STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONALL APPROACHES TO SEMANTIC FIELDS ANALYSIS

Abstract


Functional-semantic description of vocabulary as a system of paradigms (procedural fields, semantic classes) develops the idea of modern linguistics about function as a way of uncovering semantics. Something inherent in the system is contained in function; something that the signs hide their use shows; implicit ideas of semantic fields become explicit in field units functioning. This determines the relevance of the study. The practical significance of the results is seen in the field of compiling dictionaries of Russian language compatibility, semantic dictionaries, for working out computer programs for teaching Russian as a foreign language.A comprehensive structural-functional analysis of semantic fields units in this article is based on the model of “text system (meaning)”, in a more general sense - as analysis of links “extensional (allocation) intensional (seme composition)”. In other words, the complex method of analysis relies heavily on units syntagmatic relations , their “spilt” in text semantics and includes methods of component analysis, metalinguistic descriptions, distributional analysis.Structural analysis of semantic fields (network of relations, oppositions between language system elements) allows you to allocate text units invariant and relate them to particular speech segments on the basis of strict implementation of the rules, which determine the variation limits of semantic field units. The rules of lexical units in semantic fields are shown as rules of positional distribution of specific lexical-semantic variants of units, or semems. The principle of subsidiarity is based on the method of language research of the environment (distribution - distribution context) of the individual units in the text and does not use information about all lexical or grammatical meaning of these units.The author reveals how in the semantic field of verbs of transfer some verbs express real transfers from the subject to the addressee, others suggest transfer and implement it in a special diagnostic contexts. On the one hand, transfer is presented as explicit, implicit, i.e. contextually expressed. Basing on the conducted research the author proposes the application of techniques that allow to trace the operation of semantic fields, study the processes of semantic fields formation in the context of their structure and dynamics.


About the authors

V P Abramov

Kuban State University

Author for correspondence.
Email: abramovkubgu@mail.ru
Stavropolskaya str., 149, Krasnodar, Russia, 350040

PhD, professor, chief of chair of Russian as a foreign language at Kuban State University

G A Abramova

Kuban State University

Email: galeks25@mail.ru
Stavropolskaya str., 149, Krasnodar, Russia, 350040

PhD, professor of chair of publishing business and mass media technologies at Kuban State University

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