operating, организм / organism, отвага / courage, отвращение / disgust, отрешенность / detachment, очень сильный человек (морально и физически) / morally and physically strong person, очень трудная работа / very difficult work, палач / executioner, призвание / calling, полная запись на прием / full medical appointment, поможет / help, понимание, понимающий / understanding, потеря добрых и действительно желающих тебя вылечить врачей из детской больницы / loss of kind and really willing doctors from the children's hospital, прививка / vaccination, преданность / devotion, приёмное отделение / emergency department, проблемы / problems, пронизывающий взгляд, что даже страшно становится / a piercing look that even becomes scary, путаница / confusion, рассудительность / prudence, реанимация / resuscitation, рентген / x-ray, ругань / swearing, самопожертвование / self-sacrifice, своевременность / timeliness, сложная профессия / difficult profession, специальное медицинское образование / special medical education, спешка / haste, спокойствие / calmness, старание / diligence, старые стены, с которых сыпется штукатурка / old walls, стерильная вата / sterile cotton wool, стерильность / sterility, суперчеловек / super-human, таблетка / pill, термометр / thermometer, тяжело / hard, улучшение состояния / improvement, устал / tired, усталый вид / tired look, Фатима и Зухра / Fatima and Zukhra, фонендоскоп / phonendoscope, халатность / negligence, хирург / surgeon, хирургическое вмешательство / surgery, хладнокровие / composure, холодные руки / cold hands, цвет / color, человечность / humanity, черствость / callousness, чистота / purity, чума / plague, шизофрения / schizophrenia, яркий свет от ламп / bright light from lamps, Dr.

Source: authors’ elaboration based on the association experiment

Table 3 / Таблица 3
The AF ДӘРІГЕР / Ассоциативное поле ДӘРІГЕР

(more than 20)

ауруханa / hospital (22), ақ халат / white gown (21).

Near periphery (10-20)

дәрі-дәрмек / medicines (18), тазалық / cleanness (14), укол / injection (13), фонендоскоп / phonendoscope, науқас / patient (12)

Far periphery (less than 10)

жедел-жәрдем / ambulance, ақ халатты абзал жан / kind person in a white gown (9), білімді / educated (8), жауапкершілік / responsibility, пациенттер / patients, өмір / life, ауру / ill, халат / gown, емхана / polyclinic, хирург / surgeon (7), қалпақ / hood, диагноз / diagnosis, қан / blood, дәріхана / pharmacy (6), мейірімді / kind, мейірімділік / compassionate, ұқыпты / caring, ақылды / smart, маска / mask, скальпель / scalpel, термометр/ thermometer (5), клиника / clinic, хирургиялық костюм / surgical suit, тонометр / tonometer, адалдық / honesty, емші / healer, психолог / psychologist, өлім / death, емдеу / treatment, анатомия / anatomy (4), сабырлы / calm, түсіністік / understanding, Гиппократ анты / Hippocratic oath, білім / knowledge, абзал жандар / kind people, денсаулық / health, туберкулез / tuberculosis, ота / operation, көмек / help, анализ / analysis, спирт / alcohol, шприц / syringe, перчатка / glove, ине / needle, гинеколог / gynecologist, медбике / nurse (3), санитарка / hospital aide, жедел ойлау / emergency thinking, травматолог / traumatologist, палата / ward, УЗИ / ultrasonography, пинцет / tweezers, стетоскоп / stethoscope, бинт / bandage, гипс / plaster, оба / plaque, ауру түрі / type of disease, адам / person, гигиена / hygiene, рецепт / prescription, температура / temperature, бала / child, бөпелер / infants, қарт / elderly, жүрек / heart, сүйек / bone, пульс / pulse, ұйқысыздық / insomnia, сенімділік / confidence, сенім / trust, алғыс / gratitude, ризашылық / satisfaction, үміт / hope, сауатты / literate, сыпайылық / polite, еңбекқор / hardworking, төзімділік / endurance, ақшаға құныққан / money-loving, жақсылық / good, батыр / hero, жауапкершілігі мол / responsible, ізгі / virtuous, мәдениетті / cultured, салмақты / serious (2)

Outer periphery Individual associations

бәрін өзім білем демеу / not saying “I know all”, еңбек / labor, hardworking / еңбекшіл, thorough / тиянақты, clean / тазайым, жұмыс басты адам / hardworking, өз ісіне адал / honest, өз ісіне мұқият / careful, парақорлық / corruption, жемқорлыққа жиі барады / often corrupt, арамтамақ / greedy, кеңпейілділік / kind, көкірегі ояу / open-minded, құрметшіл / respectful, құрмет / respect, қуаныш / joy, тәрбиелі / well-bred, төзімділік / tolerance, ұстамды / restrained, үздік мамандық / best profession, талант / talent, реанимация / resuscitation, тез шешім қабылдағыш / quick decision-making, ұқыптылық / punctuality, шаттық / joy, көңілді / fun, ең сенімді жан / the most trusted soul, адамдарға қамқорлық / caring for people, адам жанының арашасы / the mediator of the human soul, әдепті / polite, адамгершілік / humane, аяушылық / compassion, басқалар ойын тыңдай білу / able to listen to others, бауырмалдық / brotherhood, бәріне түсінісушілікпен қарау / understanding, адамдарды кастаға бөлмеу / non-caste, ақ жүректі / white hearty, байсалды / calm, байыпты / serious, елін, халқын, жерін сүйетін / loving country, people, land, сезгіш / sensitive, батылдық / courageous, тәкаппар / proud, өркөкірек / arrogant, қорқақ / cowardly, жылы көзқарас / kind attitude, жылы сөздер / kind words, науқастардың қорғаушы періштелері / guardian angels of the sick, науқастарды емдеу / healing the sick, өзі ауырсада жұртты емдейтін / healing the sick even if ill themselves, өліммен күрес / fighting death, науқастармен тығыз қарым-қатынаста болу / keeping in touch with the sick, пациенттермен сөйлесудің өзіндік қалыптары / peculiarities of communication with patients, науқастарға жақсы қарау / good care for patients, жүзі ашық / kind, науқас үшін бәрін жасайды / does everything for the patient, күтеді / cares, мейірім / kindness, қамқор / kindness, науқастардың ауруын жазу / writes down the patient's illness, науқасқа қарайды / looks after the patient, құтқарушы / rescuer, қорғаныш / protection, өз-өзін ұстай білуші / calm, пациеттің сауыққанын көру / seeing the patient becoming well, алғысын алу / thanked, сыйластық / respect, кішіпейіл / humble, қамқорлық / care, дөрекілеу / rude, пациенттерге салғырт қарау / indifferent to patients, өкпе, реніш / resentment, сөз түсінбейтін / misunderstanding, мән бермеушілік, немқұрайлық / indifference, қатыгездік, қаталдық /cruelty, ашу мен күлкі / anger and laughter, белгілі бір маман иесі / a certain professional, жақсы білім / good knowledge, көзі ашық / open-minded, тәжірибе мен білім / experience and knowledge, сөйлеу мәнері жоғары / eloquent, тәжірибиелі маман / experienced specialist, Гиппократ антын ұстанған / holds Hippocratic oath, кітаптар / books, кітап оқу / reading books, мақсат / purpose, оқу / study, оқушы / student, мұқият шешім / careful decision, психологиялық тұрғыдан дайын / psychologically ready, жылан / snake, оқыған / educated, ординатура / residency, өнер / art, өзіндік өмірлік принципі бар / has its own principle of life, нақты / concrete, өз ісінің маманы / professional, өмірлік тәжірибе / life experience, кәсібінің маманы, өз мамандығының нағыз маманы / real specialist, жылдамдық, БҚМУ / WKMU, университет / university, анатомия кітап / book of anatomy, әр кезде ізденуші, ізденуші / searcher, біліктілік / qualification, білікті / qualified, білімнің төмендігі, сауатсыз / uneducated, ақ ардагер / kind, адамдардың көз жасы мен қуанышы, әлемнің жақсаруына бір қадам / one step to improvement, әдемі сырт бейне / beautiful appearance, мәдиниет иесі / culture, ауыр энергетика / heavy energy, біреуі атақ-абыройын ойласа, біреуін науқас алаңдатады / one thinks about fame, one worries the patient, дәрігер пациенттің арқа сүйері бола алады / the doctor can support the patient, беделді адам / an authoritative person, дәрігер кез-келген уақытта қолынан келгенін аяп қалмайды / the doctor can help at any time, денсаулық қорғаны / health care, емін табатын адам, емдеуші / a healer, дәрігерге өз жанын сеніп тапсырады, жанға дауа адам / a soul healer, қоғамға пайда / benefit to society, қолынан бәрі келетін жан / can do anything, сынықшы / heals bone breakage, сиқыршы / magician, ажал қорғаны / a death guard, ұлы маман / a great specialist, сыйлықтар / gifts, сәнқой / fashionable, пациетке диагноз қоя алмау / inability to diagnose a patient, емдей алмау / inability to cure, науқастың дәрігер көмегімен өмірден өтуі / patient death with the help of a doctor, ең адал мамандық / the most honest profession, ақ сарбаз / white soldier, өлмейтін маман / immortal specialist, ата-ана / parents, атаәже / grandparents, талма ауруы / epilepsy, бомж / homeless, халық / people, жетім балақайлар / orphans, мүгедек балалар / children with disabilities, әке / father, балалар / children, қарттар / the elderly, артроз / osteoarthritis, аурудың емін табу / finding treatment of the disease, анамнез / anamnesis, ауру тарихы / medical history, дұрыс диагноз қою / correct diagnosis, аурулардың өзіне жұқтырып алу қаупі / risk of infection, емделу / treatment, артрит / arthritis, ауыр жарақаттар / severe injuries, азап / suffering, вирустық аурулар / viral diseases, гайморит / sinusitis, ем, ем-шара / treatment, бақытты адамдар / happy people, жаңа өмір / new life, жара / wounds, зақымдану / injuries, ишемия / ischemia, жедел көмек / acute help, алғашқы көмек / first aid, кардиограмма / cardiogram, коммуникация / communication, консультация / consultation, қан тамыры / blood vessels, қан қысымы / blood pressure, ларингит / laryngitis, менингит / meningitis, иммунитет / immunity, операциялық / surgery, педикулез / pediculosis, пневмония / pneumonia, ринит / rhinitis, рак / cancer, стоматит / stomatitis, труп / corpse, тамақ / food, уақыт / time, ұрық ұлпа / fetal tissue, ұшық / herpes, ірің / pus, инфекция / infection, ұзақ өмір сүру / longevity, шок / shock, ширақ / period, тағдырдың уақыт құмсағаты / the hourglass of destiny, өлім мен өмір / death and life, көп жыл өмір / many more life, таблетка / drug, пеницилин / penicillin, прививка / vaccination, балалық шақ / childhood, көз жасы / tears, карантин / quarantine, кішкене сәбилердің тілі / baby’s tongue, қысым / pressure, құлақ / ear, дәрігер қателігі / doctor’s error, жүрек соғысы / heartbeat, жұлын / spinal cord, ет / flesh, ми / brain, морфология / morphology, ағза / organism, асқазан / stomach, миокард / myocardium, нерв / nerves, омыртқа / spine, шарана / pelvis, хирургиялық инструменттер / surgical instruments, манжет / cuffs, қолғап / gloves, көз / eye, көзілдірік / glasses, шкаф / wardrobe, физиотерапия / physiotherapy, йод / iodine, ЭКГ / ECG, бахила / shoe covers, екінші аяқ-киім / second shoes, зеңбіл / cannon, құралдар / tools, лейкопластер / adhesive plaster, медициналық құралдар / medical supplies, мақта / cotton, новокаин / novocaine, хирургиялық пышақ / surgical knife, чепчик / cap, градусник / thermometer, пышақ / knife, вакцина / vaccine, амбулатория / outpatient clinic, аурухана тосеги / hospital bed, палата / ward, екпе бөлмесі / vaccination room, қабылдау / reception, қабылдау бөлімі / admission department, морг / morgue, терапия / therapy, травматология / traumatology, физиология / physiology, хирургия / surgery, перзентхана / maternity hospital, корпус / building, кіші санитарка / junior nurse, акушер / obstetrician, дәрігер-хирург / surgeon, кардиолог / cardiologist, кардиохирург / cardiac surgeon, онколог / oncologist, терапевт / therapist, ауыр жұмыс күні / hard work day, бос уақыт жоқ / no free time, ұйқысыздық / insomnia, дежурство / duty, жеке өміріне көңіл бөлмейді / inattention to personal life, жұмыстан шаршау / fatigue from work, қиыншылықтар / difficulties, көп қағаздар / a lot of paperwork, күресу / struggle, қарбалас / hustle, қажырлы еңбек / hard work, макулатура / waste paper, арман / dreams, болашақ / future, сырғыған уақыт / quick time, айлығы көп, көп ақша / a lot of money, апта сайын халат жуу / weekly washing the gown

Source: authors’ elaboration based on the association experiment

By the representatives of Indian ethnos, medical doctors are mostly associated with the following notions: communicative (31.1%), surgery (23.3%), patients’ history (19.4%), uncomfortable feeling, prescription (18.5%), treatment (16.5%), diagnosis (14.6%), good nature (12.6%), stethoscope (12.6%), white gown (12.6%), good behaviour (11.7%), kind (10.7%), helper (9.7%), oxygen mask (8.7%), hospital (8.7%).

Features of medical doctors as perceived by the Russian ethnic group are presented in the form of the AF DOCTOR in Table 2.

As perceived by Russians, medical doctors are associated with a white gown (9.3%), hospital (7.4%), help (6.8%), treatment (4.1%), health, illness (3.1%), drugs, save lives (2.7%), physician, injection (2.1%).

Features of medical doctors as perceived by the Kazakh ethnic group are presented in the form of the AF DOCTOR in Table 3.

According to the Kazakhs, medical doctors are associated with hospital (4.4%), white gown (4.1%), patients (2.8%), remedy (2.6%), educated (2.2%), cleanliness (2.02%), noble (1.7%), kind (1.4%).

The comparative core-near periphery structure of the AF DOCTOR in three languages structure is presented in Table 4.

Table 4 / Таблица 4
Centre-and-near periphery structure of AF डॉक्टर/ВРАЧ/ДӘРІГЕР /   Структура АП डॉक्टर/ВРАЧ/ДӘРІГЕР

AF components

Hindi (N)

Russian (N)

Kazakh (N)


surgery (24),  communication (21),  patients’ history (20)

white gown (48),  hospital (38),  (ambulance) help (35), treatment (21)

hospital (22),  white gown (21)

Near periphery

prescription,  uncomfortable feeling (19),  treatment (17),  operation tools (16),  diagnose (15),  white gown (13),  stethoscope (13)

health, illness (16),  drugs, rescuer / saves lives (14),  physician, injection (11)

medicines (18),  cleanness (14),  injection (13), phonendoscope, patient (12)

Source: authors’ elaboration based on the association experiment

The common and specific components identified in the associative meaning to the stimulus doctor (डॉक्टर/врачəрігер) are due to differences in the structures of languages and the ethnic specificity of Indian, Russian, and Kazakh cultures.

Features of medical doctors obtained as a result of the association experiment in three languages were categorized forming the semantic zones without remainder (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Categories in Hindi, Russian and Kazakh languages
Рис. 1. Категории на хинди, в русском и казахском языках

The most voluminous category in the association field DOCTOR as perceived by all three ethnic groups is “Carries on medical work” (in Hindi — 132 (24.9%), in Russian — 170 (33%), in Kazakh — 166 (24.02%).

As perceived by the Hindu linguoculture bearers, medical doctors are further associated according to their relation to patients and work — 99 (18.6%), character features — 79 (14.9%), using of medical facilities — 73 (13.7%).

Russians mostly perceive medical doctors as using medical facilities — 102 (19.8%), having specific job peculiarities — 92 (17.9%), and their relation to patients and work — 33 (6.41%).

Kazakhs’ perceptions of medical doctors are mostly associated with the use of medical facilities — 144 (20.8%), work at medical institutions and holding medical profession — 81 (11.7%), character features and relation to patients and work — 66 (9.6%).

The results of the axiological analysis of conceptualizations of medical doctors by the representatives of Indian, Russian and Kazakh nations identified negative perceptions of medical doctors (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Ratio of negative conceptualizations of medical doctors
Рис. 2. Соотношение негативных характеристик

Negative perceptions of medical doctors by Indians include the following notions: greedy (3), careless, irresponsible (2). According to Russians, medical doctors are rude, inadvertent, deceitful, detached, negligent, callous, and executioners. Negative features of a doctor according to Kazakhs, are money-loving (2), corruption (2), greedy, rudeness, haughtiness, inattentiveness, malpractice, severity, cruelty, low knowledge, illiteracy, inability to diagnose and treat, death caused by a doctor.

Medical doctors are conceptualized by the representatives of Indian ethnos mostly as communicative, kind helpers with good behaviour and good nature, wearing a white gown with a stethoscope, working in surgery, a hospital with patients’ history, prescriptions, diagnosing and treating, sometimes causing an uncomfortable feeling.

As perceived by Russians, medical doctors wear a white gown, work in a hospital, where they help to preserve health, treat illness, prescribe drugs, injections, and save lives.

The significant features of medical doctors for Kazakh language consciousness are hospital, white gown, patients, remedy, educated, cleanliness, noble, kind.

Concluding remarks

Summing up the conceptualization of medical doctors by the representatives of Indian, Russian and Kazakh nations actualized from the data of the word association experiment, the conducted study proved to be an effective tool in determining the specifics of ethnic language consciousness.

The results of the study define the differences and commonalities in perceptions of medical doctors in Hindu, Russian and Kazakh linguistic mentality according to the constants identified in the ethnic language consciousness.

As a result of the study, it was revealed that the concept under study is of the utmost significance in the consciousness of the studied ethnic groups, and it is especially noticed from the variety of words-associations and cognitive features in those three languages. Informational, communicative and functional features of medical doctors are most actualized in the language consciousness of respondents. Medical doctors are conceptualized by Indians, Russians and Kazakhs as highly qualified specialists with high moral qualities, related to medical activity and respected in society.

The results of the study simplify the perception of medical doctors from the cross-cultural perspective, and may have a positive impact on intercultural communication.


About the authors

Gulzhana A. Kuzembayeva

K. Zhubanov Aktobe Regional University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8964-3683

Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor of the Department of English and German Languages

7А, Grishina str., Aktobe, the Republic of Kazakhstan, 030000

Zhannat M. Maigeldiyeva

Korkyt Ata Kyzylorda University

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1297-274X

Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian Language and Literature

29А, Aiteke Bi str., Kyzylorda, the Republic of Kazakhstan, 120000

Zhumagul A. Maydangalieva

Baishev University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3189-8880

Ph.D. in Education, Associate Professor of the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature

302А, br. Zhubanovykh str., Aktobe, the Republic of Kazakhstan, 030000


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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig. 1. Categories in Hindi, Russian and Kazakh languages

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2. Fig. 2. Ratio of negative conceptualizations of medical doctors

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Copyright (c) 2022 Kuzembayeva G.A., Maigeldiyeva Z.M., Maydangalieva Z.A.

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