Corruption: institutional features, social determinants and consequences

Cover Page

Cite item


The article considers the nature, causes, determinants and consequences of corruption. As a form of social deviation of a delinquent nature and as a type of crime, corruption has a destructive effect on all spheres of social life, primarily on their management - by redistributing their resources and by replacing social values and goals with group and personal ones. Corruption affects not only states but also international affairs; therefore, we need active opposition to corruption from the world community: International Anti-Corruption Day was included in the calendars of 187 countries including Russia. According to the World Bank, the annual global amount of bribes is 1 trillion US dollars. For many countries, corruption has become a threat to national security, which makes them seek and use effective and often radical measures to counter corruption, and to conduct comprehensive studies of corruption as an objective and widespread social phenomenon. The authors consider corruption on the basis of an interdisciplinary methodology with an emphasis on institutional and structural-functional approaches, which allowed to identify institutional features of corruption, its structure, functions and social consequences, and to assess the efficiency of anti-corruption measures. The article is based on the statistical data on the dynamics of corruption in Russia and the Republic of Bashkortostan in 2012-2020, and on the results of the sociological survey conducted by the Institute for Strategic Studies of the Republic of Bashkortostan in 2020 according to the methodology for assessing corruption described in the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation. The survey focused on the problems in the interaction of citizens and employees of state and municipal authorities (‘everyday’ corruption), and in the interaction of authorities and business (‘business’ corruption) (the corresponding samples were 814 and 300 people). The study of ‘everyday’ corruption was conducted by individual formalized interviews, of ‘business’ corruption - by the online survey on the Google Forms.

About the authors

S. V. Egoryshev

Institute for Strategic Studies of the Republic of Bashkortostan

Author for correspondence.

доктор социологических наук, руководитель Центра исследования социального развития и формирования человеческого капитала

Kirova St., 15, Ufa, 450008, Russia

E. A. Egorysheva

Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University


кандидат юридических наук, доцент кафедры криминалистики Института права

Dostoevsky St., 131, Ufa, 450005, Russia


  1. Vedernikov V. S kogo vzyatki ne gladki [Who can be called to account]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Nedelya. 2020; 287. (In Russ.).
  2. Gaydar E.T. Gosudarstvo i evolyutsiya [State and Evolution]. Moscow; 1995 (In Russ.).
  3. Gilinsky Ya.I. Deviantologiya: sotsiologiya prestupnosti, narkotizma, prostitutsii, samoubiystv i drugikh ‘otkloneniy’ [Deviantology: Sociology of Crime, Drug Addiction, Prostitution, Suicide and Other ‘Deviations’. Saint Petersburg; 2021. (In Russ.).
  4. Durkheim E. O razdelenii obshchestvennogo truda. Metod sotsiologii [The Division of Labor in Society. Method of Sociology]. Moscow; 1990. (In Russ.).
  5. Egoryshev S.V. Vliyanie kriminalnoy deviatsii na demograficheskie protsessy v Respublike Bashkortostan [The influence of criminal deviation on the demographic processes in the Republic of Bashkortostan]. RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2020; 20 (1). (In Russ.).
  6. Egoryshev S.V. Ekonomicheskaya prestupnost kak faktor snizheniya urovnya uprav-lyaemosti obshchestvom [Economic crime as a factor reducing the level of social controllability]. Voprosy Upravleniya. 2020; 5 (In Russ.).
  7. Itogi deyatelnosti MVD po RB za yanvar-dekabr 2012 g., 2016 g., 2018 g., 2020 g. [Results of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Bashkortostan in January-December 2012, 2016, 2018, 2020]. URL: https//02blaew/xn- plai/slujba/itogi-dejatelnosti. (In Russ.).
  8. Kabanov P.A., Raykov G.I., Chirkov D.K. Politicheskaya korruptsiya v usloviyakh reformirovaniya rossiyskoy gosudarstvennosti na rubezhe vekov [Political Corruption under the Reforms of the Russian Statehood at the Turn of the Century]. Moscow; 2008. (In Russ.).
  9. Kirpichnikov A.I. Vzyatka i korruptsiya v Rossii [Bribery and Corruption in Russia]. Saint Petersburg; 1997. (In Russ.).
  10. Klyamkin I., Timofeev L. Tenevoy obraz zhizni: Sotsiologichesky avtoportret postsovetskogo obshchestva [Shadow Way of Life: Sociological Self-Portrait of the Post-Soviet Society]. Moscow; 2000. (In Russ.).
  11. Krasnov I. Privivka ot korruptsii [Vaccination against corruption]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Nedelya. 2020; 278. (In Russ.).
  12. Kunz K.-L. Vvedenie v kriminologicheskoe myshlenie [Introduction to Criminological Thinking]. Saint Petersburg; 2019. (In Russ.).
  13. List F. Zadachi ugolovnoy politiki. Prestuplenie kak sotsialno-patologicheskoe yavlenie [Tasks of Criminal Policy. Crime as a Social-Pathological Phenomenon]. Moscow; 2009. (In Russ.).
  14. Mudrost Rossii [Wisdom of Russia]. Sost. Kozhevnikov A.Yu., Linberg T.B. Saint Petersburg; 2005. (In Russ.).
  15. Mudrost tysyacheletiy ot A do Ya. Velikie mysli i aforizmy velikikh lyudey [Wisdom of Millennia from A to Z. Great Thoughts and Aphorisms of Great People]. Sost. V.N. Zubkov. Moscow; 2010. (In Russ.).
  16. Ozhegov S.I. Slovar russkogo yazyka [Dictionary of the Russian Language]. Moscow; 1973. (In Russ.).
  17. Prestupnost i pravonarusheniya v SSSR [Crime and Delinquency in the USSR]. Stat. sb. Moscow; 1990. (In Russ.).
  18. Satarov G.A. Diagnostika rossiyskoy korruptsii: Sotsiologichesky analiz [Diagnostics of the Russian Corruption: A Sociological Analysis]. Moscow; 2002. (In Russ.).
  19. Smelser N. Sotsiologiya [Sociology]. Moscow; 1990. (In Russ.).
  20. Sostoyanie prestupnosti v Rossii za yanvar-dekabr 2012 g. [The State of Crime in Russia in January-December 2012]. Moscow; 2013. (In Russ.).
  21. Sostoyanie prestupnosti v Rossii za yanvar-dekabr 2016 g. [The State of Crime in Russia in January-December 2016]. Moscow; 2017. (In Russ.).
  22. Sostoyanie prestupnosti v Rossii za yanvar-dekabr 2018 g. [The State of Crime in Russia in January-December 2018]. Moscow; 2019. (In Russ.).
  23. Sostoyanie prestupnosti v Rossii za yanvar-dekabr 2020 g. [The State of Crime in Russia in January-December 2020]. Moscow; 2021. (In Russ.).
  24. Sotsiologichesky entsiklopedichesky slovar [Sociological Encyclopedic Dictionary]. Red. G.V. Osipov. Moscow; 1998. (In Russ.).
  25. Sotsiologiya i ekonomika sovremennoy sotsialnoy realnosti [Sociology and Economics of Contemporary Social Reality]. Moscow; 2014. (In Russ.).
  26. Tarde G. Prestupnik i prestuplenie. Sravnitelnaya prestupnost. Prestupleniya tolpy [Criminal and Crime. Comparative Criminality. Crimes of the Crowd]. Moscow; 2004. (In Russ.).
  27. Timofeev L. Institutsionalnaya korruptsiya: Ocherki teorii [Institutional Corruption: Essays on Theory]. Moscow; 2000. (In Russ.).
  28. Trotsuk I.V. Kratky kurs sotsiologii v izlozhenii kriminologa [A brief course of sociology by a criminologist]. RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2014; 4. (In Russ.).
  29. Trotsuk I. Neformalnye praktiki: irratsionalnoe povedenie ili vliyanie kultury? Dva kontekstualnykh “freyma” dlya izucheniya neformalnoy ekonomiki [Informal practices: Irrational behavior or cultural influence? Two contextual “frames” for the study of informal economy]. Russian Peasant Studies. 2018; 3 (4). (In Russ.).
  30. Federalny zakon ot 25 dekabrya 2008 g. № 273-FZ “O protivodeystvii korruptsii” [Federal Law of December 25, 2008 No. 273-FZ “On Anti-Corruption”. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 2020; 1 avgusta. (In Russ.).
  31. Ferry E. Ugolovnaya sotsiologiya [Criminal Sociology]. Moscow; 2009. (In Russ.).
  32. Yakovlev A.M. Sotsiologiya ekonomicheskoy prestupnosti [Sociology of Economic Crime]. Moscow; 1988. (In Russ.).
  33. Yakovlev A.M. Sotsiologiya prestupnosti [Sociology of Crime]. Moscow; 2001. (In Russ.).

Copyright (c) 2021 Egoryshev S.V., Egorysheva E.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies