Vol 12, No 2 (2021): Image of a Language Personality in the Language Studies of the XXI Century


Language Personality: Results and Prospects of the Study

Lazareva O.V.


This article is dedicated to the 85th anniversary of Yuri Nikolaevich Karaulov, Russian linguist, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Philology, Professor, Laureate of the USSR State Prize. The main areas of Professor Yu.N. Karaulov’s research interests are: 1) theory of language personality, 2) cognitive linguistics, and 3) theory and practice of lexicography. Professor Yu.N. Karaulov is the founder and head of the leading scientific school “Russian Language Personality”, the creator and one of the developers of the “Machine Fund of the Russian Language” (a system of complex computerization of linguistic research). The list of works of the outstanding researcher boasts more than 300 scientific papers, 13 monographs and 11 dictionaries. This article presents an overview of papers-reports of the participants in the International round table “Language Personality: Results and Prospects of the Study”, dedicated to Professor Yuri Nikolaevich Karaulov.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):229-237
pages 229-237 views


National Identity and the Associative-Verbal Network: on a Hypothesis of Yu.N. Karaulov

Ufimtseva N.V., Balyasnikova O.V.


The article presents the results of the study dedicated to native speakers “sites of memory” associated with key images of the Russian national culture. The investigation was inspired by the work of French historians “Les lieus de mémoire” (1984), whose ideas Yuri Nikolayevich Karaulov applied to the Russian Associative Dictionary (RAD). The study was initiated with the hypothesis elaborated by Yu. N. Karaulov that the Russian national memory could be studied through associative dictionaries. This provision is based on the linguistic personality concept formulated by Yu. N. Karaulov that is regarded as a personality expressed in a language / text and can be reconstructed on the basis of linguistic means. The texts that a language personality produces reflect the peculiarities of a person’s vision of the environment (worldview). The hypothesis is tested on associative fields of the toponym Moscow and the lexemes war and Sunday using the data of several associative dictionaries compiled from 1988 to the current moment, i.e., the Russian Associative Dictionary, and Yu. N. Karaulov among the authors, as well as a number of later dictionaries developed on the basis of massive associative experiments carried out in the regions of Russia. The content and structural analyses of the associative fields of stimuli Moscow , war , and Sunday show that the associative material largely reflects the discursive space of the language personality and its functioning in texts that reproduce these “sites of memory” in a precedent form. The latter, however, can be found as various types of reactions (predications) of a non-stereotyped nature. Therefore, the sought-for data exist in different guises, obviously depending on the historical time and the discursive experience of native speakers of a language/culture, as well as on the region of their residence. This study confirms the psycholinguistic concept of meaning (including the associative one) as a sociocultural phenomenon.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):238-254
pages 238-254 views

Do Communicants Transmit Information in Course of Speech Communication?

Tarasov E.F.


The article questions if human speech communication (SC) involves “a transfer of information”. The information functioning in speech communication is dwelled upon in the information and systemic activity approaches. The informational approach adequately explains only the direct method of information transfer, while the systemic activity approach is relevant for the sign-mediated speech communication typical for human interaction. The more heuristic thesis is that the perception of the chain of linguistic sign bodies produced in the intersubjective space only starts the construction of the perceived speech message content by the recipient. The completeness of the constructed speech message content depends entirely on the recipient, who has the optimal common consciousness with the speaker. The purpose of speech messages is not the actual construction of the content by the recipient, but the development of the message personal meaning. In human speech communication, the communicants do not transmit information, but use verbal signs bodies to actualize images of consciousness which are developed within a single ethnic culture and therefore are common for them. The incentive for the common consciousness development by the communicants is their participation in joint activities that ensure their earthly existence.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):255-268
pages 255-268 views

Values and Image of the Future of Generation Z: Systemic Particularity

Bubnova I.A.


The article presents the results of a pilot experiment carried out within the framework of psycholinguistics and aimed identify the structure and content of the value system and the image of the future of generation Z. The relevance of such studies is substantiated; a complex of methods is described that allows: 1) reveal the specifics of the value system and the image of the future as its subsystem; 2) highlight the most significant signs of the studied phenomena in the group consciousness; 3) draw conclusions on the motives determining the hierarchy of values. The results of the analysis allow us conclude that at present there is a change in the connections between the elements of the structure of values, the core of which is the desire for life only by the interests of the inner circle of people and material prosperity. It is assumed that the experimentally recorded trend could be explained either by the ongoing gradual replacement of the values of traditional culture with the values of an individualistic society, or by the contradiction between social archetypes (according to K. Kasyanova), which determine the national type of linguistic personality (according to Yu.N. Karaulov) and the external form of the state as that society section, which quite rigidly tries to fix the main parameters of society of a certain state. It is argued that the lack of a clear understanding of the causes of what is going on, as well as the importance of the problem for society, determines the need for further research in this direction.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):269-278
pages 269-278 views

Integrating Role of the Conception of Language Personality in the Development of the Theory of Language

Shaposhnikova I.V.


The article discusses the psycholinguistic explication of the phenomenon of the Russian language personality (RLP) on the experimentally obtained associative-verbal-network (AVN) model at the end of the XXth century and the methodological contribution of the RLP conception, proposed by Yu.N. Karaulov, to the development of a general theory of language. As a human-species-specific universal, LP can be studied within an interdisciplinary approach which suggests a complementary synthesis of the latest methodological and factological achievements in different branches of human sciences. All the facets of language functioning (systemic-structural, historical-cultural, psychological, and socio-communicative), that were highlighted earlier by Yu.N. Karaulov, are subject of interdisciplinary consideration, integrated within the conception of LP. Thus, conditions are created for a complementary use of the structural theory of language (whereby the language is viewed as an external object ) and a current theory of language within a person . Network approaches, widely used in a number of human sciences, help to identify different aspects of human formation. Yu.N. Karaulov proved that LP can be explicated only as a culturally-specific variety on the AVN model. This allows the author of the article to refer to the notion of intentional personality , that has been proposed by ethnologists and cultural anthropologists for their studies of the motivational aspects in socio-communicative interactions within a single cultural community. The author finds it appropriate to extrapolate the concept intentionality to the LP as a sense-generating and sense-organizing entity setting more-or-less flexible systematic stability to the person’s internal image of the world and projecting this, often illogically organized, systematicity to the AVN. The advantages of using AVN model, in contrast to other network approaches, consist in its being capable to reflect the dominant socio-communicative attitudes which developed spontaneously by a natural order of emergence as the result of socialization of the studied community members. The author proceeds from an assumption about semantic accentuations of the LP as the units of analysis which are represented by fluctuations of associative dominants at the macrostructure and microlevels of the AVN; the empirical findings collected in the AVN may be regarded as initial data encouraging investigators to build hypotheses about the psychodynamic processes reflecting variability in socio-communicative environment. The range of fluctuations of the associative dominants at the turn of the century is shown as the statistic dimensions of the RLP in the network from the newest Russian regional associative database СИБАС1 [2008-2013] and СИБАС2 [2014-2020] in comparison with the Russian associative thesaurus (RAS) previously obtained by Russian psycholinguists, with Yu.N. Karaulov’s active participation, in the years of perestroika [1988-1997].

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):279-301
pages 279-301 views

РОДИНА-PATRIA in Russian and Spanish Verbal Associative Networks

Sánchez Puig M.


The specific national characteristics of stimulus Homeland in Russian and Spanish verbal associative network are described in this article. The contrastive analysis of one of the basic word-model-points, inherent to the Russian and Spanish native speakers, is being investigated for the first time. The qualitative indicators of the performed analysis constitute a kind of thesaurus of the associative norms of the Russian and Spanish languages and, together with the quantitative ones, can be the subject of linguo-psychological comparative analysis and provide additional information about the associative norms, structure, linguistic ability and national character of the speakers of the given language and culture.The theme may be interesting for specialists not only in philology, but also in psychology, sociology, culturology, mass media, commercial advertizing and other spheres connected with human activity.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):302-315
pages 302-315 views

National Language Linguistic Personality and Semiotics of Target Text

Drosdov Díez T.


This article is dedicated to Yuri Nikolaevich Karaulov, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and founder of the scientific school “Russian Language Personality”. This article is about the complexities of language-based perception: the Spanish readers’ perception (Spanish linguistic personality) of the target text translated from Russian (“The wind blowing from the candy factory” by Vadim Mesiats). The author concludes that the original text-based factors, i.e. the Russian linguistic personality and cultural sphere, affect the reader’s interpretation of the target text informativity, situationality, intertextuality, and, to some extent, the intentionality of the source text.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):316-338
pages 316-338 views

War in the Young Russians Language Consciousness: An Associative Experiment

Kolysheva O.N.


The article is focused on the analysis of the stimulus “The Great Patriotic War” based on the data of both directed and free associative experiments, held among the young Russians aged 18-23, the students of the Philological faculty of RUDN University. The aim of this research is to study the ordinary language consciousness of common speakers of the Russian linguoculture through the prism of their attitude to the Great Patriotic War as a cultural phenomenon. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that the experimental data allow us conclude about the mediated perception of the Great Patriotic War by young Russians, who have knowledge about the war from secondary sources: fiction and documentary films, history and literature textbooks. On the material of these associative experiments, the experimental associative fields are formed, which could potentially become a part of the associative dictionary of the contemporary Russian younger generation. In the course of the study, semantic crossings are revealed between the lexical units of the formed associative fields and the data from Russian associative dictionaries. A comparative analysis of the data from RAD and the two experiments is conducted, demonstrating minimal matching of reactions (12.5%) in the RAD and the experiments, with a higher percentage of matching reactions in the directed and free experiments (56.6%). The reactions to the stimulus “Great Patriotic War” obtained as a result of the experiment are semantically grouped, and their further interpretation represents a fragment of the young Russian's language consciousness regarding the events of the Great Patriotic War. Thus, semantic analysis allows us to distribute the received reactions into several semantic groups: evaluation of the events of the past; WWII as part of family history; WWII as the distant past; WWII as a reason for pride; WWII as a joint social phenomenon in the cultural context; the events and realities of that war.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):339-358
pages 339-358 views

Social and Speech Portrait of a Descendant of Russian Immigrants to the Chinese Three Rivers Region in the XX Century

Oglezneva E.A., Pustovalov O.V.


The article is devoted to the study of a language functioning in foreign countries, outside its metropolis. This is a special form of language existence. The study is made in linguistic personology aspect: the factors of preservation of the native language in the speech of several generations of emigrants are identified by the means of analyzing the language competencies and the specifics of the native language of representatives of the foreign diaspora. The purpose of this article is to create the speech portrait of the representative of the East emigration, the descendants of Russian emigrants in China, the Chinese Three Rivers region, to identify the characteristics of preservation of the Russian language in conditions of the Russian-Chinese bilingualism in this area. The object of the speech portraiting was the linguistic personality of a descendant of Russian immigrants to China in the beginning of the 20th century, currently a resident of the city of Labudalin, Argun city district of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous region in China. Scientific novelty of the research consists in undertaking for the first time the analysis of a fragment of the Russian linguistic reality in one of the places of the Russian diaspora in the 20th century, in the Chinese Three Rivers region, and in the introduction record of oral speech of the representative of the descendants of Russian in Three Rivers Region, carried out during the scientific expeditions to China in 2017 and 2018, that makes a unique material. The study of the Russian language in foreign countries, namely in the Eastern abroad, in the Three Rivers region, is a contribution to linguistic emigrantology, which determines the relevance of the study. The authors analyze the speech of a representative of the descendants of Russian settlers in the Chinese Three Rivers Region at all levels of the language system, reveal the facts of phonetical, grammatical and lexical interference in Russian speech under the influence of the Chinese language, as well as the dialectal features preserved in it, and come to the conclusion that Russian language is highly preserved even in the third generation of immigrants from Russia to China and the authors name the sociolinguistic factors of this preservation: family, educational, professional, psychological, etc.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):359-373
pages 359-373 views


Individual Style of Dostoevsky: Dimensions of Investigation

Baranov A.N., Dobrovol’skij D.O., Fateeva N.A.


The article examines the existing approaches to the study of the individual style of the writer. We call these approaches models of individual style. We distinguish lexical model, syntactical model, narrative model and the model of intertextual relations. Specific features of the lexical model consist of the frequency distribution of certain words in text formation. The frequency distribution of lexical items reflects the importance of certain meanings and conceptual areas for a given author. The syntactic model of individual style is based on identifying characteristic syntactic constructions that have a high frequency rank for a particular author. The narrative model characterizes the way the story is organized. The units of the narrative model are the components of the plot and the operations that are performed on these components (moving, eliminating fragments of the narrative, combining episodes and scenes, introducing some components of the plot into others). Intertextual relations, that is, a set of semantic and formal references to other texts of the same or other authors, form an intertextual model, which also is unique for every writer. The above mentioned models complement each other and, taken together, make it possible to describe the specific features of the unique speech practices of the writer. Models of individual style are illustrated by the examples from Dostoevsky’s works. Modern corpus data technologies make it possible to more strictly develop the models of individual style, enhancing their objectivity by the implementation of quantitative methods. This article is a part of a project, initiated by Yu.N. Karaulov and E.L. Ginzburg.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):374-389
pages 374-389 views

“Trivial Nonsense” of the Poor Heroes of Dostoevsky (Materials for “Dostoevsky’s Language Dictionary: Idioglossary”)

Chulkina N.L.


The paper represents lingvo-cultural and semiotic description of the vocabulary, which introduces the everyday life of the poor characters of the F. Dostoevsky’s novels. In this case the procedure of the construction of text associative fields and the concept of idiogloss are used. Associative text fields are built, from one side, around the base concepts of daily activity - HOUSE/DWELLING; CLOTHING; FOOD; MONEY, DEBTS, LOAN; DISEASE, DEATH; WORK, BUSINESS; and idioglosses POVERTY; SHAME; FEAR; PRIDE, THE PINCHED PRIDE; GENTLENESS - on the other hand. These two “measurements” - semantic and pragmatic - make it possible to reconstruct on the texts of Dostoevsky the everyday world of poor characters, to reveal those specific idiosenses, which are concluded in the lexical items being investigated. Besides, the author hopes that such description can become additional material for the creation of the corresponding articles of the «Dostoevsky’s Language Dictionary», which is making now in the V.V. Vinigradov Russian Language University (Russian Science Academy). At the V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language University University of Russian Science Academy in the sector of experimental lexicography under the guidance of Corresponding Member of the Russian Science Academy, Professor Y.N. Karaulov, work on creation of the “F.M. Dostoevsky’s Language Dictionary” has been conducted for many years. At the same time, collections of articles are published - “The Word of Dostoevsky”, viewed as a kind of “extension” of “Dostoevsky’s Language Dictionary”. The authors of the collection should implement the overall thrust of the research results as a guide - the solution of interpretational, hermeneutic tasks. Meanwhile it is also important to identify and describe the vocabulary that is “significant” for interpretation of Dostoevsky’s texts and idioglosses in particular, i.e. such lexical units that are important for understanding, for deciphering and interpreting of the meaning of his literary works, for characterizing his author’s style (idiostyle), for recreating his picture of the world, his universal and national ideals .

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):390-416
pages 390-416 views

Some Aspects of Author’s Phraseology of F.M. Dostoevsky

Osokina E.A.


The article is devoted to the author’s phraseology of Dostoevsky, which characterizes him as an artist, a native speaker of the Russian language of his time and can distinguish him from other authors. Identification and characterization of the author’s phraseological units and author’s techniques of their creation on the example of the description of phraseological units to talk about the language creative personality and the features of the idiostyle. The systemic feature of the writer’s idiostyle when describing phraseology is an extraordinary variety in form, semantic shades and references to precedent texts, as well as a special property of the writer’s language - universality and originality, which allows you to go beyond the time frame of the writer’s work. The phraseological units introduced by Dostoevsky in the middle and second half of the XIX century entered the Russian language, they are recognizable and somehow present in the language of the XX and XXI centuries. To become stable expressions, it takes time for a more complete mastering of Dostoevsky’s texts, reproduction and consolidation of phraseological units in the language. Paradoxically, the unique, multidimensional and inimitable idiostyle of the writer can become an obstacle to entering the language. Moving on from century to century accumulate idioms of the language, and therefore people’s memory. The description of Dostoevsky’s phraseological units makes it possible to compare both different works of one writer and works of different authors in the synchrony and diachrony of the Russian language.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):417-435
pages 417-435 views

PAIN: the Word, the Image and the Concept in the Dostoevsky’s Thought and Speech Space

Varzin A.V.


The article is devoted to the study of the linguistic expression of the phenomenon of pain in the texts of F.M. Dostoevsky. The material of the analysis is the texts of works of fiction, journalism and letters of the Great Russian writer. The study of Dostoevsky’s texts is preceded by an analysis of entries in explanatory and specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias, including articles in the “Dictionary of Dostoevsky’s Language”. The relevance of the study is determined by the approaching bicentennial of F.M. Dostoevsky, in whose works the phenomenon of pain has become one of the important subjects of the image. The specificity of this work lies in the reliance on linguistic methods of studying the phenomenon of pain while maintaining the interdisciplinary focus of the research as a whole. Various associative connections of the word “pain” and its derivatives in the contexts of the writer’s works of different genres are being studied. At the initial stage, the selection of material is carried out by the method of continuous sampling using the DiaWin software system of the Department of Experimental Lexicography of the V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The material thus obtained, is subjected to a multilevel analysis, in course of which the specificity of the conceptualization of pain in language and culture is revealed and the features of the depiction and interpretation of the phenomenon of pain in the discourse of Dostoevsky and his characters are revealed. Conclusions are formulated about the stable associative connections of the lexeme “pain”, the specificity of the linguistic depiction of various states of pain in the writer’s texts is revealed, the original interpretations of the concept of pain in the discourses of heroes-ideologists are analyzed. As a result, the analyzed phenomenon appears in multidimensional illumination. The general structure of the frame is established. The relationship between external symptoms and internal sensations of physical and mental pain is revealed. It is postulated that the explication of the concept of pain by a native speaker is fraught with significant difficulties, since pain is introspective and subjectively experienced. This special state is experienced and lived on. The contextual combinations of meanings of the word “pain” in Dostoevsky’s texts are highlighted. The specificity of the figurative representation of pain situations in the writer’s works is revealed. The increments of meaning characteristic of Dostoevsky’s contexts are analyzed. As a result, pain is interpreted as a complex phenomenon of language and culture and an important concept in the discourse of F.M. Dostoevsky.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):436-453
pages 436-453 views

Intensifiers in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s Individual Style: Semantics of Irregular Lexical Combinations

Sharapova E.V.


The paper is dedicated to the analysis of irregular intensifying constructions in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s individual style, more specifically of irregular lexical combinations including an intensifier and a main word. The meaning of intensifies is completely focused on expressing the intensity of an attribute, action or state denominated by the main word. Fyodor Dostoevsky’s writing style tends to form certain types of irregular lexical combinations including intensifiers. Through a case study of intensifiers ochen’ , goryachii / goryacho , izo vsekh sil , etc. the article describes several main types of irregular combinations with the view to find out semantic effects of irregular combinability. The analysis has covered the complete corpus of Fyodor Doestoevsky’s texts (fiction, journalism, private correspondence, business correspondence and documents). The first discriminant mark of irregular combinations is the semantic contradiction between the terms, the violation of idiomatic compatibility rules is the second feature taken into account. Whereas collocational rules in modern Russian differ a lot from the language norms of the 19th century, the subcorpus of 19th century texts of the National Russian Corpus serves to test the irregular idiomatic combinability. The article shows how the irregular combinability causes context meaning shifts profiling peripheral semantic features of the main word or “imposing” on it an untypical and contradictory semantics. In irregular lexical combinations, the language representation changes due to the original authors reinterpretation of the referential situation. The irregular lexical combinations with intensifiers are thereafter a distinctive feature of Fyodor Dostoevsky’s individual writing style that reveals his original conceptualization of the world.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):454-471
pages 454-471 views


English Lexemes Nominating Nobility Semantics and Evolution under Different Socio-cultural Context

Bezkorovaynaya G.T., Ebzeeva Y.N., Gishkaeva L.N.


The relevance of the work is determined by the fact that, although the interaction of history, culture and language is constantly in the field of view of linguists, historians, linguoculturologists, as well as all those who study the evolution of a particular language, it has not yet received a complete analysis in detail, in particular, when describing the language pictures of different countries. The aim of the work is to prove that the semantics of the words of nominating titles of the English nobility of the Victorian era has not changed. The materials for the work were modern and classical, starting from the XIX century, word usage from the English language, contained in modern media texts from Internet sources, as well as the texts of novels by English writers of the late XIX century. At least 2000 such word usages were analyzed using the method of etymological analysis, the method of semantic analysis and the method of functional analysis, which allowed us to obtain a reliable picture of their functioning. The triple union of history, culture and language in the approach to the study of linguistic pictures of different countries is at the center of research in recent years. The interaction of these phenomena has become the subject of close attention in many articles and dissertations of linguists, historians, linguoculturologists, as well as all those who study the evolution of a particular language. Lexemes denoting the noble status of a person are important concepts of the British national linguistic picture of the world and culture. The semantics of lexemes was studied according to lexicographic sources. The sources of examples of contextual use were the texts of novels by English writers of the late XIX century and modern English-language texts of the Internet: online versions of newspapers, advertising texts, blogs. To achieve the goal of our research, the article uses such methods as the method of continuous sampling, the method of lexicographic description, the comparative method, the statistical method, and a number of others.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):472-500
pages 472-500 views

The Formation of Polycode Text Theory

Novospasskaya N.V., Zou H.


This review article is devoted to the theory of polycode texts that are represented as a combination of verbal and non-verbal components. This unity is supported by the meaning, structure and function, under which we mean the focus on solving a single communicative task. A polycode text includes signs of various semiotic systems, for example, colour and kinesics. A number of synonymous terminological descriptions of this phenomenon - creolized text, polycode text, polysemiotic text, semiotically enriched test - indicates that we are currently witnessing the formation of the theory of polycode texts. Theoretical and terminological understanding of the object of our description occurs in such directions as the analysis of the components of polycode text and their correlation, description of methods and prospects for the study of polycode texts. The pragmatics of a polycode text, with a brief overview of the most notable works of Russian linguists, is considered in such main areas of its implementation as humorous polycode text and polycode text in cinematography. The most studied phenomenon in this direction is the description of the polycode text of advertising of various types. New directions of analysis are the description of the functioning of the polycode text in political linguistics and Internet communication. It is important to note the increase in the number of works that investigate the use of polycode text in school teaching and in teaching foreign languages. A new area of study of polycode text is its description as a reflection of the national linguistic picture of the world. This review is based on academic works, which are fundamental in this area of research, and also includes articles published in scientific journals in Russia over the past five years.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):501-513
pages 501-513 views

A Study of Grammatical Case Forms and their Directionality in Fulfulde: The Transformational Generative Approach

Bello I.M.


Case Theory interacts with Government Theory in its operation and so, cases are assigned to the complements of governors. Case assigners are the governors of their dependent clauses while the case receivers are the governed NPs. So, the purpose of the study is to survey case assignment in Fulfulde generally by identifying and analysing the elements of Fulfulde structures and their relationship in terms of structural case. Unstructured observation was the method used for eliciting data for this study. Adequate and natural data were recorded and analysed sentence by sentence, the way they were uttered by the native speakers. The Theoretical Framework adopted for data analysis by this study is Principle and Parameters Theory. The study discovered that in Government, apart from (V)erbs, (P)repositions and tensed INFL, (N)ouns, (A)djectives and Focus Markers FMs can also govern and assign case to their complements in Fulfulde. The study has proved that in Fulfulde, cases can be assigned either to the left or to the right, depending on the relation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2021;12(2):514-525
pages 514-525 views

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