List of references should be organized according to the Harvard guidelines in APA style (American Psychological Association, The following are the principle points you should be aware of while preparing your manuscript for submission:

  • Within the body of the text references should be provided in "Author, date" format: (Shaklein, 2003: 23) or (Klobukova & Krasilnikova, 1987) or (Shaklein, 2003; Klobukova, 2006).


  • If the reference work has two authors after the first author in the text of your publication put &:

Reference: Bar-Shalom, E.G., & Zaretsky, E. (2008). Selective attrition in Russian-English bilingual children: Preservation of grammatical aspect. International Journal of Bilingualism. 12(4). 281—302.

Citation: (Bar-Shalom & Zaretsky, 2008: 282).

  • If the reference work has more than two authors after the first author in the text of your publication put et al. before the last author in the text of your publication put &:

Reference: Aleshchanova I.V., Frolova N.A., Morozova E.V., & Zheltukhina M.R. (2017). Psychological and akmeological aspect of educational cognitive competence development. Proceedings of the 7th International Scientific and Practical Conference «Current issues of linguistics and didactics: The interdisciplinary approach in humanities» (CILDIAH 2017). Series: Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR). 97. 19—24.

Citation: (Aleshchanova et al., 2017: 10).

  • The reference list should be after the text and use the hanging indent method (all lines after the first one are indented).
  • The reference section should contain all works referred in the text, and only those. Number of references is preferably should be no less than 25-30.
  • A complete list of all authors should be presented in every bibliographical entry. Do not shorten titles of your citations.
  • They must be listed fully in alphabetical order of author/editor, with complete bibliographical details (including publisher).
  • Reference entries for multiple works by the same author/editor should be listed chronologically, with the oldest publication at the top and the newest at the bottom.
  • Journal and book titles must be given in full and must be printed in italics. Page references must be given for articles in books and journals.
  • A note on capitalization in titles. Use capitalization of all lexical words for journal and book titles and capitalize only the first word (plus proper names and the first word after a colon) for article/chapter titles. The journal style for capitalization should also be applied to titles of book series.
  • For information obtained electronically or online include the DOI:

DOI — a unique alphanumeric string assigned to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article near the copyright notice. When a DOI is used in your citation, no other retrieval information is needed. Use this format for the DOI in references:

  • The string “” is a way of presenting a DOI as a link, and “xxxxx” refers to the DOI number.
  • If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal or of the book or report publisher. Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines; do not add a period after a URL, to prevent the impression that the period is part of the URL.
  • In general, it is not necessary to include database information. Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material has changed over time.
  • You can find sample references in the References Examples


Whole Book:

Wierzbicka, A. (1999). Emotions across languages and cultures: Diversity and universality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dijk, V. T. (1998). Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach.  London: Sage.

Markowski, A. (2002). Kultura języka. Nowy słownik poprawnej polszczyzny. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN Publ. (In Polish).

Vereshchagin, E. M., & Kostomarov, V. G. (1983). Language and culture. Linguistic and cultural studies in teaching Russian as a foreign language. Moscow: Russkii yazyk Publ. (In Russ.).

Shaklein, V. M. (2012). Historical linguoculturology of the text. Moscow: RUDN Publ. (In Russ.).

  • Parenthetical citations:(Wierzbicka, 1999; Dijk, 1998; Markowski, 2002; Vereshchagin & Kostomarov, 1983; Shaklein, 2012)
  • Narrative citations:Wierzbicka (1999), Dijk (1998), Markowski (2002), Vereshchagin & Kostomarov (1983) and Shaklein (2012)


Gregory, G., & Parry, T. (2006). Designing brain-compatible learning (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

  • Parenthetical citations:(Gregory & Parry, 2006)
  • Narrative citations: Gregory & Parry (2006)

Edited book

Evgen'eva, A. P. (Ed.). (1985). Dictionary of the Russian language : in 4 vol. Vol. 1. (3rd edition., p. 696). Moscow: Russian Language Publ. (In Russ.).

  • Parenthetical citations:(Evgen'eva, 1985)
  • Narrative citations: Evgen'eva (1985)

Chapter of a Book:

Kecskes, I. (2007). Formulaic language in English Lingua Franca. In Kecskes, I. & L. Horn (Еds.). Explorations in Pragmatics: Linguistic, Cognitive and Intercultural Aspects (pp.191–219). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter Publ.

Keen, K. (1992). Competence: What is it and how can it be developed? In J. Lowyck, P. de Potter, & J. Elen (Еds.). Instructional Design: Implementation Issues (pp. 111–122). Brussels: IBM Education Center Publ.

  • Parenthetical citations:(Kecskes, 2006; Keen, 1992)
  • Narrative citations: Kecskes (2006) and Keen (1992)

Chapter in an edited book, reprinted from another book:

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005). The social ecology of human development: A retrospective conclusion. In U. Bronfenbrenner (Ed.), Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development (pp. 27–40). SAGE Publications. (Reprinted from Brain and intelligence: The ecology of child development, pp. 113–123, by F. Richardson, Ed., 1973, National Educational Press)

  • Parenthetical citations: (Bronfenbrenner, 1973/2005)
  • Narrative citations: Bronfenbrenner (1973/2005)

Journal Article without DOI (when DOI is not available):

Alyunina, Yu.M. & Shaklein, V.M. (2019). Russian as a foreign language for specific purposes: medical students listening skills training. International post-graduate student bulletin. Russian language abroad. 1, 25–29. (In Russ.).

Shaklein, V.M., Deryabina, S.A., Mikova, S.S. & Mitrofanova, I.I. (2019). Linguistic and cultural aspect of the contents of national oriented manual of West African students. Russian language abroad. 3(274), 97–103. (In Russ.).

  • Parenthetical citations:(Alyunina & Shaklein, 2019; Shaklein et al., 2019)
  • Narrative citations: Alyunina & Shaklein (2019) and Shaklein et al. (2019)

Journal Article with DOI:

Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind's eye. Memory & Cognition. 3, 635—647.

  • Parenthetical citations:(Paivio, 1975)
  • Narrative citations: Paivio (1975)

Journal Article / Book published online:

Becker, E. (2001, August 27). Prairie farmers reap conservation's rewards. The New York Times.

  • Parenthetical citations:(Becker, 2001)
  • Narrative citations: Becker (2001)

Web page on a Website:

Gats, I. Yu. (2017). Linguistic and methodic obstacles in language training of schoolers. Izvestiya of Southern Federal University. Philological sciences. 4, 213–220.

Dictionary of the Russian Language. (n.d.).

  • Parenthetical citations:(Gats, 2017; Dictionary of the Russian Language, n.d.)
  • Narrative citations: Gats (2017); Dictionary of the Russian Language (n.d.)

References on several works of the same author, published in the same period

Vennemann, Theo. (2000a). From quantity to syllable cuts: On so-called lengthening in the Germanic languages. Journal of Italian Linguistics. 12, 251–282.

Vennemann, Theo. (2000b). Triple-cluster reduction in Germanic: Etymology without sound laws? Historische Sprachwissenschaft. 113, 239–258.

  • Parenthetical citations:(Vennemann, 2000a; Vennemann, 2000b)
  • Narrative citations: Venneman (2000a; 2000b)


Evgen'eva, A. P. (Ed.). (1985). Dictionary of the Russian language. Moscow: Russian Language Publ. (In Russ.).

  • Parenthetical citations:(Evgen’eva, 1985) or (Slovar' russkogo yazyka, 1985)
  • Narrative citations: Evgen’eva (1985) or Slovar' russkogo yazyka (1985)


Klobukova L. P. (1995). Linguistic and methodical bases of training of foreign technical students at Humanities faculties of communication on professional topics. (Doctoral dissertation, Moscow). (In Russ.).

Dyuzhikova, E. A. (1997). An abbreviation compared with the phrasing: Structure and semantics (based on the material of modern English). (Doctoral dissertation, Moscow). (In Russ.).

Blyumina, O. V. (2010). Substantive composites with the meaning of processuality in the Russian language. (Candidate dissertation, Gorlovka). (In Russ.).

  • Parenthetical citations:(Klobukova, 1995; Dyuzhikova, 1997; Blyumina, 2010)
  • Narrative citations: Klobukova (1995), Dyuzhikova (1997); Blyumina (2010)

Author’s abstract:

Strelchuk, E. N. (2008). Linguistic and methodological bases of training foreign pupils to culture of Russian written speech at a stage of pre-University training. [Author’s abstr. cand. ped. diss.]. Moscow. (In Russ.).

Kirilova, V. V. (2008). Formation of skills of the argument in oral speech of pupils of average special educational institutions of Republic Northern Ossetia-Alania. [Author’s abstr. cand. ped. diss.]. Vladikavkaz. (In Russ.).

  • Parenthetical citations:(Strelchuk, 2008; Kirilova, 2008)
  • Narrative citations: Strelchuk (2008) and Kirilova (2008)


Formanovskaya, N. I. (2006). Speech etiquette: Traditions and innovations in cross-cultural communication. Traditions and innovations in teaching Russian as a foreign language: Proceedings of the International Scientific-practical Conference (pp. 191—192). Moscow: MAKS Press Publ. (In Russ.).

  • Parenthetical citations:(Formanovskaya, 2006)
  • Narrative citations: Formanovskaya (2006)

Conference material:

Velichko, A. V. (2012). Cultural aspect in the language classes of the specialty. The Dynamics of linguistic and cultural processes in modern Russia: Proceedings of the III Congress ROPRYAL. 2, 286–289. Saint-Petersburg: MIRS Publ. (In Russ.).

Hmira, T. (2017). Russian language in Slovak schools: current status and prospects. Actual problems of the Russian language and methods of its teaching: Proceedings of the XIV Student Scientific and Practical Conference (pp. 70–72). Moscow: RUDN Publ. (In Russ.).

  • Parenthetical citations:(Formanovskaya, 2006)
  • Narrative citations: Formanovskaya (2006)

References to the publications from newspapers, dictionaries (if they are the subject of research), literary texts, and regulatory documents are made out as footnotes to the text of the article at the end of each page in the APA style:

  • Regulatory documents: «Unlike educational legislation of most western democracies…»1.


1The Law on Education. (2021, December 29).

  • Literary texts: «During his first five years in Maycomb, Atticus practiced economy more than anything; for several years thereafter he invested his earnings in his brother’s education. John Hale Finch was ten years younger than my father, and chose to study medicine at a time when cotton was not worth growing»2.


2Harper, Lee. (1998). To Kill a Mockingbird. HarperCollins Publisher.

  • Newspapers: … «As a part of their strive in educational enhancement, the People’s Friendship University of Russia (formerly known as RUDN, Lumumba University etc.), with the assistance of the Russkiy Mir Foundation and the support of the Rossotrudnichestvo representative office ( the Russian Centre in Colombo)  organized a series of workshops for the local students interested in pursuing their higher education, specializing in Russian Language…»3.


3No author. (2019, December 22). Russian language workshops in Colombo. The Sunday Times.

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