No 4 (2015)

Articles
Metaphors in Sporting Mass Media Describing Basketball World
Gritsenko A.N.
Abstract
Thousands of words are used both in English and Russian as metaphors and not only in literary or poetic language, but also in everyday language as for example in periodicals or everyday. This article regards the usage of metaphors in sporting mass media describing the world of basketball whereby it is necessary to note that the sporting discourse itself explicates concept sphere being correlated with the system of senses determining sporting activity. As sport belongs to human playing activity it has an imitation character hence concepts and vocabulary in this discourse representing the given type of activity are as a rule the secondary ones. In the article the attention is paid to existing differences between English and Russian discourses which manifest themselves particularly in addressing to educational sphere in American discourse because sport in the first place is university one, e.g. “freshman” (первокурсник) whereas in Russian discourse a new player is called «новобранец». On the whole, metaphorical comprehension of sporting events in sporting mass media while describing a basketball game is revealed in the same paradigm as football, hockey as well as other team games. The most frequent metaphors comparing game with “war”, “fight” and likening it to “spectacle” - show, theatre and witchcraft.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):9-15
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Metaphor of Family in the English Political Discourse
Strelnikova O.F.
Abstract
The article looks at the phenomenon of the metaphor and gives the definition of this notion; gives a detailed analysis of the process of metaphorisation; points out the main functions of the metaphor, defines the function which is of utmost importance for political linguistics; provides study data in the sphere of social psychology and linguistics that prove the point about the influence of metaphors on the perception of the recipient; defines the role of the family metaphor among metaphors in political rhetoric; points out the cognitive models that underlie the rhetoric of political parties; analyzes the address by President Barack Obama with the view of defining the metaphor dominant in the text; points out the role of the family metaphor in this type of text; provides conclusions about the pragmatic potential of the family metaphor in political rhetoric.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):16-25
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Russian Idioms “Three, Seven, Ace” and “Ward No. 6” in the Medical Aspect
Bairamova L.K., Ivanova M.V.
Abstract
The article deals with the examination of two Russian author’s idioms “three, seven, ace” (Aleksander Pushkin, The Queen of Spades, 1833) and “ward No. 6” (Anton Chekhov, Ward No.6, 1892) with generic seme “madness” in the medical aspect.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):26-33
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Findings and Misinterpretations in Translating J. Galsworthy’s Novel “Man of Property” as a Part of “The Forsyte Saga”
Kakzanova E.M.
Abstract
The article deals with the examples of language findings and omissions in one of the first translations of “The Man of Property” after John Galsworthy, the first novel from a monumental series “The Forsyte Saga” written by the English author which chronicled the life story of the Forsytes, a large and wealthy English family. The scientific value and topicality of the paper consist in the objective directed to analyze a literary translation of the novel and to show all depth and complexity of such linguistic process, as a translation. In the course of a literary translation, an original language undergoes transformation into a target language. The translated text can't be absolutely identical to the original. The losses are inevitable. Therefore, a question arises as to what extent the text should be preserved, and how much may be sacrificed. And it is this question that we have attempted to answer in this paper.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):34-41
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Khazakh Lexemes Translation into English (the case study of S. Sanbayev novella “Belaya Aruana/The White Aruana”)
Amalbekova M.B.
Abstract
Allowing to reveal the peculiarities of the perception of the world of each particular native speaker and member of culture, comparative benchmark analysis of texts, including that of the texts of original writing and the translated one, is of current interest within the framework of modern anthropocentric paradigm. Being based on the novel by S. Sanbayev ways of translation of one group of lexemes into English are considered. As a result of analysis it is revealed that there are more than 20 lexemes indicating camels in Kazakh (there are 6 in the novel). The translated text uses only 4 lexemes (calf, camel, dromedary, Bactrian) which are hyperonyms with respect to Kazakh ones. Researched topic permitted to make a conclusion that differentiation of lexical meaning occurs in Kazakh.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):42-49
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Place-Names in the Literary Works of English and Azerbaijani Poets of the XIV-XIX centuries: Comparative Analysis
Ganiyeva I.Y.
Abstract
The article discusses the results of the comparative analysis of the place-names use in the works of English and Azerbaijani poets. On the example of poets who lived in the XIV-XIX centuries, it was determined that place-names are used in the literary works of a social nature which describe the daily events or events of the past years. In Azerbaijani poetry, unlike in English, place- names are often used in lyrical genre, but their use has a specific character. In this article places (cities, countries, rivers, mountains, sacred places and so on.) are compared with the specific features of the characters in order to emphasize their uniqueness and charm.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):50-60
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On Some Pragmatic and Cognitive Theories Applicable to Literary Discourse
Bednárová-Gibová K.
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to to expatiate upon the significance of conversational maxim, frame and schema theories and their applicability to literary works written in the tradition of absurd drama. In this vein, a close collaboration between linguistics and literature studies is established. In the age of interdisciplinarity, this seems not only possible but also vital. The methodological approaches underlying a linguistic analysis of absurd drama will be presented. These comprise Grice’s theory of the Cooperative principle and maxims, frame theory by Pätzold, Minsky and Lakoff and schema theory by Short and Cook. The paper shows a possible application of the given linguistic concepts to selectedexcerpts from AlanAyckbourn’s play My Wonderful Day and signposts formation of linguistic elements symptomatic of the modern Theatre of the Absurd.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):61-70
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Applying the Model of “Transition” to Represent “Change of State” in Russian and Chinese Language Consciousness
Tszin Tao -.
Abstract
The article examines the metaphorical usage of the model of “transition” to represent “change of state”. It revealed the reason of differences in perceptions of “neighboring states with the dividing line between the states” in Russian and Chinese language consciousness. It elaborates the concept of similarity of objects and phenomena as the basis of metaphor by describing “the change of states” with multilayers and multicomponent in nature.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):71-82
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Analysis of the Constitutions Texts from the Linvoconflictology Positions
Khromenkov P.N.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the analysis of conflictogenous elements of Constitutions preambles of the countries of the world by a method of the quantitative content - analysis. In the article the lexemes forming the text of program character are examined. There are marked value sated and value emasculated Constitutions. The majority of constitutions informs on the struggle conducted by people, without a concrete definition of against whom it is conducted, that legislatively would mark the enemy and essentially would strengthen confrontational intentions in corresponding society. The significant part of constitutions in which the enemy is nominated is revealed. Also it is shown, that texts of constitutions preambles of the countries of East and Central Asia are sated with conflictogenous lexemes essentially more, than constitutions of European countries, i. e. in comparison of constitutions on the countries with evidence it is found out their regional clusterization. More often the conflict is projected on the historical past. Through corresponding historical narrative senses of struggle of former generations for the state sovereignty are broadcast, as a rule. Only small part of constitutions speaks about the conflict in application by present time, and the some even to the future. Two basic points represented and fixed verbally in preambles of constitutions of the form of the conflict are war and revolution. It is revealed, that preambles of constitutions are not free from emotivity, figurativeness, metaphors. The certain correlation between ideology of the constitutions and it conflictogenity is traced.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):83-90
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The Objective and Manipulative Component of the Electoral Programme. The Ways of Detection and Presentation
Tuzova E.I.
Abstract
In the article the author, comparing the texts of the electoral programmes of the candidates for the post of London and Moscow mayors adds a conceptual meaning to the objective and manipulative components of these programmes. Analyzing the titles of the electoral programs, the semantic content of its thematically close parts, the peculiarities of usage of the grammatical forms and the ways of presenting of the content, the author of the article introduces the most essential ways of objective and manipulative components expression thanks to which the voter’s decision is influenced.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):91-101
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Construction of Masculinity and Femininity in Political Communication
Jioeva A.A., Butsyk E.D.
Abstract
The article regards the phenomenon of political communication from the perspective of the particularities of constructing masculinity and femininity by politicians. According to the theory of the social construction of gender an individual’s gender identity is shaped in the process of constructing gender relations in communicative interaction. The academic novelty of the article consists in applying the theses of this theory to the sphere of political communication and analyzing some devices of creating the images of masculinity and femininity by famous English and American politicians in their discourse. As structural components of gender identity, masculinity and femininity turn out to be modifiable parameters depending on the pragmatic attitudes of communicators. Traditional androcentrism of political discourse may account for modifying the female speech style towards masculinity to achieve certain communicative aims.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):102-109
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Modelling of Ethnic Stereotypes in Ossetian Linguoculture
Tameryan T.Y.
Abstract
The article is devoted to examining of the conceptual constituent of the cultural type “ kudarets ” in the North-Ossetian cultural anthropology on the Ossetic web sites material. The structure and cognitive features of the concept are revealed; the two subtypes - objective and stereotypical - are being analyzed.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):110-116
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The Image of Mother in Linguistic world-image of the British (a case study of semantic group “Maternity” in the proverbs of English, Welsh, Gaelic and Scottish languages of Britain)
Zakirova Y.A.
Abstract
This article deals with contrastive-comparative analysis of paroemiological units of English, Welsh, Gaelic and Scottish languages. Phenomena “Maternity” is being introduced through qualitative and quantitative specialties of its representation. Its logical-and-semantic structure is being encoded in the following way: the cognominal semantic group is set apart from the composed corpus of proverbs and logema and sub-logema are singled out within it. Ethnical features of framing the image of mother are also being distinguished in the line of lingvoculture as one of the ways of representing “female” in the linguistic world-image.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):117-125
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Quantitativity in the Russian and Chinese Languages: Numerals
Lazareva O.V.
Abstract
The article reviewed is devoted to the linguistic representation of the grammatical category of quantity through comparing grammatical techniques applied to express the meaning both in the Russian and Chinese languages.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):126-130
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Reflection of National Identity, Gender and Age in the Language of Francophone Weblogs
Dagbaeva O.I.
Abstract
This article examines some factors influencing the choice of language means in francophone weblogs of France, Canada and French Maghreb. It gives examples of linguistic features determined by national identity, gender and age, also by characteristics of Internet communication.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):131-138
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The Language of the Bible Translations: on Lexical and Stylistic Features of the ‘Dynnamic Equivalent’ Translations of the Holy Writ
Khukhuni G.T., Osipova A.A.
Abstract
The present article deals with some problems, connected with the lexical and stylistic aspects of the Bible translations, based on the so-called ‘dynamic equivalence’ principle. Many postulates of this principle, which were developed in the sixties of the 20 th century by Eugene Albert Nida, have been later criticized. They were partially reconsidered by the author himself. But it retains its actuality in connection with Modern Russian Bible Translation, especially its New Testament part, which goes back to the version ‘Good News’ translated by V. Kuznetsova. The article contains the comparison of the fragments of the ‘dynamic equivalent’ Kuznetsova`s translations with the analogical German version Gute Nachricht Bibel. In certain cases comparison with the corresponding parts of the Luther Bible has been undertaken.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):139-147
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Measure of the Biblical Text Interpretation in Liturgical Sermons of Different Compilers
Medvedev E.Y.
Abstract
The article deals with the topic of importance to identify correctly the point of view on the object under the study on the basis of liturgical sermons. The author’s tried to show the impossibility of obtaining reliable conclusions of theological texts while studying them from the standpoint of commonly understood language. The juxtaposition of secular and theological semiotic systems affects semantic features of liturgical sermon as an integral part of the religious space. Christianity is symbolic by nature. The task of a preacher is to explain the meaning of divinely inspired books to the audience, and it makes an important feature of liturgical sermon, which is constructed through the algorithm “from objective meaning to symbolic value”.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):148-157
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Parallelism as a Modelling Configuration of Event-and-Temporal Meanings of Prepositions (a study of French and Russian languages)
Chernyshev A.B.
Abstract
The article represents a comparative analysis of event-temporal meanings of the French preposition à and Russian preposition pri . The event-temporal meanings are described as a segment with a configuration “parallelism” as a variety of the segment. The denotative segment being both a term stipulated in a theoretical section of the paper, and a notion associated with an area of the built up scheme shall be applied as a method to reveal cognitive models of prepositions. It presents a novelty and theoretical value in the research. Beyond its semantic configuration, the parallelism is associated with the modeled aspect of time as an ontological category. In the paper the conclusion is made about semantic similarity of the prepositions under the analyzed segment. While cognitive models of prepositions vary, their configurations can be completely similar.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):158-169
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Systematic Study of Lexicon on the Basis of Semantic Field Method
Kornakova E.S.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the semantic field theory and typology of scientific studies in this area. This article also deals with the general characteristics of the semantic field. The semantic field method is effectively used to study the language of literary works. As an example, the lexeme “citizenship” is given, which is rather frequent in the works of E.A. Yevtushenko, a poet of the sixties of the XX century.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):170-175
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Derivational Features of a Pragmeme as a Specific Unit of Appraisive Lexis
Markelova T.V., Savina A.P.
Abstract
The following article is dedicated to studying pragmeme as a unique unit of evaluational lexics and the typology of its derivation. The derivational characteristics of the pragmemes in the article are thought to be one of their most important characteristics and one of the most productive ways to generate the evaluational meaning. The article also states that there is a connection between the pragmemes and the signs-connotat ions and that the derivation is the key component of this connection.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):176-186
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Arabic Verbs of Sound Speech
Zarytovskaya V.N.
Abstract
The article deals with the semantic group of the verbs of sound in Arabic language: sets their common onomatopoeic origin, analyzes the phonemic composition, indicates their similar morphology (forms of words and verbal patterns).
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):187-191
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Metanovel of A. Bitov “The Teacher of Symmetry”: from Chaos to the Metanarrative
Magly A.D.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the analysis of the novel “he Teacher of Symmetry” written by A. Bitov: its plot, composition, character, idea-thematic levels. The first publication of short stories of the novel dates 1987. In the 70s of XX century scientists constructed a “unified field theory” and its theory of symmetry. The article considers the influence of this theory of symmetry on the structure and problematics of the A. Bitov’ novel, a systematic approach is used, that gives the opportunity to analyse this novel as a single unified text, not only the identification of allusions and postmodern strategies of playing with the word. The creative process, the act of creation, and reflective creative consciousness become the main subjects of research in the metanovel of A. Bitov. As a result of the analysis the conclusions are drawn about the genre variety of this novel as “a novel about the artist”, “a novel of creation” and about the attribution of this text to the metanarrative.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):192-201
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Typology of Repetitions in Margaret Thatcher’s Political Speeches
Nikashina N.V., Popova A.O.
Abstract
On the basis of Margaret Thatcher’s political texts, the article provides a typological classification of most frequently used repetitions in the political discourse of women-politicians.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):202-207
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The jubilee of professor Vladimir Ivanovich Furashov
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):208-218
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Our authors
- -.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2015;(4):219-221
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