Vol 22, No 4 (2022)

Theory, Methodology and History of Sociological Research

Pitirim Sorokin’s sociology and German jurisprudence

Kraevsky A.A.


The article considers the connection between the social-legal theory of P.A. Sorokin and the main directions of the German jurisprudence in the 17th - early 20th century: natural-legal school, historical school, jurisprudence of interests and the theory of the revived natural law. The genesis of Sorokin’s sociological ideas is usually considered in the context of the general development of sociology in the second half of the 19th century - early 20th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, when Sorokin was turning into an independent scholar, sociological issues were discussed in the teaching of other disciplines, in particular legal ones, which Sorokin studied at the Faculty of Law of the Saint Petersburg University. Sorokin’s study of legal sciences, especially of criminal and state law, affected his further research. The author argues that some important aspects of Sorokin’s sociology of law are closely connected with the main directions of the legal thought of his time, in particular with the works of German jurists and philosophers of law. The ideas of all four directions of German jurisprudence are reflected in Sorokin’s works, primarily in the theory of organized groups as a basis of his sociology of law. The classic school of natural law is represented by the social contract theory and corresponds to the purposeful organization of groups. The concept of the organic development of law by the leader of the historical school F.C. von Savigny is reflected in the spontaneous organization of groups. The jurisprudence of interests with R. von Jhering’s idea of the struggle for law anticipated the idea of purposeful formation of law in a social conflict. R. Stammler’s concept of the revived natural law contains a general idea of the organizing role of law. The elements of the first three theories are used by Sorokin in his theory of the origin of organized groups, while Stammler’s idea is close to the general understanding of the social function of law by Sorokin and one of his teachers L.I. Petrażycki.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):749-763
pages 749-763 views

European conservatism and the study of nature: From sacralization of nature to nihilism

Tagirov P.V.


The issue of how we understand nature and operate with it goes beyond the scope of ecology or economics and directly affects the ontological-anthropological foundations of culture. The subject-object model that dominates today claims universal validity, but many thinkers challenge its universality. Representatives of the European continental conservative thought of the 20th - early 21st centuries focus on the already accepted forms of natural knowledge and nature relations, which do not imply the objectification of nature or its reduction to an economic resource. These cultural forms belong to the historical past, which raises the question of the possible return to them by the contemporary man or of their possible return to his life. The article starts with the analysis of the nature-knowledge that dominated, according to the mentioned conservative thinkers, before the modern ‘objectification’ of nature. The author considers two related but non-identical approaches to the ‘traditional’ understanding of nature developed by these thinkers. The first approach claims the ‘sanctification of nature’, i.e., the natural world is not objectified but understood as a single reality that includes the man and has a sacred status. The second approach is represented by the metaphysically oriented conservatists and considers the natural world primarily through its function of symbolizing the transcendent supernatural world. Then the author considers the conservative thinkers’ views on the ‘nihilism’ of the last centuries, which led to the current subjectobject relationship with nature, and focuses on their perception of the Christian understanding of nature. The article concludes with the hypothesis that the recognition of each culture’s ‘right to its own nature’ (the essence of the contemporary cultural pluralism) can help to overcome the universalization of a specific understanding of nature by choosing a different model known to this culture in past epochs.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):764-781
pages 764-781 views

‘Core’ and ‘periphery’ of the concepts ‘happiness’ and ‘justice’: Unfinished sentences technique as a means of validation

Trotsuk I.V., Subbotina M.V.


The article continues a series of publications based on the results of a long-term research project of the Sociology Chair of the RUDN University, which combines research and methodological study of the self-identification of Russian students in terms of happiness. At the current stage, two new ‘dimensions’ were added to the project: first, the contextualization of questions about happiness by the concept and elements of social justice (as its ‘external determinant’); second, ‘measuring’ the images of a happy/unhappy person with the projective technique (unfinished sentences) and taking into account social ideas about justice/injustice. Being limited by the size of the article, the authors focus on the second ‘dimension’ - identify the possibilities and limitations of the unfinished-sentences technique as a means for validating the results of the project rather than a means for starting it. The structure of the article contributes to the solution of this task: in the first, introductory part, the author set the research problem as determined by the self-diagnostic mania of the contemporary society (in terms of the level of happiness) and the attempts to classify the factors of happiness; the second part presents the main stages of the project and its conclusions based on the results of the surveys (on the sample of the RUDN University students and on the all-Russian representative online panel); the third, main part presents the results of the unfinished-sentences technique application, which were obtained with the simplest content-analytical coding of the elementary endings. The authors reconstructed a single-type structure of images of a happy/unhappy person (in the context of factors determining such ‘statuses’) and of justice/injustice (taking into account their characteristics) - the core, the near periphery and the far periphery, which differ in their semantic ‘volumes’ and evaluation trends.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):782-801
pages 782-801 views

Contemporary society: the urgent issues and prospects for development

Family attitudes of university students in terms of extremism risks

Puzanova Z.V., Filippov V.M., Larina T.I., Simonova M.A.


Youth extremism continues to be relevant considering the fluid and changeable character of the contemporary world: new risk factors emerge while social institutions designed to provide social stability malfunction. The article aims at presenting the family attitudes among the youth which are connected to the problem of infantilism (social-psychological maturity), the attitude towards non-traditional gender relations, to the infidelity in romantic relationships, and how the media and TV series may contribute to an increased risk of extremism among the younger generations. The article is based on the data from six original studies on the above-mentioned issues conducted at the RUDN University in 2017-2019 with different sociological methods (questionnaire survey, focus groups and content analysis): a 2017 survey of RUDN students titled “Personal freedom through the eyes of young people” (N = 470); content analysis of four episodes of four Russian TV series in 2017; validation results for the method “Diagnostics of social immaturity in young people” (N = 500); four focus groups on the “Transformation of the contemporary social image of the Russian woman” in 2019; two focus groups with female students on the “Infidelity in romantic relationships” in 2021, and a 2021 survey of Moscow university students on extremism. The broad scope of topics covered in the study in the frame of up-to-date relevant research allowed for several findings which clarified the aspects that should be stressed when implementing the youth and family policy: the conscious parenting training for young families, systematic monitoring of social immaturity of young people in family and everyday life, restoration of the educational system to its former esteem as a counter to the present service sector. Some gradual changes can already be observed in the clear policy on same-sex relationships and attention to the media content at the government level.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):802-811
pages 802-811 views

‘Adult’ youth in the contemporary social space of Russia

Belyaeva L.A.


The study of the contemporary youth problems is impossible without generational analysis which provides methodological grounds for understanding the youth’s place in the social space, their functions and identification practices in the context of generational changes and continuity. The theoretical grounds for such an analysis were provided by the theory of generations by K. Mannheim, by his definition of socialization of the younger people who take their place in the hierarchy of generations. Some aspects of the generational analysis were developed by Mannheim quite thoroughly, others were only named, but his analysis was historically the first comprehensive study followed by the works of other authors. The article presents the results of the study of the social stratification and socialization of the ‘adult’ youth in contemporary Russia (cohorts of 18-24 and 25-34 years old) and of their position in the social space. Mannheim’s theory of generations was used as a methodological basis, while the empirical data was provided by the All-Russian representative survey of the ‘adult’ youth (N=1717). The author considers the influence of material well-being and education of parents on the financial differentiation, level of education and professional selfidentification of the younger people; identifies the upward social mobility trend of the younger people compared to their parents; makes a conclusion about the consolidation of the social differentiation among the younger generations of Russians; analyzes the influence of parents, teachers, classmates, informal groups and virtual world on the primary and secondary socialization of the youth. The author argues that informal groups and Internet communications have become extremely important in the primary and secondary socialization of the contemporary youth, especially under their detachment from political participation and ethical absenteeism.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):812-827
pages 812-827 views

Life and work strategies of pensioners in contemporary Russia

Barkov S.A., Markeeva A.V., Kolodeznikova I.V.


Based on the data of the All-Russian survey of pensioners (February 2022), the article reveals their opinions on working in retirement, reasons for continuing work, problems when changing jobs, attitudes to new forms of employment, and life priorities. The article continues the analysis presented in the article “Employment of the elderly: Social imperatives and barriers in contemporary Russia” (2022; 22 (1)). The most important factor affecting the life strategies of the elderly in the post-industrial society is their increasing involvement in labor activity. The survey showed that the basic incentive for working in the older age is additional income. In depressed regions and during crises, work is one of the possible means for survival of both pensioners and their families. However, under the growing well-being of working pensioners, social motives and incentives for self-realization become fundamentally important. Differences in the pensioners’ motivation to continue their labor activity are determined by both personal characteristics (gender, age) and local social-economic circumstances (place of residence). Thus, Moscow pensioners, who get city allowances and feel less poor than pensioners in other regions, express special opinions on a number of issues. Life strategies differ significantly by gender: retired women are less satisfied with their status as non-working pensioners and are more willing to use new forms of employment, which may lead to more active employment of women in the future. More than a third of pensioners, contrary to stereotypes, are ready to work remotely. Most pensioners are not ready to become selfemployed, but many start to consider this form of employment and admit its benefits. To improve their social role, pensioners propose to develop volunteer and educational projects in which they could share knowledge and experience with the younger generations, and to hold events that would show the elderly’s contribution to the development of society.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):828-843
pages 828-843 views

The сore of the Russian power reputation space: Expert assessment and public opinion

Rozanova N.N., Sukhova E.E.


The article is based on the data collected in the study of the Russian power reputation space. The study focused on both the Russian power in general (official state and municipal power) and the regional power including the state executive power of the region. The authors defined several levels (federal/regional/municipal) and branches (legislative/executive/judicial) of power as the coordinate system structuring the space of power; and for the regional executive power, also peculiarities of responsibilities carried by the subjects of power. The study aimed at identifying the core and periphery of the reputation space of the Russian power based on the results of the two-stage sociological study - expert assessments and mass survey. The authors argue that the reputation space of both the Russian power in general and the regional power is multi-component and formed by the reputation of different subjects of power with a high degree of mutual influence. The study revealed a significant difference in the definitions of the core of the reputation space by the population and experts. The federal power constitutes the core of the reputation space of the Russian power as structured by its levels, according to experts and public opinion. Experts believe that the executive branch constitutes the core of the reputation space as structured by its branches, while the influence of the reputation of different branches seems balanced for public opinion. The similar situation was identified in the reputation space of the regional power. The authors also identified the significant influence of the personification factor on the reputation space of both the Russian power in general and the regional authorities. This leads to a ‘shift’ of the reputational core, which becomes especially evident in public opinion on the role of the president’s reputation: every third respondent identifies it with the reputation of the entire Russian power.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):844-859
pages 844-859 views

Revolutionizing Pancasila as the ideology of Indonesians

Muqsith M.A., Muzykant V.L., Tayibnapis R.G., Pratomo R.R.


This article examines whether Pancasila as the sole principle and ideology and state philosophy is reflected in the Indonesian society. Understanding and appreciation of the values of Pancasila ideology are often considered only as a jargon, i.e., in the verbal perspective. Its implementation is neglected due to lack of insight and knowledge about Pancasila and not knowing its basic principles. Pancasila, which consists of five precepts, includes a series of attitudes and knowledge as well as hopes from the struggle of the Indonesian people to gain independence, and is regulated in the Pancasila state. The first precept is about God the Almighty ( Ketuhanan yang Maha Esa ); the second precept is about just and civilized humanity ( Kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab ); the third precept claims the ‘unity of Indonesia’ ( Persatuan Indonesia ); the fourth precept claims democracy led by wisdom in the representative deliberation; the fifth precept claims social justice for all Indonesian people ( Keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia ). Pancasila is the source of all laws in the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, which constitutes it as a sovereign and prosperous country supporting the wealth of its people, the divinity in the One and Only, freedom of religion, respect for diversity and pluralism, and building a democratic state. Social problems that often occur in every society usually start from breaking the law, dangers of the extremism doctrine, and criminal acts of corruption that can damage the grassroots of Pancasila. Therefore, to defend the country and strengthen the basic precepts of Pancasila, it is necessary to understand and deepen the practice of Pancasila in the ideology of nationalism and democracy.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):860-871
pages 860-871 views

Development of Russian tourism in the contemporary social and ethnocultural conditions

Chistyakova O.V.


The author considers tourism as a relevant social-cultural phenomenon of contemporary Russia, which is important for economic development and establishing interethnic and interreligious balance in the cultural-axiological space of Russa. The author pays special attention to the migration processes in their connection with the situation in the tourism and hospitality industry and prospects for its development. Considering the global diversity of migration forms and types, the category of legal foreign labor migration is analyzed to clarify some substantial issues of external labor migration as having social and intercultural meanings. The author explains the efficiency of labor migrant flows in the renewing Russian touristic sphere; emphasizes the ethnocultural specificity of tourism and the ethnic character of migration; considers the regional situation through the host population’s perception of labor migrants and the native population’s assessment of the ambiguous role of foreign specialists in the formation of ethnic-cultural and civil identities in the multicultural Russian society. Tourism is defined as a significant economic and intercultural stabilizing factor contributing to the development of a tolerant environment and integrating external migrants into the host society. The article describes the relationship between the effective development of internal tourism and the progressive regulation of foreign labor migration. The analysis of the features of migration processes shows the changing nature of external labor migration due to objective socialeconomic factors, and the role of labor migrants in the formation of the all-Russian civil identity. The author insists on the correlation between the growing attractiveness of tourist sites and a stable and peaceful situation in the sphere of interethnic and interreligious relations, including between the autochthonous and allochthonous peoples of multinational Russia.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):872-880
pages 872-880 views

Sociology of Education

Resources of the research-pedagogical community: Administrative and mobilization approaches

Zborovsky G.E., Ambarova P.A.


The study of the research-pedagogical community’s (RPC) resources of Russian universities in the sociological perspective is determined by the new conditions for the implementation of the development strategy of the Russian higher education. An adequate assessment and the full use of the RPC’ potential, including its unused resources, are of particular importance for Russian universities experiencing serious deficits today. The article proposes a new ‘optics’ for assessing the ability of the university management to mobilize traditional and unused resources of the RPC. The article aims at describing the administrative and mobilization management approaches to the analysis of the RPC’ resources in Russian universities. The authors consider the problem at the intersection of sociology of management and sociology of higher education. The article is based on the secondary analysis of the research data collected by the authors since 2016. The authors also consider documents of strategic planning for the development of higher education and science in order to identify the priorities of the RPC’s academic development and the requirements for them in new conditions. The research is based on the analysis of the statistical data on the main indicators for the development of the Russian higher education in 2014-2021, such as databases of the Monitoring of the effectiveness of higher education organizations, statistical yearbooks ‘Indicators of Education’, data of the Monitoring of the Economics of Education of the Higher School of Economics, and other open sources. Thus, based on the theoretical and empirical research of the higher education practices, the authors define the concept and structure of the RPC’s resources; explain the need for a managerial approach in universities as aimed at mobilizing the unused RPC’s resources; reveal the limitations of the university administrative decisions in assessing and use of the RPC’s resources. The authors make three main conclusions: first, about the meaning of the concept and structure of the RPC’s resources as an important means of managerial analysis; second, about the need for a model of the mobilization university management; third, about the consequences of the dominance of the administrative approach in assessing and use of the RPC’s resources.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):881-894
pages 881-894 views

Russian university bureaucracy - terra incognita for sociology of education

Babintsev V.P., Gaidukova G.N., Shapoval Z.A.


The authors argue that in contemporary Russian universities, the bureaucracy has turned into the most influential corporation, and insist on the sociological analysis of its status, positive and negative consequences of formation and evolution. Despite many studies of this phenomenon, the university bureaucracy remains terra incognita for sociology of education - many fundamental issues remain unclear: why in the meritocratic and initially humanitarian university, practices of formal rationality with the focus on normative acts and instructions (rationality for its own sake) prevail; how to explain that even the obvious inconsistency of many bureaucratic practices does not lead to discrediting the bureaucratic system, but, on the contrary, contributes to its extended reproduction; why many specialists find the results of the university management optimization based on a bureaucratic approach doubtful. The majority of sociological works on the university bureaucratization provide answers to these questions in the form of admitting the current situation, but there is no causal analysis of the university bureaucracy development and evolution. The article considers possible causes of the current situation: the lack of a systematic approach to the university bureaucratization, its study mainly in the context of the higher education reforms; uncritical reproduction of the classical theories of bureaucracy, which need changes according to the contemporary realities; the lack of works on the status of the university bureaucracy under the digital transformation of society; the barrier of institutionalized hypocrisy; servility relationships between sociologists and university managers. The identified problems require empirical verification and discussion in the professional sociological community.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):895-908
pages 895-908 views

Positions of the Russian universities in the world university rankings in 2022

Ebzeeva Y.N., Smirnova Y.B.


Many states have been striving to ensure their universities’ presence in the global rankings which reflect not only the significance of universities but also the ‘international prestige of the country’ [11]. The reason for the popularization of global rankings in Russia was the globalization of the Russian system of higher education. Rankings present universities not only to applicants, students and the academic community, but also to potential employers - by informing about the quality of education, research activities, etc. Another significant parameter of global rankings is the ‘information openness’ of universities [11]. In addition, universities are fighting not only for applicants but also for additional funding, since education and science have become an element of the economic exchange [5]. The article considers the positions of the Russian higher education institutions in the world rankings in 2022. The relevance of the study is determined by the current trends in the university scientific research and by the political situation. The ranking system is based on the objective assessment by experts from different countries of the significant achievements of universities. Since the scientific research in Russian universities faces difficulties, the authors argue that global rankings have become a controversial means for assessing the competitiveness of Russian universities. The authors describe the dynamics of the positions of Russian universities in world rankings in 2022, the state of national rankings and the difficulties of scientific research based on the statistical and comparative approaches. The results of the study make a certain contribution to the theory of management and can contribute to the successful promotion of Russian scientific achievements and universities in the world community.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):909-918
pages 909-918 views

Sociological lectures

Wealth concentration and the ‘patrimonial middle class’ in the contemporary European-American civilization

Čižo E., Menshikov V., Kokarevica A., Selivanova-Fyodorova N.


The study aims at the comparative analysis of the trends in wealth concentration and formation of the ‘patrimonial middle class’ (the term by Piketty) in the countries of the contemporary European-American civilization (EAC). T. Piketty suggests that wealth concentration is increasing again (as in the 18th - 19th centuries), and the formation of the ‘patrimonial middle class’ is the most significant structural change in the long-term wealth distribution. The authors chose five parts of the EAC from West to East: USA, Western Europe, Latvia, Ukraine, and Russia. To measure and compare wealth inequality, the authors used statistical deciles: the top 10 % (including the top 1 %), the middle 40 % and the bottom 50 % of the population. 1995 and 2021 were chosen as time points for the diachronic analysis of the data from the World Inequality Database. The study results show that in different parts of the contemporary EAC, wealth concentration and the formation of the ‘patrimonial middle class’ differ in pace and sometimes in direction: from rapid concentration to deconcentration. Wealth concentration in the hands of the top 1 % of Americans has increased over the past 26 years from 28 % to 35 %, of Russians - from 21 % to 48 %. According to Piketty, such a situation (especially as in Russia) is a harbinger of social revolution. In terms of the wealth concentration level, Latvia and Ukraine represent an intermediate case between Western Europe and the USA/Russia. At the same time, the USA, Western Europe and Russia differ greatly in the cultural-value perspective. The authors question the united EAC in the 21st century and define it as split into an ‘initial core’ (European civilization) and two constantly conflicting ‘peripheries’ (American and Russian civilizations).

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):919-936
pages 919-936 views

The dynamics of capitalism and the return of classes

Anisimov R.I.


The growing social inequality and the abandonment of the welfare-state model raise the question of the return of classes to the historical arena. The author argues that the contemporary society can be characterized as capitalist due to its main structural element - a pattern of striving for profit; at the same time, the contemporary capitalist society has changed the vector of making profit from external expansion (search for new markets and centers of production) to internal intensity (automatization, increased exploitation, total commodification, removal of institutional barriers to profit). Today, capitalism has exhausted the possibilities of external expansion and is changing its strategy to the restructuring of social systems and its actors, which is accompanied by the abandonment of the welfare-state model and by the growing instability in labor relations. This leads to the situation in which middle classes disappear and social inequality grows. The concept of classes developed by K. Marx has regained its importance, since the theories created in the middle of the 20th century no longer correspond to the contemporary realities. The article revises the Marxist class model, in particular the author argues that the type of ownership is no longer a key differentiating criterion, and capitalists and proletarians are no longer the main classes of the contemporary society. The classes of employers and precariat are more relevant for describing the contemporary society. The ideas of these two classes also differ: the precariat strives to preserve social guarantees and labor rights; while employers, on the contrary, strive to maximize profits by reducing social guarantees and violating labor rights.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):937-948
pages 937-948 views

Digital human rights: International-legal and social dimensions

Kartashkin V.A.


The article considers digital human rights as a relatively new social-legal phenomenon which has recently become the focus of scientific discussions. Some scientists believe that digital rights have specific determinants which explain their character of sui generis , i.e., digital rights represent a new - fourth - generation of human rights. The author considers digital rights in their international-legal and social dimensions in order to clarify their nature and definitions, and argues that the scientific-expert community lacks a single understanding of digital rights; therefore, such rights should be named information-digital, which would reflect their information nature as a construct of reality (including virtual reality). The social dimension of digital rights is manifested in the unprecedented impact of the digitalization of social relations, which penetrates all spheres of contemporary society, determines various ethical and legal problems and becomes an issue of such philosophical concepts as transhumanism. In particular, transhumanism, supported by some leaders of the developed countries, implies negative consequences and challenges for traditional human rights since it insists on the transformation of human nature. The internationallegal dimension of digital law is expressed in the symbolic connection between ‘traditional’ and digital rights. When interpreting digital rights as information-digital, there are no differences between the above-mentioned types of rights, since they form an organic whole. Digital rights are a new type of the ‘traditional’ information rights, the provision and protection of which are sufficiently regulated (set) by the norms of the so-called Bill of Rights that includes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and the International Covenants on Human Rights (1966). Certainly, for new types of digital rights, it is necessary to develop additional protocols for the International Treaties. However, already now we need to seriously consider the implementation mechanism for digital rights, for instance, such as specialized groups of experts (lawyers and specialists in digital technologies) in the UN. The author proposes to develop an International Information-Digital Code of Rights in order to ensure a comprehensive regulation of digital human rights and freedoms.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):949-962
pages 949-962 views

Moral exclusion in the context of social desirability

Puzanova Z.V., Tertyshnikova A.G.


The article considers such terms as social and moral exclusion in the context of the empirical study of collective representations. The authors define the origins of both terms and name those social groups that have historically been subject to exclusion in certain social areas. Moral exclusion is considered in terms of the applicability of moral norms to certain groups provided the cultural norms that exist in the society. Morality operationalizes our sense of justice by defining what and to whom we owe, whose needs, views and well-being are considered and whose are not. Our moral standards are applied to the people we value, and define those within our sphere of justice (or ‘moral community’, such as family members and friends) and those outside it. The excluded groups are considered as out-groups, and their inconveniences and deprivations seem normal, since in relation to them, justice seems inappropriate and moral norms inapplicable. Many social issues cause moral disputes about whether, for instance, an HIV-infected or drug addict deserves help especially from the state. The study aimed at identifying the presence or absence and the degree of moral exclusion of certain social groups. The article is based on the results of the survey of Moscow students conducted in 2021. A special block of the questionnaire consisted of the adapted version of the Marlow-Crown social desirability scale. The factor analysis allowed to identify the most influential factors of moral exclusion of certain groups for students, and the answers were analyzed in terms of readiness to give socially desirable answers to sensitive questions. The considered groups were chosen during focus groups and are not fully delinquent or stigmatized, i.e., the most important fact is whom the students exclude from the members of their personal moral community.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):963-971
pages 963-971 views

Sociological analysis of the distributed team leadership

Zabolotskikh A.V., Dugina T.V., Ignatova T.A.


The importance of leadership in social and scientific spheres has been studied from different perspectives; the paradigms, approaches and methods have been constantly changing. The pattern of the authoritarian leader in the society has receded in favour of distributed leadership, and today researchers consider interpersonal relationships as the main factor of the leader’s effectiveness if he is capable of fostering leadership in others. Thus, in the team, the potential of leadership is distributed between those members who are capable and not afraid of taking responsibilities. Leaders who help to create the next generation of leaders are more valuable for the society than those who are concentrated on their personal ambitions. The authors consider the features of distributed leadership within one group in the course of time. The authors applied different methods to analyse distributed leadership - a survey and a participant observation - to study manifestations of distributed leadership in time and space, the relationship between distributed leadership in the group and context, the nature of the interaction of group agents in legitimisation and dominance, and the participation of group members in social interaction. The article examines the features of distributed leadership based on the study conducted at the RUDN University in 2017-2020 within one group. The results show that distributed leadership is effectively regarded in time and space: the leader takes a flagship role and relies on the acquired experience when interacting with other members of the group; it is possible for several leaders to co-exist under certain social conditions and in distributed areas.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):972-982
pages 972-982 views

Scientific life

Justice and lawmaking: Social-philosophical aspect

Orekhov A.M.


The article presents an overview of the event organized by the Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) on December 1, 2021 - a round table “Justice and Lawmaking” as a part of the subproject “Ethics and Law: Mechanisms of Mutual Influence” of the “Applied Ethics” project with the participation of representatives of Russian universities. The article presents the main ideas of the participants of different specialties - lawyers, political scientists, philosophers and international affairs. They considered various aspects and a wide range of issues: diagnostics of social justice in Russia, the need for a deontology of justice and its risks, justice as an ‘institutional trap’ on the example of Soviet and Russian public law institutions, ideas of distributism as a theory of social welfare, historical-philosophical analysis of ideas and political arguments on the essence and effectiveness of elitism and parliamentarism, philosophical analysis of the concept ‘social justice’ in the philosophy of language, formal semantics, formal pragmatics, etc. The participants discussed the results of a number of applied research related to the issues of the round table, for example, the project on the automated methods for assessing ethics, which is carried out in the Higher School of Economics. As a result, the participants of the round table stated that social justice should be the social-political ideal for the further development of contemporary Russia.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):983-989
pages 983-989 views

Social-demographic processes in the EAEU: Notes on the scientific events in Kyrgyzstan

Manshin R.V.


On April 22-23, 2022, the Yeltsin Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University in Bishkek (Republic of Kyrgyzstan) hosted the International Scientific Forum “World Science and Contemporary Challenges in the Era of Globalization and Digital Transformation”. Prominent scientists from Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Great Britain, Turkey, Serbia and Singapore made presentations to discuss various economic, social-demographic and environmental questions, the solution of which can ensure the sustainable development of the countries of the Eurasian economic integration.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2022;22(4):990-994
pages 990-994 views

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