Stages of plastic surgery’s development

Cover Page

Cite item


The article is devoted to the analysis of the main stages in the development of the history of plastic surgery as one of the important sections of surgery that deals with aesthetic aspects of human health and has always been an integral part of medicine. The purpose of the article is to identify and characterize the main periods of the formation and development of plastic surgery. While writing the article, comparative historical and analytical methods of historical and medical research were used. The main results consist in presenting the stages of development of plastic surgery, starting from the era of the Ancient World, and ending with Modern times. A description of the contribution to plastic surgery of the most prominent representatives of this field is presented. In conclusion, it is concluded that there are three periods of plastic surgery development: the empirical period (II century BC - mid-XIX century), the period of formation of the foundations of plastic surgery (mid-XIX century - 1950s), the modern period (1960s - present).

About the authors

Mikhail A. Subotyalov

Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8633-1254
Novosibirsk, Russian Federation


  1. Sorokina TS. History of Medicine: in 2 Vols. 13th ed., revised ed. Moscow: Publishing Center «Academy», 2018. 288 p. (In Russian)
  2. Mahmudnazarov MI, Kurbonov UA, Gaffarova MA. About of rhinoplasties. Avicenna Bulletin. 2007;4:50–57. (In Russian).
  3. Subotyalov MA. Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine: sources, history and place in modern healthcare: specialty 07.00.10 «History of science and technology»: dissertation’s abstract for the degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences. Moscow, 2014. 50 p. (In Russian).
  4. Basham A. Civilization of Ancient India / transl. from fr. E. Gavrilova. Yekaterinburg: Publishing House. U-Factoria, 2007. 496 p. (In Russian).
  5. Nadyrgulova AR, Neveytseva OA. History of cataract surgery. Bulletin of the Council of young scientists and specialists of the Chelyabinsk region. 2016;4;3(14):56–66. (In Russian).
  6. Stolyarenko P, Bayrikov I, Dedikov D, Bayrikov A. History of development of maxillofacial traumatology (from Antiquity to the Present). Part 2. Danish Scientific Journal. 2020;40(1):33–48. (In Russian).
  7. Asaad M, Rajesh A, Zazo A, Banuelos J, Kaadan A. Albucasis: A Pioneer Plastic Surgeon. Ann Plast Surg. 2019;83(6):611–617. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000002023.
  8. Ilyina VA, Mamedova AN. History of surgical treatment of cataracts. Bulletin of medical internet conferences. 2016;6;5:787. (In Russian).
  9. Shaye DA. The science of art: Leonardo Da Vinci and facial plastic surgery. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020;28(4):195–200. doi: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000643.
  10. Ivanov SA, Shlyaga ID, Zalutsky IV. Nasal reconstruction: history of the procedure and the current state of problem. Proceedings of the National Academy of sciences of Belarus. Medical series. 2016;4:96–102. (In Russian).
  11. Andreev AA, Ostroushko AP. Ambrouise Pare — The first surgeon of the four French kings (to the 510th of birthday). Journal of experimental and clinical surgery. 2020;13;4(49):375. (In Russian).
  12. Pirogov NI. Sevastopol letters and memoirs. M.,1950. 365 p. (In Russian).
  13. Al- Benna S, Bruce- Chwatt A, Gohritz A. The origins of modern plastic surgery. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2020;73(11):2086–2102. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2020.08.095.
  14. Kravchuk EV, Elkova NL, Tolpeev VN, Gulyaev OA. Development of recovery and reconstructive face surgery in the works of domestic surgeons in the first half of the XX century. Smolensk medical almanac. 2020;3:111–113. (In Russian).
  15. Davydova RR. Vladimir Petrovich Filatov — great In Russian ophthalmologist. Bulletin of medical internet conferences. 2015;5;5:460. (In Russian).
  16. Grebnev GA, Guk VA, Iordanishvili AK. Scientific school of Professor Alexander Limberg: to the 125th anniversary of his birth. Izvestia of the In Russian military medical academy. 2019;38;1:54–58. (In Russian).
  17. Bailey R. Special operations: a hidden chapter in the histories of facial surgery and human enhancement. Med Humanit. 2020;46(2):115– 123. doi: 10.1136/medhum-2019-011792.
  18. Wallace RD, Puente- Espel J, Konofaos P. The Management of Facial Fractures: The Legacy of William Milton Adams. J Craniofac Surg. 2020;31(3):630–631. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006264.
  19. Stewart CK, Nicolaou M, Dheansa B, Williams LA, Demetriades AK. A historical analysis of surgery performed between 1941 and 1942 at the Bangour Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery Unit, Scotland. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2021;74(9):2387–2391. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2021.01.002.
  20. Order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of medical and pharmaceutical education in the field of healthcare». the In Russian Federation of July 7, 2009. № 415n «On approval of (In Russian). Qualification requirements for specialists with higher and postgraduate

Copyright (c) 2023 Subotyalov M.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies