Teaching Russian to foreign master’s students of non-humanitarian profile in modern educational conditions

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The relevance of the study is due to the lack of a methodological concept and training program for foreigners entering the Russian magistracy after completing bachelor's degree in their home country. As a rule, these students are not well-trained in Russian. This negatively influences the formation of their professional and communicative skills and abilities necessary for mastering the subject competence in the university. The aim of the study is to propose a methodology of professional language education of foreign non-humanitarian undergraduates in the conditions of linguistic educational situation with reduced teaching time, weak general language preparation of students and/or lack of understanding of the language of the specialty. The authors used the methods of direct and indirect observation of teaching and communicative activity of undergraduates while studying the teaching material according to the proposed methodology, accompanied with the analysis, fixation, description and generalization of accompanying changes, as well as the analysis of students’ communicative needs and mistakes. The research is based on practice of teaching scientific speech to non-philological first-year bachelor and master foreign students of the Academy of Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science of RUDN University, and also conducting entrance, intermediate and final tests. As a result of the research, the teaching program with the system of text and lexical-grammatical tasks for both classroom and independent work adapted for the students, was developed. The given technology allows to form and improve not only linguistic but also cognitive and metacognitive skills of undergraduates, extending possibilities of self-education, abilities to take independent decisions. It seems promising to use the obtained results to create a full-fledged textbook on scientific speech not only for undergraduates, but also for PhD students who have completed the previous stage of professional training in their home country.

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Russian science and Russian system of higher professional education are recognized in many countries and will always attract foreign students. This is confirmed by the increasing number of foreign citizens in Master programs from near and far abroad countries.1 Oral and written communication in Russian is one of the most important universal competences of a graduate in all areas of training, which is reflected in Federal state educational standards2 and other documents, regulating educational activity at the state level.3 However, the level of language competence necessary for master's studies can be guaranteed “only if the foreign citizen consistently passes the previous stages of education, namely pre-university training and baccalaureate” (Kalinnikova, 2019: 442). Experienced teachers of Russian as a foreign language and methodologists of the leading universities of Russia admit that pre-university annual course of the Russian language cannot fully provide preparation for graduate studies: the formation of relevant language and speech competences is associated with a time factor. Language learning is not only simple transmission of a certain amount of knowledge, but requires the development of skills that emerge “as a consciously automated action only after long training” (Yamshanova, Lomonosova, 2015), as evidenced in regulatory documents and practice of teaching Russian to foreign citizens (Kalinnikova, 2019; Gavrilova et al., 2019). The authors insist on a systematic approach that ensures formation of communicative competence not only in different types of speech activity, but also in different spheres of communication (Petrova, Pinevich, 2017; Tyurina, 2017). At present, however, foreign citizens with higher education who have passed the B1 level in Russian language exam and received the appropriate certificate can enter a master's program in the Russian language. At the same time, they often studied in an abridged online program, and as a result their real knowledge of the language fall even below the threshold level. The mismatch between the pre-university and graduate programs in their native country and the country where they study, in different universities in Russia, their poor knowledge of the language of their specialty, their lack of knowledge in technical terminology and the grammar of scientific speech – all these factors greatly complicate the process of learning for these students. Russian language teachers working with such master's students also note not only methodological, but also organizational problems caused by “unpredictable timing of their inclusion in the educational process” (Strokov, Chernikov, 2017: 3) of a particular student (often at the end of a module or semester), which complicates the successful organization and implementation of learning activities. Students “arrive at the university usually after the beginning of the academic year, and the dates of their arrival are unknown until the last moment” (Ibid.).

Significantly reduced learning time for foreign master's students makes it necessary either to introduce an additional educational “general pre-master's program” (Gavrilova et al., 2019) or to begin writing the text of the future dissertation from the very first year of study. However, in the latter case, as L.N. Kalinnikova rightly notes, “the process of mastering the Russian language is reduced to assimilating the rules of dissertation writing” (Kalinnikova, 2019: 445). More often the authors allocate the priority aspects, as evidenced by the analysis of recent publications. For example, some authors (Zelenina, Kolesova, 2018; Chesnokova, 2021) consider it important to develop oral scientific speech and the ability to conduct a scientific discussion of undergraduates. However, the vast majority of the analyzed publications are devoted to working with written sources of information. It is noted that “the written form of communication is becoming increasingly important for engineers” (Gramma, Kuznetsova, 2017: 49). For this reason, the authors propose to focus on developing writing skills. E.N. Khazaal considers formation of students' skills in written discourse and those of academic writing to be a priority (Khazaal, 2019). When teaching undergraduates academic writing, it is suggested to pay special attention to the development of the ability to express thoughts in written form competently and logically, ensuring the assimilation of professional vocabulary and grammar (Merczalova, Karpova, 2018). Some authors recommend to focus on annotating, abstracting, modeling texts of different types, specifying, however, that these types of exercises are designed for students with “initially high level of language skills (not below B2)” (Petrova, Pinevich, 2017: 49).

V.I. Volchkova believes that the process of mastering a language can be greatly facilitated by using information technology to create a familiar environment for students and overcome psychological barriers. “Thanks to multimedia resources, the study of a foreign language can be carried out beyond the limits of a practical lesson and make it continuous” (Volchkova, 2018: 70). L.I. Pechinskaya and M.M. Stepanova agree with her, stating that the use of information and Internet technologies in the educational process “contributes not only to the effective formation of competences in the field of the studied foreign language, but also... helps to effectively implement the creative potential of each master student” (Pechinskaya, Stepanova, 2015: 140).

Along with the use of information and communication technologies, the authors of the analyzed works find great potential in innovative learning technologies, improving the methodological support of the educational process. Thus, it is proposed to optimize the learning process of undergraduates in non-linguistic areas with the help of visualization of thinking, creating mind-maps, using communicative training technology, techniques and methods of critical thinking technology (Stepanova, Belenkova, 2014; Zlobina, 2020; Chesnokova, 2021; Pugachev, 2016).

Despite numerous publications on this highly relevant topic for the university teaching Russian as a foreign language and the variety of approaches proposed in the literature, there is still no generally accepted effective methodology for teaching Russian to foreign citizens with national bachelor diplomas in modern conditions. The aim of the study is to propose a methodology of professional-language education for foreign master’s students in engineering, technical and natural sciences in the new linguistic and educational situation, combining traditional forms of learning with the methods and techniques of innovative technologies. This allows building the learning process in accordance with the approved State Educational Standards of Russian as a foreign language for professional modules, consolidating and developing the skills formed at the pre-university stage of education.

Methods and materials

In order to achieve the aim, methods of the involved and mediated observation of the master students' activities during the study of the material according to the proposed methodology were used, accompanied with fixing, describing, and summarizing the accompanying changes. The method of comparative analysis and synthesis of empirical material and the method of cognitive interpretation of the results were also used. The research was based on teaching scientific speech to foreign RUDN University bachelor and master’s students (a total of 78 students from 18 countries of Africa and Asia), results of students' entrance, interim and final tests. The following teaching and testing materials were used: entrance tests in general language proficiency;4 materials designed for teaching scientific speech to foreign first-year bachelor students5 and first-year master’s students who completed their bachelor’s degree in the Russian language;6 experimental teaching materials according to the current learning conditions.7


The authors offer the teaching methodology with the following features:

  • it is adapted to the linguistic and educational situation with technical and natural science undergraduates who have received a bachelor's degree in their native country, and takes into account both their initial low level of language proficiency and the high level of professional competence, mature age and communicative needs;
  • it allows to use the limited number of class hours with the greatest efficiency, orienting students to independent work; the necessary lexical and grammar material is minimized, systematized and presented in tables;
  • the learning materials are prepared from a text-centered point of view; on the one hand, the contents of the texts reflect basic research activities and, on the other hand, the text is considered as a strategic program for constructing students' own statements and simultaneously serves as a means of demonstrating the functioning of linguistic units;
  • the system of tasks is aimed at developing the ability to perform various thought operations, requiring high mental activity, and it uses some techniques and methods of critical thinking;
  • the proposed teaching model is effective when working with motivated students.


Situation and objectives

To achieve the B2 level of Russian language proficiency according to the state educational standard 720 academic hours (380 – general proficiency and 340 – language of specialty (Balykhina, 2006: 14)). Successful final test entitles a student to receive a master's degree in non-philological profile.8 RUDN University teachers-experts try to solve this problem in 216 hours, where only  102 hours are class hours, and the rest is students’ individual work.9 RUDN University master’s programs admit foreign citizens with various specialties (24 specialties at the Academy of Engineering, 15 specialties at the Faculty of Science, and 13 specialties at the Institute of Environmental Engineering).10 So the groups cannot be formed according to students’ profession. Besides, a teacher-philologist is hardly able to select and methodically process textual material which is interesting and useful for students with higher technical education. Productive work on the language of the specialty is conducted in the first year of the bachelor's degree. In the master's program we offer a course “Russian language in the professional activity of the master's degree”. When developing the curriculum, we saw our task in giving our master's students an idea of the peculiarities of scientific research and foreign-language communication in scientific sphere as well as in laying the foundation for written academic culture regardless of the specifics of their professional training. Teachers of European language agree with us. “In the master's program, the focus is on the development of the most valuable in our time transprofessional (highlighted by us. – I.P., L.Ya., T.D.) knowledge, skills and abilities, as well as personal qualities, whose holder can think and act comprehensively, covering not only his professional field, but also related areas” (Yamshanova, Lomonosova, 2015: 92). The texts used in classes should serve as a basis for studying general scientific vocabulary, frequent grammar constructions of scientific style of speech. The subject knowledge of undergraduates should be obtained from the teachers of special disciplines, but not from teachers of Russian as a foreign language.

Obviously, it is not possible to correspond the students' profound professional knowledge and their language and speech competences to the full extent due to objective reasons, despite the high professionalism of the teachers. However, neither the limited time, nor the initial low level of students' Russian language should be an obstacle for writing and defending a master's thesis. That is why master’s students should get the basics of written academic culture in the course of the Russian language for master's students.

Increasing role of independent work

In this situation, students' independent and research activity is of paramount importance. “The learning process should be built in such a way that it stimulates students to independence and activity in learning activities, forms readiness and habit to work independently in language and speech activities, consciously evaluates their results and achievements” (Ridnaya, 2014: 91). A master's student should independently find necessary foreign language information resources for his/her activity, work with scientific literature in a foreign language, as well as master modern computer translation programs (Bernavskaya, Rudenko, 2014; Gramma, Kuznetsova, 2017). We believe that increasing the amount of independent work is the most important condition for training of master's students. At the same time, they have an opportunity to ask for help from the teacher, who, thanks to modern technical means, is always in touch.


The main goal provides the solution of private tasks, among which the most important is the development of various reading skills on the material of texts showing the specifics of scientific activity. The body of texts for this contingent of students was formed considering the capacity of the course of 216 hours, divided into 3 semesters. In each semester 6 texts serving as an organizational basis for the speech activity of undergraduates are studied. The texts can be conventionally divided into two groups: texts-descriptions (e.g. “Science as a sphere of human activity”, “Main sources of scientific information”, “Scientific speech and its features”, etc.) and texts-recommendations (e.g. “How to write a scientific article”, “How to prepare an oral report”, “How to defend a master's thesis”, etc.). Textual material performs several important functions: to serve as a source of useful information about research activities, to contain the studied lexical and grammatical material, to demonstrate the functioning of linguistic units and, finally, to serve as samples for students' own statements, thanks to thematic relevance, integrity, coherence. We should point out texts-instructions telling about the rules of creating some types of secondary texts, such as plans, theses, summaries. They are accompanied with exercises aimed at developing the ability to analytically and synthetically process information in the text and to render it in written secondary texts.

Combining innovative techniques with traditional methods

As we mentioned above, the proposed practical methodology significantly increases the amount of students’ independent work.  The innovative technology of critical thinking allows to develop and improve not only linguistic but also cognitive and metacognitive learning, expanding opportunities for self-education, independent solution of many problems without their teacher’s help11 (for details see: Pugachev, 2016: 225–237). The use of this technology in teaching undergraduates seems very promising. At the same time, we take into account the recommendations of authoritative methodologists who believe that “new tendencies and trends in the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language in the modern educational space should coordinate with the traditional ones, without which teaching Russian to foreigners is impossible” (Strelchuk, 2018: 48). Therefore, classroom work, for example, on the text “Who is a master’s student?”12 with the use of the techniques of critical thinking development is preceded by traditional lexical and grammatical tasks for students’ individual work, which are sent to the students in advance. See for example the following fragment:

Task 3. Fill in the table.


Noun with the meaning of process

Noun with the meaning of a person



















Work out



Hold experiments




Task 4. Fill in the blanks with the words from Task 3 in the correct form.

   1. After completing (....) and (....) information, the student began writing the coursework.

   1. While working on the thesis he (....), processed, (....) and summarized scientific and technical information, best practices in the field of engineering and technology.

   1. (.....) observed with an optical microscope the heating of the sample.

These and other tasks are given in full in collection of training and testing materials by L.P. Yarkina et al.13

Considering that our students are adults with higher technical education, maximally motivated to master their profession and language of learning, such tasks can be provided with keys for self-check, as well as a summary of theoretical material (for example, in the form of a table illustrating how to form participles or verbal nouns). For example14:

Table 5. Forming verbal nouns from nouns meaning action, process, result

From verbs

Formation affixes


From perfective and imperfective verbs


To write – writing (neuter)
To influence – influence (neuter)
To solve – solution (neuter)
To take – taking (neuter)
To prove – proof (neuter)
To work out – working out (feminine)

From perfective and imperfective verbs

Without suffixes 

To work – a work (feminine)
To lose – loss (feminine)

From perfective verbs

Without suffixes with zero ending

To answer – an answer (masculine)

From imperfective verbs

Without suffixes

To arrive – arrival (masculine)
To enter – entrance (masculine)

From imperfective verbs ending in -irovat

Without suffixes
Ending in -TSI(JA)

To plan – a plan (masculine)
To adapt – adaptation (feminine)

Students also get the text and a series of simple exercises to test their comprehension (e.g., determining whether the content of the text corresponds to the given statements):

  1. The master's degree was introduced in Russia in 1992.
  2. In modern Russia there are two academic degrees – Candidate and Doctor of Science.
  3. Everyone can enroll in a master's degree program.
  4. Before 1917 there was no PhD degree in Russia.

Fragments of the text can be used to practice case forms, verb types, and participles. For example:

Task. Use the words in parentheses in the correct form.

 The master's degree is awarded after (graduation) from (master's program) in the frame of (choose) a direction that (focus) on research, practical and scientific-pedagogical activities. Master's program can admit people, (have) a diploma of “bachelor” or “specialist”. Defending (master's thesis) and passing (state exams) (take place/occur) publicly at the (session) of the State Attestation Commission.

Master's students themselves check the task with the help of the whole text.

As an example, we can also give the following exercise aimed at developing word-formation skills, revising case forms, expanding the academic vocabulary of the students (the tasks are taken from textbook by L.P. Yarkina et al.15):

Based on the information given below, write:

А) What professional tasks the master’s student solves (use verb forms in your answer).

The master’s student should be prepared to perform the following professional tasks:

  • conducting scientific research on individual sections (stages, tasks) of the topic as a responsible performer or jointly with the scientific supervisor;
  • carrying out complex experiments and observations;
  • processing and analysing the results of experiments and observations;
  • participating in drawing up practical recommendations for using the results of the research and drafts.

B) What he/she does in the process of solving these tasks (use verbal nouns in your answer).

To solve these professional tasks, the master’s student:

  • collects, processes, analyses and summarizes scientific and technical information, advanced domestic and foreign experience in the field of engineering and technology;
  • makes up reports (sections of a report) on a theme or its section (stage, task).

Auditory work on the text uses the key technique of critical thinking known as “Bloom's daisy”, where six petals correspond to the main types of intellectual activity. This technique is multifunctional. It forms students' ability to ask questions and find answers to them and develops their analytical, cognitive and communicative skills.

  1. Simple questions that actualize knowledge of facts.

For example: What is the place of master's degree in the structure of modern Russian higher education? (basing on the sample, students themselves construct questions with question words and answer them using the text content).

  1. Clarifying questions corresponding to the level of understanding. (They are asked when students want to check their own guess. The respondents should render information from the text in their own words.)

For example: Is it true that master's degree did not always exist in Russian education?

  1. Interpretative questions, which help to find the reason for the phenomenon. The text does not answer the question directly. The answer requires analysis of the text material and students’ own experience.

For example: Why cannot a high school graduate enroll in a master's program?

  1. Creative questions (require synthesis of information, include verbs in the subjunctive mood, usually contain a prediction).

For example: What would happen if high school graduates were admitted to the master's program?

  1. Practical questions (such questions are asked to test the connection between theory and practice).

For example: What would a master's degree give you?

  1. Evaluative questions (develop the ability to evaluate people, phenomena, facts).

For example: How do you feel about research activities?

At the lessons, students also fulfil tasks aimed at productive revision of written information sources. For example:

basing on the text, complete sentences (the beginning of the sentence does not allow to write off its ending from the text);

answer the questions about the text (the questions do not allow to find a literal answer in the text, students have to put it in their own words).

After reading the text, the master's students are asked to give detailed answers to the questions in writing as homework:

  1. What is the difference between a master's student and a bachelor's student? (Comparison combined with analysis and synthesis is actively used as a productive thinking operation.)
  2. How will your life change after getting your master's degree? (Here thinking transits from the general to the particular, students select and regroup factual information, construct on this basis a text with a new logical and semantic structure.)

Secondary texts as the basis of written academic culture

An essential part of the proposed curriculum is based on secondary texts, their types, rules of creation, and functioning. By fulfilling practical part tasks, students learn how to carry out various types of processing the primary text, from a plan to an abstract, using samples and linguistic clichés. The presence of a sample allows students to see in advance the result of the task. Besides, it is important to show the intermediate steps leading to this result, so that later a graduate student could do the whole way on his/her own.

For example: Write the theses of this text using the following order of operations:

  1. divide the text into semantic parts;
  2. formulate a generalizing question for each part;
  3. in your answer, highlight the main information and present it in a thesis form;
  4. transform the theses into nominative sentences (sentences without verbs).


Algorithm of composing an abstract:

  1. Read the text and its title; determine if it gives an idea of the content of the text; see if the article is divided into paragraphs.
  2. Highlight paragraphs that contain specific information on the topic of the article, as well as subtopics.
  3. Identify basic and additional information, abbreviate irrelevant information; make a logical outline of the text.
  4. Write out for each paragraph of the plan the key words and expressions with its semantic content.
  5. Reformulate the main points of the text, using concise ways of conveying information.
  6. Select linguistic means (clichés) that formalize the abstract.

Plans of lessons for forming the skills of creating secondary texts are included in works by N.G. Karapetyan et al. and L.P. Yarkina et al.16

It is known that linguodidactic models should be based on didactic principles used in teaching the Russian language to any contingent of students. We were able to implement the principle of communicative orientation of teaching and ensure the dominant role of exercises that contribute to the formation of practical speech skills, the development of intellectual abilities. Taking into account the native language in multinational groups is irrelevant, and the principle of interconnected teaching of different types of speech activity is implemented with the priority of reading and writing. At the same time the choice of methodological means and actions, and their sequence are conditioned by the final goal and specific features of students who, on the one hand, due to objective reasons are characterized by a low level of language preparation, and on the other hand, are adults with a high professional level, motivated to achieve good results and ready to work hard for it.


When teaching foreign undergraduates, it is necessary to take into account the gap between the available and the necessary level of language and to overcome it in a short period of time. The experience of applying the developed methodology has shown that it can be achieved by providing a concise, concentrated form of presenting linguistic, speech, communicative material for educational purposes, by effective transfer of skills and abilities from the language of general use to the special language, by forming skills of independent learning activities in the process of obtaining linguistic and subject knowledge. Nevertheless, in the considered linguistic and educational situation when independent work of students is of paramount importance, the personal motivation and work ability of a student become the key to success. It seems promising to use the proposed methodology to teach graduate students who have passed the previous stages of education in national universities.


1 Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation. Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Peoples' Friendship University of Russia”. (2022). Report on the results of self-evaluation of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (pp. 37–39). Мoscow. (In Russ.) Retrieved July 29, 2022, from https://www.rudn.ru/u/www/files/documents/Otchet-o-samoobsledovanii-RUDN-2021.pdf

2 Andryushina, N.P., Vladimirova, T.E., Klobukova, L.P., Krasilnikova, L.V., Ivanova, A.S., Nakhabina, M.M., Soboleva, N.I., Starodub, V.V., Stepanenko, V.A., Antonova, V.E., Palitskaya, E.V., Sheveleva, N.B., Chugunova, I.S., Afanaseva, I.N., Baryshnikova, E.N., Gapochka, I.K., Kirilenko, N.P., Martynenko, E.V., Nesterskaya, L.A., Kirilenko, V.B., Yatsenko, I.I., Noreiko, L.N., & Prokhorova, I.O. (2000). State Educational Standard for Russian as a Foreign Language. The first and second levels. Professional modules. Moscow, St. Petersburg: Zlatoust Publ. (In Russ.); Gapochka, I.K., Kurilenko, V.B., & Titova, L.A. (2003). State Educational Standard for Russian as a foreign language. The second level of Russian language proficiency in educational and professional sphere. For students of natural-science, medical-biological and engineering-technical specialties. Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.)

3 Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation of April 1, 2014 No. 255, Moscow “On approval of levels of Russian as a foreign language and requirements for them”. (In Russ.) Retrieved June 21, 2022, from https://legalacts.ru/doc/prikaz-minobrnauki-rossii-ot-01042014-n-255/?ysclid=l4o4i9anc5454752101

4 Yarkina, L.P., & Pugachev, I.A. (2014). Educational complex on speech development for foreigners studying Russian: Control materials (pp. 4–11). Мoscow: Russky Yazyk. Kursy Publ. (In Russ.)

5 Pugachev, I.A., & Chernenko, N.M. (2020). Vector: Textbook on the Russian language for foreign bachelors-non-philologists: Basic course. Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.)

6 Yarkina, L.P., Denisenko, A.V., & Pugachev, I.A. (2017). Eureka. The Russian language for young scientists: Textbook for foreign students. Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.); Yarkina, L.P., Denisenko, A.V., & Pugachev, I.A. (2018). Eureka: Collection of training and testing materials for the Russian language textbook for young scholars. Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.)

7 Karapetyan, N.G., Chernenko, N.M., & Tugova, Y.A. (2020). Practice in the Russian language for foreign undergraduates (B1 level). Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.); Karapetyan, N.G., & Chernenko, N.M. (2020). Teaching written scientific speech: Educational-methodical manual for foreign undergraduates (level B2). Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.)

8 Ivanova, T.A., Popova, T.I., Rogova, K.A., & Yurkov, E.E. (1999). State Educational Standard for Russian as a foreign language. The second level. General proficiency. Moscow, St. Petersburg: Zlatoust Publ. (In Russ.)

9 Order of RUDN Rector O.A. Yastrebov No. 678 of October 19, 2021, Moscow, “On Approval of the Local Normative Act ‘Structure, Requirements and Procedure for Developing Basic Professional Educational Programs of Higher Education’ ”. (In Russ.) Retrieved October 6, 2022, from №678 от 19.10.2021 Об утверждении локального нормативного акта «Структура, требования и поряд.О.А.Ястребов.pdf

10 Educational programs of the RUDN University. Retrieved October 6, 2022, from https://www.rudn.ru/education/educational-programs

11 The technology was developed in the late 1990s in the United States and adapted for teaching Russian by the scientists from St. Petersburg. It synthesizes the ideas and methods of Russian technologies of collective and group ways of learning. It has proved to be very effective for forming skills of independent critical, rather than reproductive, thinking (for more details see: Critical thinking development technology. Znanio. Retrieved August 10, 2022, from https://znanio.ru/pub/2557).

12 Yarkina, L.P., Denisenko, A.V., & Pugachev, I.A. (2017). Eureka. The Russian language for young scientists: Textbook for foreign students (pp. 4–5). Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.)

13 Yarkina, L.P., Denisenko, A.V., & Pugachev, I.A. (2018). Eureka: Collection of training and testing materials for the Russian language textbook for young scholars (pp. 4–7). Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.)

14 Karapetyan, N.G., Chernenko, N.M., & Tugova, Y.A. (2020). Practice in the Russian language for foreign undergraduates (B1 level) (pp. 57–58). Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.)

15 Yarkina, L.P., Denisenko, A.V., & Pugachev, I.A. (2017). Eureka. The Russian language for young scientists: Textbook for foreign students (pp. 8–9). Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.)

16 Karapetyan, N.G., Chernenko, N.M., & Tugova, Y.A. (2020). Practice in the Russian language for foreign undergraduates (B1 level) (pp. 24–53). Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.); Yarkina, L.P., Denisenko, A.V., & Pugachev, I.A. (2017). Eureka. The Russian language for young scientists: Textbook for foreign students (pp. 90–129). Мoscow: RUDN University. (In Russ.)


About the authors

Ivan A. Pugachev

Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Email: pugachev-ivan@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0159-8898

Doctor of Pedagogy, Professor, Chairperson of the Department of the Russian language No. 4, Institute of Russian Language

6 Miklukho-Maklaya St, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation

Liudmila P. Iarkina

Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Author for correspondence.
Email: yarkina-lp@rudn.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6050-4417

Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor of the Department of the Russian language No. 4, Institute of Russian Language

6 Miklukho-Maklaya St, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation

Tkhi Tkhu Khuen Din

Vietnam National University

Email: thuhuenkn@yahoo.com
Candidate of Philology, University of Languages and International Studies 48/4 To Vinh Zien St, Huong Chung Microdistrict, Hanoi, 11413, Socialist Republic of Vietnam


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