Vol 8, No 3 (2017)

Articles
LEXICOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT OF A PRONOU OTHER
Trufanova I.V.
Abstract

The urgency of the work is due to the fact that linguistics does not have a single opinion on the composition of the pronoun as part of speech, grammars do not take into account the fact that for pronouns the transition from discharge to discharge is typical, in the explanatory dictionaries, the number and composition of pronoun values is differently interpreted differently. If the pronoun belongs to two or more lexical-grammatical categories, the question arises, from which to which category it passes. To answer it, it is necessary to study the compatibility of the pronoun with the pronouns of those categories to which it is related, to reveal the common and different between the pronoun of the other and the placeholders, which are close in meaning to it (one or the other). The material is collected from the National Corps of the Russian language. In the history of the Russian language there was a period when one, another, another were close in meaning. And today one, the other, the other, retain in one way or another the old meanings, moreover, if one of them acquires some new meaning, it is likely that others will also develop it. Another is represented by two pronouns-nouns-indefinite and definitive-and two pronouns-adjectives-not definite and definitive. As indefinite, it indicates two different degrees of uncertainty. Other words in the meaning “different from the above” are used with words, any, everything, everything, everything that causes the idea of the illegitimacy of combining the given pronouns and the pronoun of the other in the sense “dif-ferent from the given” in the category of the determinative.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):509-518
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TRANSLINGUAL AND TRANSCULTURAL ASPECTS OF STYLISTIC FOREGROUNDING IN THE LITERARY TEXT (based on O. Suleymenov’s poetry). Article 1
Dzhusupov N.u.
Abstract

The article investigates the foregrounding devices in Olzhas Suleymenov’s poetry which are determined by the poet’s natural translinguocultural thinking and bilingual consciousness. Generally, different types of linguistic deviation actualised in O. Suleymenov’s works aim to produce the foregrounding effect in creating the Russian-language poetic text under the influence of his native Kazakh language. The two types of linguocultural reflection of reality in the text of a translingual poet - subconscious and special (intentional) are being analysed. The merging of Kazakh and Russian cultural factors in O. Suleyme-nov’s poetry is viewed as an integration of different images, concepts and values expressed by means of the Russian language. The complex semantic-stylistic analysis of foregrounding devices is carried out using the verse (“Айтыс”) which is initially charged by the Kazakh cultural images and values. By analogy with the Kazakh figurative expression «Иттің баласы» (“Son of a dog”) the author creates his own individ-ual expression «Сын волка» (“Son of a wolf”). Following from this the intertextual basis of the verse is being analyzed: according to the Turkic mythology, Sky wolf Kokbori is considered to be an ancestor of the Turks, so a wolf is traditionally associated with the first mother of all the Turkic people. The use of this kind of foregrounding devices in the text shows that various knowledge structures about ethnic images and cul-tural values tend to be activated in the process of the author’s creative interpretation of sociocultural reality.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):519-530
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REFUSAL STRATEGIES IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN
Iliadi P.L., Larina T.V.
Abstract
He article explores the speech act of refusal in British English and Russian and investigates British and Russian refusal strategies from the perspective of cross-cultural communication. The study aims to find similarities and differences between the ways of refusing requests, offers and invitations in different social contexts in two languages and cultures. It was conducted with the implementation of Speech Act Theo-ry (Austin 1962, Searle 1969, Searle & Vandervken 1985), Politeness Theory (Brown and Levinson 1987, Leech 1983, 2014, Larina and Leech 2014, Watts 2003), and the Theory of Cultural Scripts (Wierzbicka 1991/2003). The modified version of the Discourse Completion Test (DCT) developed by Beebe et al. (1990) was used for data collection. The study has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in refusal strategies which exist due to cultural differences, culture-specific politeness strategies and Communicative Styles (Larina 2015, Larina, Mustajoki, Protassova 2017). It has found that the Russians use more direct strategies than the British and are more taciturn and laconic. The British do more face-work to mitigate their refusal, they use both negative and positive strategies with higher regularity and are more voluble. The knowledge of communicative differences in refusal as well as in other speech acts is necessary for the acquisition and development of pragmatic competence of L2 English learners and successful intercul-tural communication.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):531-542
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PRINCIPLES OF SYSTEM TYPOLOGY APPLICABLE TO DATIVE
Chernyshev A.B.
Abstract

This article deals with systematization of main principles of system typology put forward by G.P. Melnikov and that have become a methodological basis of the present research. The importance of concept of the internal determinant of the language is stipulated by the use of morphemes of different class - prepositions, prefixes and affixes - in the languages of different types by actualization of the uni-versal strategy. The triadic principle applicable for linguistic analysis was projected to the Dative under-stood from the point of view of the strategy derived through the universals of the natural semantic meta-language. The importance of the research is stipulated by insufficient study of aspect of Dative from the point of view of the system typology. The object of the research is prepositional-and-nominal and verbal-and-prefix constructions, where universal case conceptual basis of Dative is actualized in Russian, English, French, Spanish and Uzbek languages. The subject of the research is semantics of morphemes pri, to, à, a, -ga in Russian, English, French, Spanish and Uzbek languages as a model of the universal case meaning of Dative. The analysis done on the material of belles-lettres of five languages of different types has shown actualization of the strategy through the language units, the morphemes. Main methods used in the paper include abstracting, analysis, synthesis, analogy, cognitive-and-communicative and typological methods, as well as principles of morpheme analysis and cognitive modeling. As a result of the research it has been established that the Dative markers are preposition to in the English language, prepositionв à in the French language, preposition а in the Spanish language, prefix pri- of the Russian language and the Uzbek agglu-tinative affix -ga.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):543-553
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THE SIMILE AS THE BASIC CATEGORY OF COGNITION (based on the riddles in crimean-tatar language)
Emirova A.M.
Abstract

The article contains a complex analysis of the category of comparison in the Crimean Tatar language, which had not been the subject of a special study earlier. The object of consideration consists of various types of linguistic units extracted from riddles, which express the idea of comparison. The subject of the analysis is the category of comparison as one of the basic categories of cognition, which reflects the linguistic worldview of native speakers. Mental contents of riddles are defined using methods of descrip-tion and linguocultural commentary. Lexical-semantic and grammatical means used for expressing the idea of comparison (complex metaphorization, post-position noun structures of different types, special syntactic models, lexemes with semantics of similarity, etc.) are described in the paper. Thematic groups of words defining reference standards and references of comparison are identified and characterized in the work. Combined discourse of riddles as universal forms of expressing comparative content reflects a broad axiologically marked linguistic worldview of Crimean Tatar people: their history, phenomena of material and spiritual culture, traditional activities formed under the influence of specific natural and climatic factors of Crimean Peninsula, and others.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):554-562
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THE LACK OF TURKIC COMPLEX SENTENCES AS A CONSEQUENCE OF THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF AGGLUTINATIVE LANGUAGES
Dubrovina M.E.
Abstract

The article discusses a fragment of the syntactic subsystem of the Turkic languages, com-plex sentences, from the standpoint of systemic linguistics. Turkic languages have their own features, which often distinguish these languages from the Indo-European languages. These differences may be typo-logical: the Turkic languages are agglutinative, they've got a special law which governs the whole system- quality-indicative determinant, which manifests itself on the syntactic level too. The article provides some interesting facts from the field of Turkic syntax, and demonstrates the ability of the language system to dispense with the usual for Indo-European languages dependent clauses.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):563-570
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TO THE QUESTION OF THE ESSENCE OF TRANSLATION - SEARCH OF SENSE AS ITS ONTOLOGICAL COMPONENENT
Kalish E.E.
Abstract

The article brings up the concern about a common misconception of what translation is. Despite a unanimous scholars’ opinion that understanding of the ST is a prerequisite of successful translation, sense-formation of the ST is often presented as a mechanical procedure that has no relation to the language user. Such approach is typical of not only machine translation programs, where formalization of intellectual operations is a forced necessity, but also of modern works on linguistics and translation studies. The author advocates the idea that sense is not a constant that is initially present in the ST. Moreover the author suggests that sense based on dictionary meaning is actualized in a particular context of situation and is related to individual understanding of the signifier given interpreter’s experience and knowledge. Translation can be viewed as a semaonomaseological process, that is understanding of the ST on the initial stage and conveying this sense in the TT on the second stage. In order to understand the ST one must carry out the procedure of discourse reconstruction. Discourse reconstruction - is a restoration of the context of situation, accompanied by movement in the hermeneutic circle and sense conformance check, efforts that brings to light the discourse within which the source text takes a particular meaning. Using a fragment of an authentic text as an example, the author demonstrates how interpreter should carry out the search of corresponding sense via the new notion of discourse reconstruction. Reconstruction of discourse is the procedure that is in line with the cognitive nature of translation and can be used to increase adequacy of translation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):571-581
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NIKOLAJ KARAMZIN‘S «MELANCHOLIA» AN ADAPTATION OF JACQUES DELILLE
Corrado-Kazanski F.
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of two poems «Melancholia» of Jacques Delille and «Melan-cholia» of Nikolaj Karamzin, in order to demonstrate how the poem of Delille gives Karamzin the possibility to explain his own conception of poetry. Karamzin underlines the elegiac tonality of the poem and focuses on the lyrical hero. Karamzin’s adaptation may be interpreted as the program of sentimentalism, in which the poetic word is situated at the balance point between thought and sensibility, ethics and aesthetic.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):582-595
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ROLE OF GRAMMAR IN THE FORMATION OF COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF NON-LINGUISTIC STUDENTS
Vavichkina T.A., Vlasova Y.E.
Abstract

The article considers the role of grammar in the formation of communicative competence of non-linguistic students studying Arabic. Recognizing the fundamental role of linguistic competence in the formation and efficient development of the other components of foreign language communicative competence, the authors consider it advisable to start it from the very first lesson, paying particular attention to the typological peculiarities of the Arabic language, its grammar system. The article presents the characteristic features of the grammatical system of the Arabic language, the word and root structure, the knowledge of which at an early stage of learning will help to avoid problems and will allow to build the necessary linguistic thinking. The theoretical basis was the works of the famous Arabists Starinin (1963) and Yushma-nov (1938, 1998), as well as the outstanding Russian linguist Academician Fortunatov (1990). Such studies are important for comparative grammar and typology of languages and allow to get closer to the worldview of the native Arabic speakers. The conclusions may find their practical application in teaching the Arabic language for Russian students and the Russian language for Arabs.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):596-603
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NEOLOGISMS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Koltsova E.A.
Abstract
The article focuses on analysis of nominative processes and lexical change occurring in Eng-lish at the present stage of language development. Lexical system, being the most flexible and accessible, constantly evolves with the development of society embracing new lexical means and thus reflecting current social trends. New recently coined English words are the object of this article. The material included neologisms which have been added to oxford online dictionaries since 2010. Most of these lexical units have been selected for Oxford Word of the Year shortlists, compiled on the basis of their frequent use and significance in a particular year. A brief review of theoretical approaches to studying neologisms and the factors influencing their coinage is accompanied by comparative studies of statistical data conducted by linguists in late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. This paper examines some distinctive characteristics of popular English neologisms and their actualization in everyday communication of native speakers of the English language. The research consisted of two stages: analytical, which included lexical analysis of neologisms, and interactive presenting an informant survey. A number of generalized thematic groups / functioning spheres have been identified in the semantic aspect during the initial stage. The degree of actual usage of these linguistic units by native English speakers has been determined in the survey of informants. The analysis of survey results has been performed and the attitude of native speakers to new and emerging words has been considered. An attempt has been made to reveal the underlying causes of the current changes and to propose an interpretation of the results received.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):604-613
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A CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
Kostromin A.B.
Abstract
The article studies the classification of uncountable English nouns. The topic is described largely both in grammar manuals and research works. However, it may be presented in more details. In the typological perspective English is not just an analytical language. It certainly demonstrates some features of an isolating language. Unlike such languages as French, German or Italian, it lacks the grammatical gender and that is the cause of a different ground for the classification of English nouns. They are divided into classes according to the way the things exist - either as separate single units forming quantities or some continuity with no definite limits both material and mental. This is the guideline to a more detailed description of countable and uncountable nouns. The analytical character of English also implies that noun classifiers are not imbedded into a noun in its basic form, but are either a separate root morpheme (article a) or are not expressed at all. That differs much from grammatical gender which is a permanent attribute of a noun. The initial class of a noun is not fixed and can change depending the meaning and context. A balance of those two factors determines the shift from being a countable noun to the opposite status and vice versa. That’s why a synthetic language speakers face a difficult task of mastering the English article and a detailed classification uncountable nouns may help them a lot. A statistical analysis of the word death which is both countable and uncountable was made to show the prevailing usage.
RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):614-619
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TO THE INTERRELATION OF THE CONNOTATION AND STYLISTIC LABELS (on the material of the english and german languages)
Lunkova L.N., Mordakina M.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the interrelation of a word connotation and its dictionary stylistic label. In such a way, the nature of stylistic labels is revealed when lexis carries additional stylistic information in the certain situational context. The understanding of stylistic meanings as connotative promotes interpre-tation of the phenomena relating to the different parts of the language structure. The significance of a lexical unit connotative structure analysis lies in the fact that words may change their stylistic nature depending on certain contextual conditions. The article discusses the possibilities of the style-connotation correlation, suggests the comparative analysis of stylistic labels in English and German lexicography on material of the English and German press (1995 English and 2000 German contexts). One of the essential ways to present vocabulary as a system is a lexicographical interpretation of a word. Concentrated in the form of notes lexicographical information allows represent complicated and many-sided picture of a lexeme not only in a dictionary but also in speech.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):620-629
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PEOPLE’S HISTORY IN THE ORIGIN OF IDIOMS (on the material of the english language)
Pasechnik T.B.
Abstract

The article deals with the question of influence of a phraseological image upon the for-mation of a phraseological meaning in English idioms. The problem posed here is actual as it is caused by a rising interest in modern linguistics to the study of secondary nomination in different languages which is connected with peculiarities of people's verbal thinking and world outlook. The subject of our investigation is the English phraseological units with a fully or partially transferred meaning. The object of our exploration is their semantic peculiarities defined by their motivation or demo-tivation for linguistic and extra-linguistic reasons. The method of the inquiry presupposes to go through a brief survey of some historical facts connected with the origin of English idioms. Our intention in writing this article is to trace the сomplicated interconnection between the meaning of an English idiom and the meaning of a phrase which is considered to be its prototype that can be defined according to A.V. Kunin’s classification as speech, language, outlanguage or mixed. At the level of analysis it is possible to demonstrate the fact that though the metaphor on which the given idioms are based is “darkened”, the expressiveness of such phrases is not a bit less than in idioms with “transparent” metaphors which are felt clearly motivated. On the example of English set phrases an attempt is made to show the way language means reflect the information about the national character in its complexity and variety.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):630-635
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TRANSLATION: SENTENCE OR UTTERANCE?
Semenov L.S., Ershov I.E., Nelyubova N.Y.
Abstract

It is traditionally considered that in writing an interpreter translates the text sentence by sentence which in this case is a unit of the text and translation. In case of interpretation (oral translation) the interpreter translates the utterance. The utterance can be complex in structure and produced with pauses that can be used to “insert” the translation. In some cases, the utterance and the sentence may coincide in form. The study of the interpreter's operations and the materials to be translated shows that the traditional difference between the utterance and the sentence with respect to the type of translation (oral or written) is not always valid. The utterance may by its form coincide with the sentence and be relevant to the transla-tion. The presence of pauses while producing the utterance structures the statement turning it into a sequence of short phrases that are convenient for translation. The phrase is a minimum semantic unit suitable for translation. Formally, according to the technology of translation, the phrase should contain the meaning refer-ence points to nominate the subject and the action. In a practical situation, the interpreter can use the para-phrasing technique and fill the missing meaning reference point without changing its volume.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):636-642
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THE FEATURES OF THE USE OF THE REAL AND FICTITIOUS PLACE NAMES IN THE LITERARY TEXTS OF THE LANGUAGES OF DIFFERENT SYSTEMS (AZERBAIJANI AND ENGILISH)
Ganiyeva I.Y.
Abstract

In this article the possibilities of the use of place names in the literary texts of the two languages of different systems are grouped. Here the fact is proved that writers treat individually real place names. In the Azerbaijani and English literary texts real place names are used for two reasons. Firstly, to persuade the reader that the events happening in the literary text are real and secondly, to show that place names are the most effective means of expression of the culture and traditions of the people nowadays. Azerbaijani and English writers also use fictitious place names in their works. As to the usage of fictitious place names, in the Azerbaijani literature J. Mammedguluzadeh and in the English literature T. Hardy are the writers who prefer to use fictitious place names in their works which characterize their style. The relevance of this article is defined by the comparative analysis of the stylistic opportunities of place names on the basis of concrete material of the two languages of different systems (Azerbaijani and English). The aim of the research is to define the role of the real and fictitious place names used within the literary text. The subject of the research is to analyse the function of the place names in the literary texts of the two languages of different systems. The object of the research is the real and fictitious place names used by the Azerbaijani and English writers. In the work the complex technique of investigation is applied and such methods as descriptive, comparative, contextual, stylistic, statistical, etc. are used. The Azerbaijani and English literary texts and also scientific literature on onomastics, stylistics and lexicology were the sources of the research. The results of the work can be applied in reading special courses, holding seminars, writing of research papers and dissertations.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):643-653
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REDETERMINATION OF SEMANTIC OPPOSITIONS AS ONE OF THE PRINCIPLES OF ORTHODOX LITURGICAL SERMON
Medvedev Y.Y.
Abstract

In the theological semiotic system liturgical space and non-liturgical space are distinguished. This distinction can not but affect the semantic structure of the liturgical Orthodox sermon which is organi-cally related to the liturgical space. The object of the study is the text of the Orthodox liturgical sermon, the subject is the principles of the development of the liturgical sermon text. The theme of this article is related to one of the leading principles of the formation of such text - the principle of reinstalling semantic oppositions, which is caused by the need to prevent habitual perception of those forms whose content is due to the peculiarities of the semantic structure of commonly used language. The relevance of this article is determined by increased attention to religion as an important component of human and social life and, as a consequence, by the cognitive need to understand the nature of the church language actively entering into the reality of modern Russia and to realize scientifically the specifics of intensively renewed and developing speech genres, the central one of which is the speech genre of sermon. The source of the study is the texts of the liturgical sermons of Patriarch Kirill and Archbishop Hermogenes. The methods of the study are determined by the nature of the empirical material. The fundamentals of structural analysis were applied, implying the definition of not only the composition of the object elements, but also their interrela-tions: by segmentation, certain structural elements of sermons were identified and later combined into a cer-tain class on the basis of the discovery of certain regularities in their use. Oppositional analysis has revealed differential and integral features of the sermon structural elements. In addition, the study of the text as a whole dictates the need for a systematic method, proceeding from the understanding of the text as a sys-tem performing a specific function in the supersystem.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):654-663
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LETTER OF GUARANTEE AS PART OF DOCUMENT: COMPARATIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE DOCUMENT ON RUSSIAN AND PORTUGUESE
Pudikova G.N.
Abstract

The article deals with morphological features of Russian and Portuguese texts of Document on the example of letters of guarantee. Choosing a theme is caused by the development of traditions of busi-ness turnover in Russia and the countries where Portuguese is the official language, expanding international cooperation, economic globalization, the construction of the Information Society, which require a compre-hensive study of theoretical, methodological and practical approaches in the field of lexical content of documents of business turnover. The relevance of the work is determined by the following reasons: globalization of international business ties, which leads to the formation of unified approaches and standardization of business correspond-ence; Actively developing information technologies, which leads to a reduction of barriers in the formation of business correspondence; Occurring in connection with the globalization of the economy and the infor-matization of society changes in the national vocabulary and business culture. The purpose of the work is to consider the morphological features of Russian and Portuguese documentary texts on the example of guarantee letters. The author has identified the following objectives: to determine the content of the letter of guaran-tee and especially its preparation; an analysis of morphological features of letters of guarantee in the Russian and Portuguese. The subject of research is the lexical peculiarities of drawing up documents in Russian and Portuguese. The sources used in the work: normative legal acts of the Russian Federation, doctoral research, literary sources on the studied subject, published in the periodical press and Internet materials. The object of research is the rules and traditions of business turnover.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):664-671
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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EXPRESSIONS OF CAUSALITY IN RUSSIAN PROVERB
Sun Shuyang -.
Abstract

Any phenomenon in our real world has certain springs and causes and produces certain con-sequences. Establishing causality is the result - and sometimes a purpose - of human thinking, which makes the study of these relationships in different types of texts relevant: it reveals the specifics of the mental and linguistic logic, and the vision of the world in our mind. Russian Proverbs as an object of linguistic studies give us great opportunities to identify the charac-teristics of expressions of causality: in proverbs are manifested immanent properties of Proverbs as units of the folk genre, with their particular nature of generalization and verbalization of information, with a special syntax. The materials of our study are Russian Proverbs, which gleaned from the dictionary of V.I. Dahl, V.P. Zhukov, etc., and the contexts from the National corpus of the Russian language. Analysis of the pro-verbial syntactic structures - from simple sentences to various types of complex, which are based on the experience of the study of the category of causality and ways of expressing causality in language, allows you to see the most typical features of expressions in the Russian Proverbs. These include, on the one hand, the explicit and implicit ways of their verbalization. On the other hand, our classification is based on syntactic structures of Russian Proverbs, and among them - most frequency, and lexical means involved in the expression of the semantics of causality, and it were encoded in the semantics of proverbs as a whole.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):672-681
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ETHNIC STEREOTYPES OF THE VOLGA TATARS IN ORDINARY LANGUAGE CONSCIOUSNESS OF RUSSIANS AND THE TATARS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN
Razumkova A.V.
Abstract

In the article, based on the interpretation of the experimental material, the content of the ethnic image of the Volga Tatars is determined. The relevance of the study is explained by the fact that the description of the content of the images: “yourself” and “the other” in the minds of Russians and the Tatars can make a significant contribution to the work on forecasting and research of interethnic tension in the Re-public of Tatarstan. The object of the study is the ethnic image of the autochthonous population of the Repub-lic of Tatarstan. The subject of the research is auto- and heterostereotypes of the Volga Tatars within the framework of the “national character” domain. The study of ethnic stereotypes implies the research of de-scriptive features on the material of the associative field “Tatars, what are they? (give some certain typical features)”, which is analyzed with the help of the methodology of field stratification techniques that was developed by I.A. Sternin and A.V. Rudakova (2011). The method of constructing the “semantic gestalt” proposed by Yu.N. Karaulov (2000) was used for the analysis of the ethnonyms. The material for describing the auto- and geterostereotypes of the Volga Tatars was collected with the help of the directed associative experiment, which was conducted among students (17-23 years) of higher educational establishments in Kaluga and Kazan in 2016. The associative field of the ethnonym “Tatars” was formed on the base of the pilot free associative experiment conducted in Russian among schoolchildren and students (12-23 years) of the Republic of Tatarstan in 2015. Comparison of the results of two psycholinguistic experiments allows us to conclude that most of the ethnostereotypes occupy the periphery of the image of the ethnos. In general, the research testifies that Russians and the Tatars of the Republic of Tatarstan perceive the Tatars in a non-stereotyped way.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):682-693
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PHONOSTYLISTIC PLAY ON WORDS IN LITERARY FAIRY TALES: SEMIOLOGICAL ASPECT
Orlova O.Y.
Abstract

The article considers phonographical stylistic devices in literary fairy tales by English and American authors. The aim of the article is to demonstrate the potential of semiotic strategies in children’s literature. To achieve this aim the author consistently examines various phonographic devices used in the texts of literary fairy tales and analyses both the specific features of the relation between the signifier and the signified and the meaning of the given device in the formation of the specific literary code of the text for children by means of which the author plays with the reader. The author used as the material classic works by L.F. Baum, L. Carroll, A.A. Miln, C. Sandburg, J. Thurber, R. Dahl, which fully represent genre features of English and American literary fairy tale. Building on the functional-semiotic approach, the author reveals that being an essential feature of the fairy tale genre, play on words may be based both on the simi-larity and arbitrariness of relationships between the signifier and the signified of the graphical sign. A sign in a text for children can also be incorporated into a new code, which the reader is to solve in order to inter-pret the whole text or its part correctly. The analysis reveals that phonographical stylistic devices in children’s literature perform different functions (creative, esthetic entertaining etc.), didactic function being one of the most important of them, since these techniques in books for young readers, among other things, serve as a means of mastering the alphabet and rules of reading.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):694-702
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ТНЕ ТНЕМЕ OF HOLY FOOLISHNESS IN THE LITERARY WORKS OF F. M. DOSTOEVSKY
Gomes Dias V.B., Leksina I.A.
Abstract

The article deals with the reflection of lexical units of the theme “foolishness” in F.M. Dos-toevsky’s “The Idiot”, gives a typology of characters with traits characteristic of holy fools, highlighting their characteristics in the aspect of the Christian tradition of foolishness and from the point of view of un-derstanding the philosophy of foolishness by F.M. Dostoevsky. Units of the semantic field “foolishness” are reflected in the “Dictionary of Dostoevsky's language: Idioglossary” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, as idioglosses, which carry knowledge of the world of the writer`s linguistic personality. We present a com-parative analysis of 38 lexemes, reflecting the semantic field of foolishness, which actualizes the traits of the foolishness of the characters in F.M. Dostoevsky’s “The Idiot”. Most of the lexical units cited are related to the Christian sphere - “foolishness” in Dostoevsky's understanding reflects the idea of higher Christian justice. The purpose of this article is to summarize the available research on the topic “foolishness” in F.M. Dostoevsky “The Idiot”, to designate her place in the language picture of the writer’s world and in the philosophy of his life. The relevance of the study is the absence of a significant number of scientific papers on this topic. We made our conclusions analyzing mainly novels, correspondence and diaries of F.M. Dostoevsky, and also relying on the work of famous scientists: M.M. Bakhtin, A.P. Evgenieva, V.V. Iva-nova, Yu.N. Karaulova, T.A. Kasatkina, R.G. Nazirova, S.M. Nelsa, E.A. Osokina. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that in the study for the first time the theme of foolishness in its linguistic aspect is touched on the material of the Dictionary of the Dostoevsky language.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):703-713
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WORLDVIEW OF THE BRITISH-AMERICAN ARMY SOCIETY REPRESENTATIVE THROUGH MILITARY PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS
Lupanova E.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to research of worldview features of the British-American army society representative in the mirror of military phraseology. The relevance of the work stems from modern linguistics’ need for a comprehensive analysis of mentality problems of the military subculture members as an integral part of the national culture of the US and the UK. After studying the content of lexicographic sources, the author finds the presence of special images in the idioms, which are being used by representa-tives of the British-American military society, reflecting the specific worldview of the military personnel, formed under the influence of peculiarities of the army society and performed military tasks. On the basis of fundamental works by of V.A. Maslova “Lingvoculture” (2001), V.N. Telia “Russian phraseology. Se-mantic, pragmatic and linguocultural aspects” (1996), Yu.N. Karaulov “Russian language and linguistic personality” (2010) and other works, the author explores the issue of ethnic mentality reflection in native speakers phraseology and the social conditions of functioning of military phraseological units in British-American military subculture. The author not only emphasizes the common military phraseology and general phraseology of nation, but also the conditions of implementation of speech material in the language of professional soldiers, which allow us to consider the peculiarities of the soldiers’ language world picture, to reveal moral attitudes and values, to study ethnic mentality in the phraseological semantics. The article concludes that the studied phraseological units are mostly sarcastic, humorous, represent jocular attitude towards various aspects of soldier’s life, which confirms the fact of liberating power of laughter in deal-ing with stress and psychological tension.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):714-723
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DEFINITION OF TERMINOLOGY LOANWORD IN RUSSIAN AND CHINESE
Zhang Ke -.
Abstract

This article examines the history of the study of loanwords in Chinese and Russian linguistic tradition. The object of research is modern Chinese and Russian languages. Subject of research - the con-cept of borrowed words. Material of the research was theoretical work by Russian and Chinese linguists, dictionaries Russian and Chinese languages. The author proposes to distinguish between borrowed words in Russian and Chinese languages ac-cording to the ways of their borrowing (phonetic, semantic, graphic) and on this basis to give a single definition of the term “loan word” in both languages that will be useful for further comparative studies of this object. In conclusion, the author proposes a definition, which takes into account the graphical borrowed words that are on the periphery of studies of borrowed lexical units.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):724-734
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LANGUAGE GAME: PARADOX AND ABSURD
Uzbekov T.S.
Abstract

This article deals with the problem of similarities and differences between paradox and absurd as a phenomenon of language and speech. This problem deals with logics and philosophy, therefore the paradox and the absurd are considered as interdisciplinary facts of language and speech which are characterized by irregularity and alogism. The notion of the absurd and the paradox are analyzed on basis of its interpretation in linguistics, philosophy and logics. Similarities and differences in their content are analyzed and are concluded as different in same and same in difference. The main differences of these types of the language game are: a) there are irregularity, seeming alogism and sense in the paradox; b) there are irregularity, alogism and nonsense (because there is no sense in it) in absurd. Absurd as the type of the lan-guage game is defined as a factor of the development of logical and alogical in the process of forming lingual sense of the individual and society. It makes improvement of abilities and skills in the process of speech. Paradox is unusual, nonstandard thinking, opinion, statement, which disclaims well-known point of view, therefore the paradox contains logicality and alogism. Paradox isn’t nonsense or absurd, it always has a sense. As a type of the language game, paradox forms logical thinking, i.e. it performs educational function. The Object of the investigation is word play in language and speech. Types of word play- an ab-surd and a paradox are the subject of the investigation. Method of the analysis is found on the basis by using the method of innerlingual comparison and by method of stylistic replacement of synonyms in contexts, where paradox and absurd function. The sources of the investigation are explanatory, philosophical and logical dictionaries, in which interpretation of the absurd and the paradox and literary texts are presented.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):735-745
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TRANSLATION (ÜBERSETZUNG) AND MEDIATION (SPRACHMITTLUNG) OF GERMAN SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL TERMS
Agranovskaya I.A.
Abstract

In recent years ecology has acquired special significance due to environmental deterio-ration and awareness of the need for caring attitude towards nature. Solution of environmental problems requires collaborative effort of specialists from different fields of expertise: ecology and natural resource management, economics, sociology, jurisprudence and terminology, since effective communication based on a common terminology base is key to successful cooperation. Some terms, however, have no exact analogues in other languages. Some terms lose their meaning in literal translation (“energy crops”, “invisible energy carriers”), while others (mostly one-word), consisting of several components, translate into a complete phrase (Naturerfahrungsraum - “space to gain experience with nature”). The article deals with German and international socio-ecological terms, which are difficult or impossible to literally translate into Russian while retaining the original meaning. The list also includes several terms that have literal translations (loan translations) into Russian, which do not explain the meanings of the terms to non-experts (“green bridge”, “ecological footprint”), as well as the terms located at the boundary of human ecology and related fields (economics, politics, urban ecology, etc.). The author argues the adviseability of using Sprachmittlung (mediation) instead of Übersetzung (translation) for working with such terms and gives specific examples showing the metaphoricity of German socio-ecological vocabulary (“CNC land insurance”, “safari in a puddle”). Communication of meaning or language mediation (Sprachmittlung) is the subject of this study. The objects of the study are German as well as English (international) socio-ecological terms. Works by E.M. Kakzanova, I.G. Olshansky, Egon Becker and others lay the theoretical foundation of the research. Finally, the author draws conclusions about the peculiarities of communication of meaning of German and English socio-ecological terms.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):746-757
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ABOUT THE WAYS OF FIXING LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL INFORMATION IN THE DAHL’S EXPLANATORY DICTIONARY
Zgirovskaya O.G.
Abstract

The article investigates the category of “value” in the structure of lexical meaning of words and methods of its fixation in dictionaries as a semantic component. It is relevant to study the ways of cultural lexicography in the “Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language” of V.I. Dahl, because it included not only the linguistic information about words, but also cultural and ethnolinguistic information about the life of the people. The subject of the study was national-specific images, categories and cultural realities, the object was the cultural component in the structure of the lexical meaning of the word. The work was conducted using the method of component analysis based on the decomposition of lexical meaning at the minimum semantic components. One of the main tasks that must be solved is the development of a theoretical approach to culture in its interaction with lexicography. The purpose of this article is to identify the essence of cultural infor-mation in the dictionary and the ways of its introduction into the dictionary entry. Interpretation of zoonyms in the “Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language” of V.I. Dahl was analyzed and the classification. The results can be used both for the inclusion of cultural information in traditional dictionaries (explanatory, dialectal, phraseological, etc.), and for creating dictionar-ies that directly capture the cultural elements reflected in the language (linguocultural, linguistic, language dictionaries, etc.). The analysis revealed that the most important ways of fixing national-specific compo-nents are the implicit ways (paremias, idioms, figurative meanings for the name of the person). Hierarchy of values prevailing in the minds of speakers is reflected in the language and culture through these im-plicit components.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2017;8(3):758-766
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