Vol 11, No 3 (2020)

MODERN PHRASEOLOGY
Counterpoints of Modern Phraseology. To the Anniversary of Prof. V.M. Mokienko
Bierich A., Lomakina O.V., Nikolaeva E.K., Seliverstova E.I., Stepanova L.I.
Abstract

The paper is timed to coincide with the 80th anniversary of the birth of Valery M. Mokienko, Doctor of Letters, Professor of Slavic Philology, Philology Department, St Petersburg State University, Honorary Chairman of the Phraseological Commission of the International Committee of Slavists. The paper reviews focal areas of the scholar’s research, lists his academic interests, the main of those being phraseology and phraseography. V.M. Mokienko proposed to detect dynamic interactions of contradictory properties of the phraseological system, to reveal the mechanism of phrase formation involving broad genetic and typological parallels to determine the nature of a phraseological unit. The method of structural and semantic modeling based on a detailed comparison of dialectal, Slavic and non-Slavic European idiomacy is the basis of modern theoretical and practical studies of the scientist’s followers. The trilogy of dictionaries edited by V.M. Mokienko distinguishes precise certification of units, references to synonymous turns, which makes it easier for the reader to navigate in the huge source material, outlines the parameters of the phraseological space close to the certified expression, and makes it possible to show the wealth of images of folk speech conveying the same semantics.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):425-433
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COGNITIVE STUDIES IN LANGUAGE
Language as a Concept of Russian Aphoristics
Korolkova A.V.
Abstract

The article describes aphoristics as an integral part of the language and culture studies reflecting the value system of the people's mentality diachronically and synchronically. Russian aphoristics has been preserving national identity, morale and values throughout centuries, for generations transferring cultural and historic memory of the people. However, aphoristics reflects not only unique, specific features of Russian culture and mentality but also demonstrates unanimity of the culture codes and the universal character of human values. The study specially focuses on the Russian aphoristics’ sphere of concepts whereas, possible to outline and depict dozens of concepts specified on the level of culture as well. The concept LANGUAGE represents one of the key concepts of the human cognitive system, hence it is widely and diversely exposed in the corpus of the Russian aphoristics of the 18th-21st centuries. In aphoristics, LANGUAGE emerges in different ways. In Russian aphoristics, the specification of the concept LANGUAGE has got an ambivalent nature. Here LANGUAGE is realized in the homonymic phraseo-semantic field being verbalized by means of the most frequent components of the core and periphery of the phraseo-semantic field: LANGUAGE (Russian language, native tongue), foreign LANGUAGE, word, parole, syllable, etc.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):434-447
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Fractal Semiotics Modeling of Concept Cup in Religious Texts
Ko C.
Abstract

The article considers the concept CUP as a special fractal-semiotic object in the field of the interaction of language and culture. The relevance of the research topic is determined by the increased interest in the application of a systematic approach to the study of a linguistic object, in particular to the use of a fractal approach to analyze the structure of a concept, including figurative and reflective components. The subject of the review is the fractal organization of the concept CUP in the speech-thought process. The mechanism of this concept, correlating between the mega-level (the spiritual semiosphere) and the micro-level (text), depends on the features of speech organizational patterns with which the synergistic principle of integrity is manifested. The novelty of the work lies in the fact that it reveals the experience of representing the structure of the concept CUP, reconstructed on the basis of Russian contexts with religious content. The “fractality” of this structure is due to the “non-linear” nature of the development by a number of symbolized values (LSW) cup . Quantitative data makes it possible to trace the features of symbolization (a movement from subject to symbol) and to justify the possibility of using the concept of fractal as a linguistic approach. The material for the analysis was religious texts that are distinguished by a pattern of implicit meanings and hierarchical internal organization, such as interpretations of scripture, instruction on spiritual life, patristic heritage, and sermons. The aim of the work is to present the structure of the concept CUP and to reveal its specifics of a dynamic nature by taking into account external and self-referential signs, as well as to consider the corresponding patterns of thinking that are repeatedly represented in religious contexts. The analysis showed that the semantics of the concept CUP incorporate a large volume of symbolic meanings. It has been established that at the lexical level, the language unit cup is formed over time and an abstract complex meaning or invariant meaning would be activated. These complex invariants are more likely open conceptual schemes that are given importance depending on contextual conditions, and this occurs as a result of cognitive operations at the conceptual level.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):448-462
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The Specificity of Functioning of Winged Expressions in the Poetry of Dmitry Bykov
Zykova E.I.
Abstract

The article deals with the specific features of the functioning of winged expressions in the poetry of Dmitry Bykov. Analyzing the poetic work of Dmitry Lvovich Bykov, a modern Russian writer, poet, public figure, publicist, it is impossible not to notice that the poet uses a “winged” language arsenal in all its diversity. These are biblical winged words and quotations ( мафусаилов век, ищите и обрящете, геенна огненная ), quotations from works, Russian and European literature ( Через четыре года здесь будет город-сад! Прощай, свободная стихия! Офелия, О нимфа! Помяни грехи мои в молитвах! ), winged words, dating back to antiquity ( Жребий брошен! белая ворона ), quotes from modern and Soviet songs ( Я люблю тебя жизнь и надеюсь, что это взаимно! ). In addition, the question of the specific stylistic functions of winged expressions, which Dmitry Bykov uses in his poetry, is considered. Among the most significant and most frequent and expressive can be distinguished satirical and compositional functions. In Russia, Dmitry Bykov is known as a writer, a satirist poet, writing mainly on acute political and socially significant topics. Therefore, it is completely understandable why one of the favorite winged words functions that he uses is depathetic. An important artistic language means in D. Bykov’s poetic satire is his author’s transformations of winged expressions. In the poetry of Dmitry Bykov, you can find the use of almost the whole range of individual-author transformations. Both semantic and structural-semantic. Dmitry Bykov is a master of a deep, complex image. In his poems, he creates complex allegories, his images are metaphorical, full of sarcasm. And in order to reach this depth of the image, the author most often uses not one, but several methods of transforming winged words within one context, which is, in our opinion, another specific feature of the writer's artistic style.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):463-478
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Universal and Culturally Specific Features and Linguistic Peculiarities of the Political Cartoon in the Arabic and French Languages
Dugalich N.M.
Abstract

The article discusses the universal and culturally-specific features and linguistic means of the political cartoon in the Arabic and French languages. Political cartoon is a universal tool for political dialogue between government and society, a reflection or reaction of society to a certain political event, series of events, or a person of national or world level. The goals and objectives of political cartoon, its mechanism of influence on the addressee, and its genre identity have a common tradition and common components. The study of the phenomenon of a political cartoon in various linguistic cultures is an area of relevant multidisciplinary research, primarily because the author’s creative principle at the level of text and drawing interacts in the political cartoon with tradition and its genre framework, producing a capacious multilayer creolized text, the decoding of which requires from the addressee the presence of linguistic, logical and extralinguistic (primarily political and historical) presuppositions and the skills to analyze it. The object of the proposed work is a modern political cartoon in Arabic and French. The subject of the research is structural, lexical-semantic, pragmatic and cultural-specific characteristics of the creolized text of a political cartoon in the Arabic and French languages. The purpose of the work is to identify universal and culturally specific features of a cartoon on a political leader or an event at the iconic and verbal level in each of the languages under consideration. For the first time in Russian linguistics the presented study carries out a comparative analysis of the political cartoon in the Arabic and French languages and describes its universal features and cultural-specific peculiarities.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):479-495
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Russian Phraseological Minimum: Reality and Prospects
Ganapolskaya E.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the current problem of creating a Russian language phraseological minimum. The topic of lexical (including phraseological) minimums is one of the oldest and most discussed problems both in linguistics and in the methodology of foreign languages teaching. The study of the subject goes in two main directions: searching for the core of the lexical (phraseological) system and creating minimums for learning foreign languages. The main method used in this work is the method of analytical and synthetic processing of information and the statistical method. Both scientific sources and language material are selected from lexicographic sources, Russian National Corpus, textbooks and texts of modern Russian criminal prose which served as the material for the research. The article provides a brief overview of the main lexical, phraseological and paremiological minimums of Russian language, analyzes the basic principles of their creation and offers a way to solve the problem. Some principles of selecting units for the minimum are clarified. Special attention is paid to the problem of creating a phraseological minimum for teaching Russian to foreign students. The current minimums are created mainly on the basis of methodological principles, since the linguistic principles, as the authors of minimums for foreign students write, are not sufficiently developed. It is proposed to start by creating a phraseological minimum of the average native speaker on the basis of research of dictionary materials and sequential processing of a list of texts on certain topics. This work was started by the author on the material of texts of modern Russian criminal prose when writing the “Phraseological dictionary of modern Russian detective” and will be continued.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):496-516
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Analysis of Country Specific Terminological Units in Economics from English Sources
Kalugina J.E.
Abstract

This research aims to investigate the way different unique cultural phenomena are reflected in the English financial and economic terminology. By using the special lexicographical sources, contemporary books and publications on economics, we choose three most representative groups of metaphors built on colorful and easy recognizable features of an individual culture such as national symbols, ethnic names and cuisines. First, this study examines various terminological units drawing on metaphors in terms of their semantics and structure. Second, we analyze their potential for term-building modeling. The results show that in the English professional language nationally marked metaphors become increasingly popular. They have an advantage to evoke strong associations and thus to create motivation base for a term. The latter is of paramount importance from pragmatic perspective since any term is designed to serve as a useful tool of an expert. Our findings also suggest that the process of term-building in the English financial and economic language is typically based on existing models. This provides another clear practical advantage to facilitate international communication.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):517-531
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Language Norms of International Treaties
Alontseva N.V., Ermoshin Y.A.
Abstract

This article discusses features of the implementation of linguistic norms in international treaties.The proposed study has a purpose to identify linguistic means present in international document texts, i.e. treaties that are to fix the agreement that parties achieve with a view to establishing relations and regulating them in future. The research material is 1000 texts of international treaties. The total amount of factual material analyzed is over 6000 pages. Our methodology is based on the works by domestic and foreign authors on general theory of speech activity, laws of perception and understanding of speech, and the peculiarities of the generation of a statement, translation theory, and international law. One of the most important means of expressing information in a text is its lexical composition. International treaties texts comprise different types of vocabulary (common, terminological, specialized, etc.) that performs text- and style forming functions. From the point of view of grammar, compiling international treaties involves using particular grammatical forms and categories, syntactic structures and types of phrases. The essence of international treaties texts implies the presence of special clichés of a business style. In the preparation and editing of international treaties, the adequate use of appropriate vocabulary and grammatical means leads to a reduction of ambiguities and discrepancies in the texts of these documents.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):532-544
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Bosnia and Herzegovina as a Historical Balkan Bridge Between Cultures, Religions and Nations
Savchenko A.V., Khmelevskii M.S.
Abstract

Given article presents an overview and analysis of the facts of the crossing of the Slavic, Oriental and European cultures in the very center of the Balkan Peninsula, as well as the connection of the Orthodox, Catholic and Muslim (Islamic) worlds and mentality in the historical retrospective of Bosnia and Herzegovina, its culture, ethnography and language. Special attention is paid to the specific moments of modern political life, socio-demographic problems, as well as to the peculiarities of the national mentality, traditions and customs of different peoples (formed as a result of confessional differences), living on the territory of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina. On this basis we try to present the specifics and uniqueness of this region: on the one hand, the Slavonic one, and on the other, not being such in the traditional and direct meaning of this word. Along with these questions, stereotyped views of the peoples of the former Yugoslavia on the Muslim part of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, their actual implementation in contemporary culture, literature and language, as well as their transformation as a result of the crucial political events of the 1990s, are also considered. In the article it is concluded for the first time that apart from the notions Slavia Orthodoxa and Slavia Romana, traditionally accepted in the science about the Slavs, from the XVI century, the third world - Slavia Muslim with its mentality, culture, religion and language has started to form in the Balkans.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):545-559
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Text Semantic Field Method as a Possibility of Systemic Approach to the Study of Literary Text: on the Material of the Novel “HOME OF THE GENTRY” by I.S. Turgenev
Na V., Kobylko J.
Abstract

The article is devoted to identifying the explanatory potential of the text semantic field method as a system method in understanding the nature of connections between different levels of a literary text. It allows us to reach the super-category of the author's image, which acts as the organizing beginning of a literary text. Thus, the text semantic field is both the object and the method of the research. The method of comparative analysis revealed that the overcoming of natural language oppositions, inherent in the artistic text, can be manifested to a greater or lesser extent: from the weakening of semantic oppositions of natural language due to the enhanced semantic convergence of implicitly related semantic units, which can be observed, as shown by the study, in the novel by I.S. Turgenev “Home of the Gentry”, to the complete destruction of natural language oppositions, originally inherent, as it was proved in the works of O.I. Valentinova, in the aesthetics of polyphony. The comparison made possible to clarify that the principles of the organization of text semantic fields in artistic texts can perform opposite functions: to increase the semiotic significance of the image category, as it happens in the novel analyzed by I.S. Turgenev, or, on the contrary, as proved in the research of O.I. Valentinova, to indicate a decrease in the semiotic significance of the image category, which is a constitutive property of polyphonic texts. The use of the comparative method also allowed us to show that overcoming the oppositions of natural language, as a mechanism for the formation of text semantic fields not only of a literary text, but also semiotically complex texts of a different etiology, performs different functions. A comparison of character education text semantic fields of literary texts with the study of E.Yu. Medvedev the principle of formation of the text fields in the Orthodox liturgical sermons have clarified that if the destruction of the oppositions of natural language in a literary text generates occasional oppositions, will appear on the ‘me’ of the artist, overcoming the oppositions of natural language in liturgical preaching brings to the ontological meanings that exist outside of the will and consciousness of the preacher.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):560-571
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FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR
Typical Grammatical Peculiarities of Formal and Business Writing in the Russian and Swedish Languages
Matytsina I.V.
Abstract

The article deals with comparative analysis of the Russian-Swedish parallel texts of the Convention between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden about mutual assistance in the fight against the violation of the tax legislation (Avtal mellan konungariket Sveriges regering och Ryska federationens regering om ömsesidigt bistånd vid bekämpning av vissa fiskala brott). The Swedish and Russian texts differ immensely in their lexical and grammatical structure. The reason for these discrepancies is rooted, firstly, in typological distinctions between Russian and Swedish as languages of different groups and, secondly, in those processes of conscious simplification and regulation that the Swedish Language of formal business communication have been affected by during the last fifty years particularly in relation to clear language policy (klarspråk). In spite of some innovations the Russian Language of formal business communication in many ways continues to be traditional enough. The article is focused on a narrow range of issues relating to differences in grammatical structure of a sentence and prevailing nominal structures in the Russian text as compared with the verb oriented Swedish one. The juxtaposition of parallel texts and further systematization of differences between the Russian and Swedish Languages of formal and business communication makes it possible to give a comparative characteristic of this functional style existing in Russia and Sweden. The research is carried out by means of the continuous sampling method using the method of linguistic description to characterize utterance structure in grammar. Research results can be used in courses on a comparative typology of Russian and Swedish, stylistics, the theory and practice of translation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):572-584
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Infinitive Interrogative Sentences in Russian and Persian: Modal Meanings of Potentiality and Efficiency
Hoseini A.A., Kahnamouei T.K.
Abstract

The article is a study of infinitive interrogative sentences bearing meanings of potentiality and efficiency in Russian and the means to render those in Persian. Both for Russian and Persian, such interrogative syntactic constructions and the relevant range of meanings are typical. As is known, in Russian infinitive is a verbal form though in a sentence it can combine the noun-and-verb functions, while in Persian, infinitive functions as a noun. As a rule, so-called Russian ‘indefinite verbal form’ reflects various subjective and objective modal meanings, in particular, those of potentiality and efficiency which differs in Persian rather to reflect modal meanings of desirability, possibility, necessity, the must, inevitability, doubt, motive, etc. In relevant contexts the combination of modal meanings of desirability and possibility forms the potentiality meaning which is expressed by various linguistic means to form sentences: intonation, lexical and grammatical units, semantical components; other contexts of using such linguistic means to combine modal meanings of desirability and motive reveal the meaning of efficiency. The meanings themselves are not characteristic of Persian infinitive primarily due to their grammatical properties and belong to nouns therefore in Persian the mentioned above meanings and senses could be reflected by other linguistic means as well. The task of the study is to tackle the question of what are the means and manner they might make linguistic analogy to transmit semantics of potentiality and efficiency in Persian, while they are expressed in Russian infinitive interrogative sentences and rhetorical questions.The article treats infinitive interrogative sentences and rhetorical questions with infinitive as a predicate to render the semantics of potentiality and efficiency on the drama texts by M.Yu. Lermontov and A.P. Chekhov and the epic novel by A.N. Tolstoy. In course of comparative study, the translations into Persian of those texts were involved to find out similarities and differences of linguistic means used to reflect and reveal the semantics of infinitive interrogative sentences.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):585-595
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REVIEWS
Krasina, E.A. (2020). Review on the Book: Kryukova O.P. Verbal-intellectual Activity in linguistic theory and teaching practice (Experimental study of cognitive structures of language acquisition in English and Russian): [Electronic resource]: monography. Text electronic data (3.3 Mb). Moscow: IIU MGOU, 2019. CD-ROM opt. disk. Systemic requirements: Intel Pentium or the analogues, 1 GGH; 512 Mb short term memory; CD-ROM drive; Microsoft Windows XP SL 2 or the next ones; Adobe Reader 7.0 (or the analogues to read pdf files)
Krasina E.A.
Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(3):596-603
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