Vol 27, No 1 (2023): GINECOLOGY


Group B streptococcus in obstetrics: unsolved problems

Radzinsky V.E., Doronina O.K., Olenev A.S., Stetsyuk O.V.


For several decades, among all possible pathogens of neonatal infections, group B streptococcus has been one of the leading positions. Sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia are among the most common clinical manifestations of neonatal infection associated with group B streptococcus. In this review, our goal was to analyze the literature demonstrating a worldwide approach to the prevention of vertical transmission of group B streptococcus from mother to child. When writing the review, scientific publications of foreign and domestic authors from the PubMed database were studied. The review considers the drugs of choice for intranatal antibiotic prophylaxis, and their pharmacodynamic, and pharmacokinetic features. The analysis details the problem of the growth of resistance of group B streptococcus to antibacterial drugs. The antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin was noted at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 500 μg/ml. The presented review also reflects the protective and therapeutic effects of oral intake of probiotics containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 . Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that penicillin G and ampicillin have the most pronounced bactericidal effect against group B streptococcus. At the same time, the most common side effects of β-lactam penicillins include an allergic reaction with the possible development of anaphylactic shock. Given this, the antibiotics of the first-line reserve group include cefazolin, clindamycin, and vancomycin. At the same time, it is important to take into account the decrease in the therapeutic concentration of clindamycin with a change in the alpha-1-acid glycoprotein in the blood of the mother and fetus, the nephrotoxic effect of vancomycin and the cross-a llergic reaction of cefazolin with antibiotics of the penicillin group. A promising direction in solving the problem of group B streptococcus is the development of new strategies for the prevention of perinatal infection of the fetus and newborn based on a more detailed study of the effects of lactoferrin and probiotics.

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):9-16
pages 9-16 views

Morphological features of various variants of the course of scleroatrophic lichen of the vulva

Kolesnikova E.V., Zharov A.V., Todorov S.S., Penzhoyan G.A., Mingaleva N.V.


Relevance. Most of the scientific papers presented in the literature indicate morphological features of the stages of development of sclerotic lichen of the vulva, or in comparison with other vulvar skin lesions. At the same time, data on the features of morphological examination of vulvar biopsies, depending on the clinical variants of the course of sclerotic lichen of the vulva, is currently insufficient. The aim of the study - to determine the presence or absence of distinctive morphological features of the sclerotic lichen of the vulva, depending on the clinical variants of its course. Materials and Methods. The study included 292 patients with sclerotic lichen of the vulva (20-70 years old). Based on the scale of assessment of objective and subjective clinical signs of sclerotic lichen of the vulva developed by us, 3 clinical groups: 101 patients with an atrophic variant of the course, 154 with a sclerosing variant and 37 patients with a scleroatrophic variant of the course of sclerotic lichen of the vulva. In addition to clinical laboratory, instrumental and immunological studies, all patients underwent incisional biopsy of the vulva followed by morphological examination of biopsies. Results and Discussion. The features of the results of morphological examination of various clinical variants of the course of sclerotic lichen of the vulva are described and presented in the form of images. The characteristic morphological signs for each clinical group, as well as common signs characteristic of all variants of the course of this pathology, were revealed. Morphological examination of vulvar tissues is informative only to confirm the diagnosis of «Sclerotic lichen of the vulva», to determine the stage of the disease, as well as to exclude the malignant process, while for a clear differentiation of variants of the clinical course of sclerotic lichen of the vulva, conventional morphological examination is not enough, which requires further studies using immunohistochemical and molecular genetic methods. Conclusion. The revealed differences in morphological parameters of various variants of the course of sclerotic lichen of the vulva are insufficiently specific, which excludes the possibility of accurate morphological verification of the variants of the course of sclerotic lichen of the vulva and confirms the expediency of using clinical classification of variants of the course of sclerotic lichen of the vulva based on objective and subjective clinical signs.

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):17-38
pages 17-38 views

Pelvic floor muscle training as a method of prevention and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction and genital prolapse

Samsonova I.A., Gaifulin R.F., Toktar L.R., Orazov M.R., Kamarova Z.N., Li K.I., Pak V.E.


Relevance. Pelvic floor dysfunction and pelvic organ prolapse are a significant problem today - even the initial manifestations of pelvic floor dysfunction can lead to reduced quality of sexual life, decreased activity, and then to social isolation and decreased self-esteem of women. Due to the growth of general life expectancy, the incidence rate is also increasing. One of the most popular conservative treatments for pelvic floor dysfunction is pelvic floor muscle training. The aim of this literature review is to consolidate the scattered information about the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training as a prevention and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Materials and Methods. In writing the review, publications from the PubMed and Google Scholar databases from January 2019 were analyzed and systematized. Results and Discussion. Pelvic floor muscle training is one of the most prospective methods of non-invasive treatment for pelvic organ prolapse. It can take many forms and is represented by a range of different techniques: from the simple short-term muscle contraction and Kegel exercises to more complex and high-tech methods using electromyostimulation and biofeedback. However, timing of introduction and method for pelvic floor muscle training must be carefully considered in order to gain the maximum result. Conclusion. Based on the study, it can be concluded that the introduction of pelvic floor muscle training as part of prenatal care and in the antenatal period is the most appropriate way to prevent pelvic floor failure and genital prolapse. Further research is required to confirm the hypothesis.

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):39-45
pages 39-45 views

Immunological and immunohistochemical features of endometrial implantation factor in healthy patients of late reproductive age

Kravtsova E.I., Kolesnikova N.V., Lukoshkina I.N., Uryupina K.V., Avakimyan V.A.


Аbstract. Relevance. The number of women of older reproductive age is steadily increasing, and repeated failures of Assisted Reproductive Technologies programs during the transfer of high-quality embryos indicate the possibility of disruption of embryo implantation processes associated with impaired receptivity and functionality of the endometrium. Morphological, immunological and immunohistochemical changes in the endometrium associated with age factor may be decisive for the formation of the «implantation window» and correction of these changes and may improve the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for a cohort of patients of older reproductive age. The aim of the study - to expand the pathogenetic understanding of the violation of the implantation ability of the endometrium in healthy patients of older reproductive age. Materials and Methods. A prospective sample study of 46 patients (group 1), aged 38 to 45 years with an officially registered diagnosis of infertility lasting no more than 4 years, with a successful gynecological and obstetric history, who were about to have their first IVF attempt, was conducted. The patients were examined according to Order № 803n of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Additionally, the level of peripheral blood melatonin, the determination of progesterone, estrogen, HLA-DR (MHC II), CD56 (NK cells), CD138, leukemia inhibiting factor receptors in the endometrium were studied. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, TGFß, and VGEF were determined in the cervical secretion, with the calculation of the pro-inflammatory index, as the ratio of IL-6/IL-10 cu and the ratio of TGFß1/VEGF. Statistical data processing was performed using the Statistica 10.0 application software package (StatSoft, Inc., USA). Results and Discussion. In the group of healthy patients of older reproductive age, there is an imbalance of steroid receptors and secretory transformation of the endometrium against the background of relative hyperestrogenism, with a decrease in the reception of own hormones in the endometrium. A decrease in melatonin signals a disorder of pineal and pituitary control over ovarian cycling. There is a decrease in the expression of leukemia inhibiting factor. Signs of inactive chronic endometritis with an autoimmune component are monitored, confirmed by a pro-inflammatory cytokine balance. The predominance of fibrosis processes over angiogenesis processes is confirmed by an increase in the ratio of TGFß1/VEGF and highly resistant blood flow in the uterine arteries. Conclusion. Standard pre-gravidar preparation cannot compensate for all factors that violate the implantation potential of the endometrium in this cohort of patients and requires the development of new complex techniques that directly affect the diversity of all factors that ensure the natural extinction of reproductive potential in order to increase the effectiveness of Assisted Reproductive Technologies programs.

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):46-56
pages 46-56 views

Uterine fibroids: modern methods of treatment, advantages and complications

Aleynikova E.Y., Solovyeva A.V.


The state of the reproductive system by women with uterine fibroids is considered as a part of this literature review. The main clinical manifestations of myomatous nodes were identified by writing the review: abnormal uterine and heavy menstrual bleeding, infertility, miscarriage, chronic pelvic pain, dysfunction of adjacent organs, which are indications for surgical treatment. It is noted that approximately 30 % of women with uterine fibroids suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding, leading to anemia and reduced quality of life. Chronic pelvic pain significantly reduces the quality of life of patients, worsening their functional and mental state and disrupting sexual function. This review focuses on reproductive problems in women with leiomyoma. Taking into consideration the high prevalence of this nosology and the need to preserve the fertility of patients, the review describes modern methods of treating patients with uterine myoma, including drug therapy surgical treatment and alternative methods. Currently, in order to stop the symptoms of uterine fibroids, as well as for preoperative preparation, conservative therapy is used, which allows to reduce pain, restore hemoglobin levels, reduce intraoperative blood loss and reduce surgery time. Reproductive disorders associated with uterine fibroids, such as infertility, recurrent miscarriage, and adverse obstetric outcomes, are a significant reason to improve organ-preserving therapies or develop new ones. Although hysterectomy is a radical treatment for uterine fibroids, it is unacceptable for patients who have not realized their reproductive function. Therefore, the most justified intervention is myomectomy with various surgical approaches, and as an alternative treatment, uterine artery embolization, radiofrequency ablation or high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroids. These data allow us to conclude that the high prevalence and versatility of symptoms of uterine fibroids among patients of reproductive age determine the relevance of searching for optimal methods of treatment.

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):57-64
pages 57-64 views

Endometrial hyperplasia and progesterone resistance: a complex relationship

Orazov M.R., Mikhaleva L.M., Mullina I.A.


The endometrium is one of the most dynamic tissues that constantly undergoes changes during the menstrual cycle in women of the reproductive period. All these processes take place mainly under the influence of steroid hormones that are produced in the woman’s body. However, it is important to remember that throughout life the endometrial tissue undergoes changes under the influence of various factors that lead to imbalances in hormonal regulation. All these changes can lead to the development of endometrial hyperplasia, which has a high risk of both recurrence and malignization. Over the past few decades, the incidence of endometrial cancer has increased in many countries. This trend is thought to be related to the increasing prevalence of obesity, as well as to changing female reproductive patterns. Although there are currently no well-established screening programmers for endometrial cancer, endometrial hyperplasia is a recognized precursor, and its detection provides an opportunity for prevention. Studying the pathogenesis and risk factors will give a great advantage in the future to prevent possible complications. At this point, the activity and inhibition of the different hormone isoforms can lead to different hyperplastic processes. The management of patients depends on many factors: age, species, reproductive potential and other factors. Therefore, a comprehensive approach to treatment is always necessary. In recent years, interest in the study of endometrial hyperplasia has increased dramatically due to the increase in endometrial cancer. Therefore, the issue of early diagnosis and prevention is most urgent in modern gynecology and requires further study. This review reflects the current understanding of the disruption of progesterone signaling mechanisms in endometrial hyperplasia according to domestic and foreign literature.

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):65-70
pages 65-70 views


Diagnostic and prognostic role of cardiac pathology multicomplex autoimmune biological markers

Lovochkina E.D.


Relevance . Despite the large list of biological markers of cardiovascular diseases, not all have evidence-b ased effectiveness and independent prognostic value. Laboratory diagnostics of serum cardiospecific auto-antibodies for the diagnosis of myocyte cell damage has several potential advantages compared to the evaluation of traditional methods. These include the analysis of natural globulins to troponin I (cTnI), to alpha-a ctin 1 (ACTC1), to the heavy chain of beta-myosin 7B (MUN7B), which are based on a self-sustaining immune response to the myocardium’s own auto-antigens, which leads to damage to the cells expressing them. Purpose: To determine the diagnostic and practical value of quantitative indicators for the autoantibody complex to cardiomyocyte proteins to troponin I, to alpha-a ctin 1 and to the heavy chain of beta-myosin 7B in patients with cardiac pathology. Materials and Methods. The study of auto-antibodies to cTnI, ACTC1 and MUN7B in blood serum using laboratory enzyme immunoassay was carried out in patients with cardiac pathology undergoing inpatient treatment at the Regional Clinical Cardiology Dispensary in Stavropol. Additionally, an instrumental and laboratory examination was carried out in accordance with the clinical recommendations developed by the Association of Cardiovascular Surgeons, the Cardiological Society of Russia and approved by the Scientific and Practical Council of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The work was examined and approved by the Ethics Committee of the North Caucasus Federal University. Results and Discussion . Changes in the level of autoantibodies to cTnI, ACTC1 and MUN7B proteins in blood serum were statistically significant (p < 0.01 v. s. p < 0.01). A persistent increase in the level of auto-antibodies to cTnI by 2.36 ng/ml (694.11 %), to ACTC1 by 3.6 ng/ml (141.73 %) and to MUN7B by 1.74 ng/ml (119.17 %) was found in individuals with confirmed cardiac pathology, when other criteria for laboratory analysis were within acceptable values, which determine their diagnostic and evidentiary effectiveness. Conclusion . The results of the study showed the relationship of changes in the activity of cardiospecific auto-A T to cardiomyocyte proteins (Anti-cTnI, Anti ACTC1, Anti-M YH7B) in patients with cardiac pathologies, indicating not only systemic membrane disorders (membranopathies), but also serve as convincing evidence of direct chemical changes in cardiomyocytes. A correlation has also been established between cardiomarkers of necrosis and ischemia and autoimmune globulins Anti-cTnI, Anti ACTC1, Anti-MYH7B, that confirms diagnostic and practical value of this laboratory analysis.

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):71-82
pages 71-82 views

Cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat percentage in young adults

Soni H., Kacker S., Sorout J., Saboo N.


Relevance. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is the maximum amount of oxygen an individual can breathe in and utilize it to produce energy aerobically. The global epidemic of overweight and obesity -’globesity’ is emerging as a public health problem in many parts of the world. Almost 30-65 % of adult urban Indians is either overweight or obese or has abdominal obesity. Recently, cardiovascular ailments are increasing in the younger generation. Low levels of cardiovascular fitness and unfavorable cardiovascular risk profiles are detected in them. Total body fatness and aerobic capacity are frequently used in association with each other and it is often implied that these parameters are strongly inter-related. Both body fatness and status aerobic fitness have been shown to be risk factors for future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of cardio-respiratory fitness with body fat percentage in young adults. Materials and Methods. This was a pilot study conducted in a group of 100 subjects of age group 18 to 25 years. Ethical clearance was obtained from institutional ethical committee and written informed consent were taken from all subjects participated in the study. Following parameters were taken (a) anthropometric parameters, (b) body fat percentage, (c) physical activity level and (d) VO2max. Results and Discussion. The mean ± SD for age, height, weight, global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ score) and VO2max was found to be higher in male participants as compared to female participants while BMI was almost equal in both the genders but body fat percentage was higher in female participants. There was positive non-significant correlation of VO2max with body mass index and global physical activity in female subjects but positive significant in male subjects. And moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and VO2max in male and female subjects but not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Body fat percentage was negatively correlated with maximum oxygenconsumption (VO2 max).

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):83-89
pages 83-89 views


Clinical features and risk factors of IgE-independent atopic dermatitis in children

Nemer A.A., Zhukova O.V., Tereshchenko G.P.


Relevance. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory disease characterized by a chronic course with periods of remissions and exacerbations. IgE-independent atopic dermatitis is a medical and social problem of our time, since the disease manifests itself most often in childhood and is one of the most frequent forms of dermatoses among the pediatric population. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis among children is up to 20 %, among adults - 2-8 %. Recently, there has been a significant increase in atopic diseases worldwide. The aim: to study specific features of IgE-independent atopic dermatitis in children living in a metropolis. Materials and Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted, which included 451 children aged 5 to 14 years with a diagnosis of AD who applied for outpatient care at the Moscow Scientific and Practical Center of Dermatovenereology and Cosmetology for the period 2020-2021. All parents (guardians) have given voluntary informed consent to the participation of children in the study and the publication of personal data. Examination of patients included general clinical methods, assessment of the SCORAD index and laboratory allergological examination (total and 73 specific IgE in blood serum with the most common food and aeroallergens). In 103 (22.8 %) children (57 (55.3 %) boys and 46 (44.7 %) girls), the results of the allergological analysis did not confirm concomitant allergic sensitization. Atopic dermatitis in these children was defined as IgE-independent. Results and Discussion. Predictors of the development of IgE-independent AD were hereditary predisposition [odds ratio (OR) 2.42; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.12-5.25], artificial feeding [OR 4.04; 95 % CI 1.46-11.20], comorbidities [OR 1.42; 95 % CI 0.57-3.52], late onset [OR 1.67; 95 % CI 0.81-3.41]. According to the SCORAD index, the majority of patients (75.7 %) had a moderate degree of AD and no seasonality. Features of skin rashes corresponded to the age periods of the course of AD: erythematous-squamous forms with lichenification foci prevailed. For the first time, the features of IgE-independent atopic dermatitis in children were shown. The role of risk factors for the development of IgE-independent atopic dermatitis in children has been shown for the first time. Conclusion. IgE-independent type of AD can be diagnosed in every fifth child with AD. The study of risk factors will allow predicting the development of this type of disease.

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):90-100
pages 90-100 views


Adaptability of the tongue during orthodontic apparatus treatment

Vasilyeva M.B., Guseynov N.A.


To date, most dentoalveolar deformities are associated with bad habits such as thumb sucking, tongue sticking out, and so on. According to the authors, protrusion of the tongue is normal in newborns, in which the tongue lies between the gingival pads, and the lower jaw is stabilized by the facial muscles during swallowing. With the eruption of temporary teeth, this physiological phenomenon disappears. The authors pointed out that there are such concepts as «simple tongue push» and «complex tongue push». The first relates to open bite push-outs. The second is observed in children with an open bite, as well as with respiratory complications and / or with a history of chronic diseases of the nasopharynx. The act of swallowing in the physiological sense is divided into 3 stages: oral, pharyngeal and esophageal. Each stage is characterized by different positions of the tongue in the oral cavity. Orthodontic hardware treatment of such patients is aimed at eliminating these habits, as well as correcting the bite. Although many studies have been conducted since 1965, to this day, aimed at studying the tongue protrusion in infantile swallowing, as well as in various malocclusion deformities, the authors found that these studies have shortcomings. For each patient, the shape, size, as well as the trajectory of movements may vary due to anatomical features (short frenulum of the tongue). In this review article, the authors consider such concepts as the adaptive ability of the tongue during infantile swallowing, as well as its trajectory of movements when using various methods of hardware treatment; various orthodontic devices for the treatment of tongue misalignments, their components and their purposes are described. The current classification, main characteristics of this pathological condition and its connection with the dentoalveolar system are considered. Based on the study, it can be concluded that there are several directions in the treatment of infantile swallowing. One of these areas is hardware treatment in the form of the use of plates with a flap for the tongue.

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):101-109
pages 101-109 views

Treatment and rehabilitation of patients with temporomandibular joints pathology

Yatsuk A.V., Sivolapov K.A.


Relevance. According to statistical observations, the pathology of the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) is often found in dental practice, and is accompanied not only by a pronounced pain syndrome, but also by the occurrence of internal disorders in the structure of the joints themselves. The article discusses the causes of diseases of the temporomandibular joints, gives a physiological justification for the principles of treatment of this pathological condition, indicating further principles of rehabilitation. The aim of the study is to develop principles for the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with TMJ. Materials and Methods. The condition of patients was determined on the basis of a comprehensive examination, including functional diagnostic tests, collection of anamnestic data, study of models of biomechanical occlusions, axonography, psycho-emotional state of patients using the SCL-90-R scale, quality of life. Results and Discussion. The pathology of the temporomandibular joint is considered as a disorder of its functioning, both in the absence of morphological changes and in their presence. In the absence of changes, the psychosomatic factor plays a decisive role against the background of stressful conditions (20-27 %). In the presence of pathological changes in the elements of the joint, the violation of occlusion comes first, which leads to a decrease in the elasticity of the articular surfaces, due to a change in the state of the synovial fluid. Conclusion. To prescribe therapeutic measures for the pathology of the temporomandibular joint, a specific triad of clinical manifestations is necessary: severe pain syndrome, limitation of movements of the lower jaw, internal disorders of the joint (detected using MRI). Rehabilitation of patients with TMJ diseases, according to our research, should be carried out in a complex of gnathological, conservative and surgical treatment. As a surgical treatment, we recommend: prosthetic synovial fluid, arthrocentesis, arthrolavage and prosthetics of the head and articular cavity of the condylar process.

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):110-118
pages 110-118 views


Stages of plastic surgery’s development

Subotyalov M.A.


The article is devoted to the analysis of the main stages in the development of the history of plastic surgery as one of the important sections of surgery that deals with aesthetic aspects of human health and has always been an integral part of medicine. The purpose of the article is to identify and characterize the main periods of the formation and development of plastic surgery. While writing the article, comparative historical and analytical methods of historical and medical research were used. The main results consist in presenting the stages of development of plastic surgery, starting from the era of the Ancient World, and ending with Modern times. A description of the contribution to plastic surgery of the most prominent representatives of this field is presented. In conclusion, it is concluded that there are three periods of plastic surgery development: the empirical period (II century BC - mid-XIX century), the period of formation of the foundations of plastic surgery (mid-XIX century - 1950s), the modern period (1960s - present).

RUDN Journal of Medicine. 2023;27(1):119-130
pages 119-130 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies