Vol 11, No 4 (2020)

Functional grammar. Functional Semantics

Functional and Semantic Attribution of the Future Tense Grammatical Markers in The Korean Language

Mamontov A.S., Stolyarova A.G.


The article discusses functional and semantic status of Future Tense grammatical markers of the Korean language. Despite the fact that discussions on this issue have been going on for more than a dozen years, still among researchers, there is no consensus on how many grammemes make up the category of Tense in Korean, whether it contains an independent Future Tense grammeme, and if so, which markers should be relevant to it. Due to the relevance of the problem, the authors aim to give a brief overview of the opinions on the issue, dividing them into two groups - asserting the presence of the Future Tense grammeme in Korean or denying it, as well as to justify personal position on the status of grammatical markers with prospective semantics. As research material, various Korean grammar researches and Korean grammar (connective and finite endings and constructions with - (으)ㄹ Korean Future Tense participle marker) are used. The result of the study shows that Korean Tense category has no specific Future Tense forms as opposed to the Present and Past Tense forms. All markers with prospective semantics are modal, which means that the Futurum category in Korean implements itself in the functional and semantic field of modality rather than temporality. Authors argue statement that -(으)ㄹ 것이다 Korean construction has the ability to act as neutral non-modal Future Tense marker. According to the point of view of a systemically oriented approach to the grammatical units analysis, presented in the article, the conclusion about Korean -(으)ㄹ 것이다s’ modal status is made.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(4):611-624
pages 611-624 views

Negative Russian Pronoun Что

Trufanova I.V.


For the first time in linguistics, the article distinguishes negative pronouns of a pronoun-noun and pronoun-adjective. Their lexical meanings, grammatical features and syntactic functions are determined. A negative pronoun is a noun that means ‘nothing’ (in Russian both - ничто and ничего ), a negative Russian pronoun что meaning ‘whatever, none’. Both pronouns function as the principle sentence component, mainly in negative genitive sentences or as a predicate in a two-memberSubject-Predicate sentence. Subject of a pronoun-noun, which is expressed by the noun of any lexico-grammatical category or infinitive, with a negative pronoun-adjective, which is an infinitive. Both negative pronouns function in rhetorical questions expressing negation in the affirmative form. Subject combined with a pronoun-noun could be expressed by a noun of any lexico-grammatical category or infinitive, with a negative pronoun-adjective что , which could also be formed by an infinitive. Both negative pronouns function in rhetorical questions expressing negation in the affirmative form. The meanings of both negative pronouns are syntactically limited (by the function of the predicate or the principle component of the negative genitive sentence) and structurally determined (be found in the construction with the dative of the authorizer). The meaning of a negative pronoun-adjective is also phraseologically confined, a negative pronoun is an adjective that is always used with the Russian words like проку, толку, выгоды, пользы, прибыли, добра . Three meanings stand out for a negative pronoun ничто : 1) ontological vacuum, nonexistence, absence of an object; 2) something insignificant, insignificant, not worthy of attention; 3) denial of the significance of a person, insignificance. A negative pronoun что is a noun that means ‘something insignificant, insignificant, not worthy of attention’ (or ‘(as it were) the absence of something/someone (for the authorizer)’), or ‘absence (of benefit)’. A negative pronoun что is an adjective that has one of the meanings of a negative pronoun-adjective никакой meaning ‘none of the available or possible’. Despite the indeclinability, a negative pronoun что expresses the noun-meanings of the nominative and genitive cases, while being a negative pronoun-adjective to denote the genitive case, either masculine or feminine. The data collected is retrieved from the National Corps of the Russian Language (NCRL). As the main methodological technique, the substitution method was applied. The theoretical basis of the article was the work on homocomplexes, functional homonyms, poly-functional words, the differentiation of homonymy and polysemy. The theoretical significance of the study lies in the fact that the results allow us expand the linguistic understanding of the semantic and grammatical nature of the pronoun as well as the issue of pronoun syncretism in general, the differentiation of homonymy and polysemy of the classes of pronouns, as well as the varieties of genitive sentences. The data collected can be useful for lexicographic practice: compiling dictionaries of homonyms, grammatical homonyms, explanatory dictionaries, as well as to clarify the typology of one-member sentences. The relevance of the topic is determined by the necessity to establish the full list of pronouns in the Russian language, as well as the importance of studying the phenomena of functional homonymy, transition and syncretism and the importance of solving the problem of distinguishing homonymy and polysemy.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(4):625-658
pages 625-658 views

Aphorism as an Object of Linguistics: the Main Properties

Ivanov E.E.


The article presents an attempt to establish and describe the main properties of aphorism as an object of linguistics. In modern linguistics, a number of researches are devoted to the study of aphorism as a phrase text and a fixed phrase. However, the concept of aphorism in linguistics does not have its own definition. In this regard, the analysis of the linguistically relevant properties of the aphorism that characterize its linguistic nature is of current importance. The purpose of the study is to determine and describe the minimum number of the most linguistically significant properties of an aphorism, to establish their obligatory / optional character, their specificity / generality (for aphorism and more than a word units close to it). Research methods - descriptive method, structural, semantic, functional, discursive, stylistic analysis, taxonomy. The material for the research was the statements in Russian, English, Belarusian, Polish, contained in written texts of different genres, as well as in compilations from various sources, in reference editions, in the title of which the term aphorism (or its derivative - aphoristic ) was used. The total number of analyzed units is over 50,000 from over 120 sources. As a result of the study, it was found that linguistically relevant properties of aphorism (differentiating it as an object of linguistics) are more than a word nature, one phrase structure, generalized meaning, nominative nature, discursive autonomy, textuality, reproducibility, stability, idiomatic nature, expressiveness of the verbal form. A number of properties coincide in aphorisms and phraseological units (more than word nature, reproducibility, stability, idiomatic nature), but none is obligatory for aphorism. Obligatory properties of aphorism are one phrase structure, generalized meaning, nominative nature, discursive autonomy. The main (differential) property of aphorism as an object of linguistics is the generalized meaning, which in relation to the expressed reality has a specific character - universal character. The introduction of linguistically relevant features of aphorism into science allows it to be defined in terms of linguistics as a one-phrase unit, nominative, discursively autonomous, predominantly more than a word units, reproducible, fixed unit that differs from all other more than a word units in one specific property - the generalized meaning (a universal generalization of reality). This property characterizes aphorisms as a variety of linguistic units (phrase texts or fixed phrases), determines their discursive autonomy and nominative nature, and manifests the categorical quality of their content plan - aphoristic nature.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(4):659-706
pages 659-706 views

Ta-Marbuta as Grammatical and Semantic Indicator: Harf or Affix?

Zarytovskaya V.N.


The article discusses the functional significance of such a graphic embodiment of the letter ta as ta-marbuta (ta-linked), which is not available in the Arabic alphabet. Traditionally included in Arabic studies in the phonetics-graphic section as a phenomenon specific to writing and reading rules, as well as a narrow grammar paragraph related to the female category indicator, ta-marbuta, as follows from the semantic comparison of the Arabic words selected by us, which in their own way morphological composition differ only in the presence of this affix, performs a more complex role in the language. The question is raised about the correctness of the name of ta-marbuta by letter (harf) or affix, the characteristics of which are inherent in it. The wide range of uses of ta-marbuta as a feminine affix, uniqueness affinity, substantiation, etc., as well as open and systematized semantic distinguishing shades of words with the same basis with ta-marbuta and without it, allow us to say that this affix has to be established as multifunctional and operates at various levels of the language - from morphology to semantics. Based on an analysis of the vast material, conclusions are drawn about the high productivity of ta-marbuta as an inflectional and word-formation formant, which allows transmitting a number of qualifying values, and not just a female affix. The lists of words that participate in word formation along with this affix are clarified - masdars of certain types of the verb, collective names, relative adjectives, less often high-quality adjectives, etc. All this ultimately speaks of the Arabic as a modern and developed language that can convey the most subtle semantic nuances, as well as having great potential for the formation of new lexical units.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(4):707-715
pages 707-715 views

Euphemism: Prosodic Organization of Conceptual Components

Logvina S.A.


This article is devoted to the analysis of the formation of linguistic forms within the nominative process of euphemism. The psycholinguistic potential of euphemism forms a complex phenomenon with figurative, verbal, non-verbal, as well as silence components, has a peculiar intonational-prosodic design, which marks euphemisms in oral speech and, as a result, affects the level of priority of the information used in the communicative act. The study was based on semi-synthetic statements, elements of a euphemistic nature, namely “euphemisms-automatisms”. Selected monologic statements taken from interviews were analyzed with an emphasis on prosodic characteristics such as rhythmic utterances and pauses before and after euphemism-automatism. Audio and acoustic analysis allows us to conclude that in the formation of a euphemistic utterance, dramatization is of decisive importance as a subjective psycholinguistic factor. Increasing dramatization contributes to the growth of rhythmic tension and the distribution of stress. The rhythmic pattern of euphemistic utterances has a steady and consistent design. Pause is used to enhance the significance of the basic denotative meaning; however, this process does not differ in regularity and depends on what happens by internal and internal factors. The pause before correlates with the volume of the individual’s cognitive efforts spent on creating the “euphemism-automatism”. The pause after , according to the author, offers compensation for the lexical “primitiveness” and is designed to enhance the euphemistic pragmatic effect with the help of extralinguistic components. This indicates that in cases where the euphemistic pragmatic potential is not provided due to the lexical component, it is compensated by means of prosodic labeling. Summing up, the author provides that the construction of an unambiguous unified algorithm for the phonetic design of euphemisms-automatisms in speech is not possible.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(4):716-732
pages 716-732 views

Means of Implicitness in Russian Political Weblogs

Vidineeva N.Y.


The study concerns genre characteristics of weblogs as well as the analysis of linguistic means of implicitness in political weblogs. The ongoing communication media development challenges researches with the investigation of its features. From the linguistic standpoint, the genre approach to media studies seems to be the most relevant. We assume that pragmatic genre studies meet the needs of weblogs investigation in the best possible way. This is due to taking into consideration the genre interlocutory nature and the factors of the speaker and the recipient. A weblog is a hybrid genre originating from personal diaries. We argue that weblogs can be considered a hypergenre which combines a weblog entry and commentaries to it. The theory of linguistic means of implicitness is developed by a number of researches. We aim at investigating the means of implicitness which bloggers tend to use. The relevance of implicit meaning studies lies in the lack of consensus on the nature of implicitness. Moreover, we consider it relevant to develop types of linguistic tools that implement implicit meanings. One more pressing research task is the description of linguistic means of implicitness typical of the Internet genres, specifically of the weblog genre. The study was conducted using qualitative general scientific and linguistic methods. The results show that Russian-speaking bloggers tend to use connotative words, idioms and allusions to implicate a negative assessment of political figures and events.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(4):733-744
pages 733-744 views

Cognitive Research

Artificial “Intelligence” and the Human Mind: Futuristic Synecdoche and Reality (Linguistic and Linguomental Aspects)

Volkov V.V.


The study aims to make a model of the semantic processes taking place during hermeneutic interpretation of the Russian terminological word-combination искусственный интеллект ( artificial intelligence ) in comparison with the noun ум ( mind ). The relevance of the work is due to the fact that “naïve” (i.e., who does not have special knowledge) native speakers tend to identify (1) mind, (2) intelligence, (3) those imitations of human cognitive activities that are associated with the use of automata and computer equipment. The semantics of the noun ум ( mind ) refers to everything that is connected with consciousness in all its manifestations; in this sense, the concept of “mind” is among the “primary concepts” that cannot be correctly defined. The word интеллект (“intelligence”) captures only a certain “part of the mind”, namely, the cognitive abilities. The human mind, consciousness is beyond the capabilities of computer imitation; intelligence, understood as “cognitive abilities”, is partially amenable to techno-electronic modeling. The term искусственный интеллект ( artificial intelligence ) is constructed as a “double synecdoche”: 1) a part instead of a whole (“intelligence” as a part - “mind” as a whole); 2) a whole instead of a part (“intelligence” as a whole - representing this whole set of electrical impulses in the computer - “a mechanism for working with data”). The semantic result is the basis of the transhuman ideology, which is based on the identification of the mind, intelligence, and computer simulations. The term “artificial intelligence” in stylistic and cultural aspects: 1) personification of the mechanism (robot, automaton, computer), 2) depersonification of the person (human); in general - depersonificational travesty. The personification of virtual simulation “intelligence” and depersonification of real, authentic intelligence / mind are interpreted as the neutralization of privative antonymic opposition, as the formation of a virtual “middle element”, which is related to the “dehumanization of human race” as a fundamental problem of our time.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(4):745-759
pages 745-759 views

Cognitive-Pragmatic Interpretation of Linguistic Personality (on the example of market-economic terminology)

Semenova S.N., Aksyutenkova L.G.


The article presents a conceptual apparatus of conceptualization on the example of economic cognitive sphere. The relevance of this work can be considered from the point of view of “language of the market” study as an accumulative sphere of fixation of “market-economic” surrounding reality, and a cognitive-pragmatic aspect of human consciousness’ development. The aim was to evaluate the language of market economy from cognitive-derivational position as well as problems connected with the usage of borrowed foreign words. The authors solved the tasks: 1) analyzed and interpreted “language of the market” special vocabulary in English and Russian; 2) understood the scientific and the professional picture of the world through the “economic” language; 3) identified the specific expression of external and internal state of its participants; 4) found out the borrowed foreign words; 5) described the collected information. During the study of the material the authors used: 1) the component analysis method; 2) the continuous sampling method; 3) the analysis of terminological definitions; 4) the classification method. The researchers analyzed the concept, which was the main result and means of linguistic conceptualization of the world and the economic term as a result and means of conceptualization of the economic picture of the world. The main parameters of economic cognitive derivational system and borrowed foreign words spheres were described. A detailed analysis of terminological phrases allowed identifying the most common structural types of functioning in the economic cognitive sphere of composite economic terms and borrowed foreign words. It can be concluded that the study of the market economy language makes it possible to regard its evolution as a result of social, creative, spiritual activity of economic branch and science.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(4):760-774
pages 760-774 views

Manifestation of the Author’s Image Category in the Characteristics of the Reign of Peter the Great (based on the material of V.O. Klyuchevsky “Russian History”)

Valentinova O.I., Lele W.


The article analyzes the features of the manifestation of the category of the author’s image in the work of V.O. Klyuchevsky’s “Russian History” on the example of the characteristics of the reign of the outstanding Russian monarch - Peter I, whose reign, which dramatically changed the progressive development of Russian life, had an extremely contradictory influence on the fate of the Russian Empire until its collapse in 1917. The purpose of the work is to prove that the interpretation of the text from the standpoint of the category of the author’s image, as a supercategory serving as the organizing principle and focus of the essence of the text, reveals the internal unity of the text, not only artistic but also scientific, especially as complex and non-trivial as V.O. Klyuchevsky, possessing the highest cognitive, ethical and aesthetic value. In the course of the study, as a result of correlation of the author’s self with the content being introduced and the establishment of the principle of selecting facts exposed in the book by V.O. Klyuchevsky analysis, the scientific method that is not directly formulated in the historian’s work is explicated, which allows reconstructing the author’s image as the image of a researcher. Observation of the features of the linear development of the text makes it possible to discover ways of reinforcing meanings, to assess the degree of their fixation, and therefore, to actualize, derive fixed meanings, establish their general meaningful orientation and, on this basis, reconstruct the value-ethical side of the author’s image. Extrapolation of the concept of the image of the author, developed by V.V. Vinogradov for a systematic analysis of a literary text, designed to establish the features of each conditionally distinguished level of the text and the principle of matching all levels with each other, into scientific texts can significantly expand our understanding of the scope of application of systematic methods of analysis.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(4):775-789
pages 775-789 views

Yuri Nikolaevich Karaulov To the 85th Anniversary of Prof. Yu.N. Karaulov

Chulkina N.L., Denisenko V.N.


The article is dedicated to the 85 anniversary of Yuri Nikolaevich Karaulov (1935-2016), a well-known Soviet and Russian linguist, Doctor of Philology, Corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and winner of the USSR State prize (1991). The contribution of Yu.N. Karaulov to the development of philological education and modern linguistics is represented by the main directions of his multi-faceted research activities. Special attention is paid to the fundamental works of the scientist in the field of General and Russian linguistics, lexicology and lexicography, and applied linguistics. The article covers the results of applied research of Professor Yu.N. Karaulov, related to the main directions of its research activities: “the theory of linguistic personality”, “cognitive linguistics” and “theory and practice of lexicography”. Yu.N. Karaulov was the founder and head of the scientific school “Russian language personality”, the program of which United many research areas actively developed in modern linguistics.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2020;11(4):790-794
pages 790-794 views

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