Vol 16, No 1 (2018)

Russian Language in the World
Russian language in Hungary: from past to future
Hamsovszki S.A.
Abstract

The article deals with history, process and scientific researches of teaching Russian as a foreign language in Hungary since the middle of the XIX-th centure. The author in chronological order defines the different periods of learning the language withing the system of teaching foreign languages from the genesis upto these days dealing with the evolution components. The author pays attention on the influence of historical and geopolitical processes on the object of research. The emerging increased interest in the study of the Russian language in Hungary is due to the recent development of trade-economic and cultural ties between Hungary and Russia, strengthening Russia’s position in other areas. In the Hungarian labour market the need for specialists, fluent in Russian and able to become active participants in the ongoing process of strengthening bilateral relations increases. Teaching Russian outside the language environment makes it difficult and complicated the process of mastering it at the appropriate level needed for communication and solving professional problems. Beginners than start learning Russian immediately face with difficulties caused not only by differences of the Cyrillic alphabet from the Latin alphabet, but also the polysemy of some of the most frequently used words, flexions the Russian words, the two stems of the verb, usage of verbs of motion and aspects of the verbs.Moreover, the number of training hours significantly reduced after the transition of higher education in Hungary to the Bologna system., that puts as to students and to teachers a complex task. Currently the number of teaching hours in universties at non-philological specialties is no more than 60 hours per semester. Future economists, marketing specialists, workers in the tourism and hospitality industry expect to start learning Russian from the beginning and during the bachelor, i.e. after not more than 360 classes during six semesters, to be proficient not only in the language of everyday communication, but also to pass the state exam in Business Russian (level B 2), which, along with proven knowledge of another foreign language entitles the graduate to receive a diploma. Despite these difficulties, students choose Russian language as a second or third foreign language. The research of the process of developing teaching Russian in Hungary and the motivation to study it bases on diagnostiv methods.

Russian Language Studies. 2018;16(1):7-26
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Actual Problems of Russian Language Studies
About national-cultural performance of russian philological disciplines
Annushkin V.I.
Abstract

The article analyzes the national-cultural specificity and terminology of Russian philological disciplines as a kind of scientific doctrine in different fields of knowledge, which was formed on the basis of classical theoretical guidelines and modern studies of Russian philological scientists. Russian philology goes back to ancient theories of language and speech, but the development of specific disciplines (grammar, rhetoric, logic, poetics) took on a peculiar cultural appearance in the creativity of specific authors and this appearance was significantly different from Western guidelines. The attitude to the authoritative Western leadership could be threefold: copying and comprehension, translation and processing and own additions, independent creativity in the creation of own terminology and new theories of language.Four basic terms are considered, corresponding to the four scientific theories, which are most relevant to the language practice and communication of modern society. This - actually philology, “slovesnost” (literature), rhetoric, the culture of speech. It was in the Russian scientific tradition that an understanding of general philology as a science studying the rules and laws of creation, transmission, storage, reproduction and functioning of verbal products was formed. Philology links the development of the culture of mankind both with the technology of creating speech, and with the improvement of the semantic content of the text.Russian scientific culture belongs to the creation of the term “slovesnost” (“literature”), originally understood as a gift of speech, verbal ability, but formed into a fundamental theory that studies the totality of all verbal products of the national speech culture. “Slovesnost” was also understood as the science of word in the broadest sense, and as verbal creativity, the art of speech.The article summarizes information about the national specifics of Russian rhetoric, which, of course, goes back to ancient theories, but it took shape in an original scientific concept that presupposes the following meanings: rhetoric - 1) the fundamental science of laws and rules for constructing thought and speech; 2) the doctrine of expedient and effective, convincing and appropriate speech; 3) the art of speech (eloquence), based on talent, the development of speech abilities of a person’s linguistic personality.In the Russian philological science of the twentieth century such an original direction took shape, as the culture of speech, originally understood as the teaching of the literary norm. The modern language situation requires a broader interpretation as the term culture (preservation and creative innovation in speech activity), and the term speech, which requires both a culture of thought, and the culture of the word, and the culture of the sentence, the phrase, the text as a whole, and the pronunciation culture. The author of the article confirms the uniqueness of the Russian national scientific tradition and this is the best evidence of the national contribution to the development of world scientific thought. Prospects for the study are a comparison of the existing Russian national concept of philology with foreign traditions and the current state of scientific thought both in the West and in the East, whereone develops his own vision and interpretation of the issues examined.

Russian Language Studies. 2018;16(1):27-49
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Publicism in the course of the Russian literature language:from Old Russian literature to internet communications
Ivanova M.V., Klushina N.I.
Abstract
The present article briefly studies the formation of Russian publicism and its development till present day in regards to the historic and linguistic aspect. The author distinguishes three stages in publicism formation. The first stage is “historic”. It represents the formation of publicism at the intersection of literary and business languages as the special form of the Russian language that includes the image of the author who is focused on the Russian rhetoric ideal. The author expresses his position and gives evaluation of established facts and these are constitutive features of publicism. The second stage is connected with the development of functional stylistics in national science. It describes and institutionalises the system of functional styles in the Russian language. This system consists of 5 equal styles. The publicistic style is defined through the system of publicistic genre and its peculiar features are social evaluativity, author’s position, the image of the author and journalist and his typology, structure block “adressant/addressee”, ideologeme and so an. The third stage - contemporary times when due to extralinguistic factors (especially the Internet), publicism transforms and adapts to new mediaculture. These transformations affect genre system of publicistic style as well as constitutive features of publicism in general. The author points out the formation of new internet style. The basis of this internet style is a particular type of text - mediatext.
Russian Language Studies. 2018;16(1):50-62
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Rhetorical relations of contrast in the blog text: marking means, semantics, functions
Kovtunenko I.V.
Abstract

The article analyzes the rhetorical structures with the contrast semantics and their functions in the blog text, special attention is paid to the contrast relations at the nexus of the blogger’s message and the readers’ reactive commentaries, connection of these relations with the further text deployment. The rhetorical contrast relations are interpreted in the article as the pragmatic format of expressing the incompatibility between the interlocutors’ rational settings while having the same emotional and volitional state. Within the frameworks of the blog text we reveal the rhetorical contrast relation model which includes the justification of the contrast appropriateness from commenting readers. The problematic state of affairs representation as the stimulus presupposes the reactive explanation of the state of affairs resolution ways. The rhetorical contrast relations within the frameworks of the blogger’s stimulus and the reader’s reactive commentary predetermine the coherence of jointly generated virtual text which is marked by the adversative conjunction but or be the communicative context itself. The contrast and its reasoning coordinate the blogger and reader’s modus spheres with the obvious differences in their views upon the state of affairs under discussion. It is demonstrated that in the blog text the rhetorical contrast relations are associated consistently with the expressing of incompatible points of view shared by the interlocutors. In this case the adversative conjunction but pragmatic function is to to correlate the views expressed in the asynchronous time plane and, consequently, to contribute to the linear unfolding of jointly generated text. The functional importance of the adversative conjunction but is specified in the interactive aspect. It is illustrated that this kind of conjunction functions as a kind of signal that the reader realizing the reactive review undertakes the obligation of maintaining the joint design of the contrasting ideas embodied in the blog text.

Russian Language Studies. 2018;16(1):63-90
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Discourse ethics as a foundation for development of thespeech personality of a future teacher
Kurtseva Z.I., Erokhina E.L.
Abstract

The relevance of this article is in the approach to addressing the philosophical issue of discourse ethics from the perspective of communicative development and the personality development of the future education professional. The authors emphasized the communicative and ethical part of the interaction between partners. The study presented in the article has following objectives: to clarify the relation between the philosophical definition of “discourse ethics” and the field of pedagogical speech studies and to define the specificities of discourse ethics in pedagogical communication; to justify the significance of the communicative category of “speech act” in the discourse ethics of pedagogical interaction and to present the main features that distinguish the speech act from the speech activity; to identify and describe the specificity of discourse ethics in case of inquiry based learning; to characterize the speech personality of the teacher (academic advisor) primarily through the aspect of the moral and ethical norms of the academic culture, which he exercises. The study used the following theoretical methods: examination, analysis and comparative analysis of philosophical, culturological, psychological-pedagogical, speech-study, and methodical literature, language-semantic analysis of speech terms, as well as diagnostic methods: interview and questionnaire of teachers, schoolchildren, students; conversations (recorded) with teachers (academic advisors) and students-researchers; analysis of oral and written texts created by the subjects of inquiry based learning; analysis of the expert protocols of the school scientific and practical conferences; examination and summary of pedagogical experience. As a result of the study, the authors conclude, that in the course of pedagogical interaction the discourse ethics requires the participants to observe ethical, communicative and moral standards and to aim at creating an ideal language and speech situation, which the teacher and his speech acts ultimately broadcasts. The article introduces the main features that distinguish speech act from the speech action and justifies the importance of the “speech act” communicative category in discourse ethics. As a result of the review of the discourse ethics in the dimension of inquiry based learning the definition of the concept of “academic culture” is specified with regard to school academic discourse; the definition is given to the cultural and speech environment, essential for the formation and development of the moral and value component of the speech personality of the subject of the inquiry based learning; the most important techniques and methods for enculturation of the subjects of inquiry based learning are described; the three-tier model of the teacher’s (academic advisor’s) speech personality is presented. The authors note the importance of the stated problem in connection with the expansion of cross-cultural contacts and underline the significance of the theory of discourse ethics and its implementation at all its levels, which have an important influence on the communicative and moral development of future education professionals.

Russian Language Studies. 2018;16(1):91-108
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Page of a young scientist
Word-formative neologisms’ riskogenics in modern media texts of socialand political orientation
Solovyova D.V.
Abstract

This article is devoted to the study of media texts of social and political trend from the positions of speech culture. Expressive word creation is one of the modern mass communicational riskogenics factors. Neologisms in media texts create a variety of communicative risks: they distort a message sense, generate unnecessary meaning shades, obstruct understanding, annoy readers, break ethic norms, etc. Media texts are being analyzed from the effectiveness of talk exchange between audience and addresser position. Timeliness of the article is caused by Russian society demand in understanding coming up communicative risks which often become a cause of mass public order disruptions. Study materials can be used for developing new aspects of teaching linguistic disciplines for academic students studying journalism and journalistic practice in writing media texts. Socially and politically trend materials of central Russian newspapers were used as sources of word-formative neologisms.

Russian Language Studies. 2018;16(1):109-123
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Chronicle. Conferences
IV International Pedagogical Forum “Text of the Culture and Cultureof the Text”
Senatorova O.A.
Abstract
Russian Language Studies. 2018;16(1):124-128
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VII International Forum of Russianists “Bratislava Meetings in theTatras”
Bujnak M.
Abstract
Russian Language Studies. 2018;16(1):129-132
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