The specificity of Russian media neoderivatives reflecting social realia

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The involvement of media speech in the society activities determines the relevance of studying the media text components in the extralinguistic aspect. The social conditionality of media neoderivatives contributes to their research in linguopragmatic and socio-cultural aspects. The purpose of the article is to identify the specifics of Russian neoderivatives reflecting current social realities. The research material include lexical and word-formation innovations in the texts of printed and electronic media of the beginning of the 21st century. In the course of the study, the methods of structural and semantic analysis of neoderivatives, word-formation analysis, content analysis, contextual analysis, descriptive and classification methods were used. As a result of the research, thematic groups of neoderivatives reflecting current Russian realities were identified (neoderivatives on pandemic topics; neoderivatives reflecting digital reality, Internet realities, business realities, etc.); the actual word-formation means and methods of creating the considered neoderivatives are determined (the usual methods of suffixation, prefixation, prefixoidation, addition of agglutinative type; the non-usual method of contamination, as well as the non-usual methods of creating polycode neoderivatives, in particular hyphenation, parenthesis, quotation, the use of ideograms and numbers, font and color selections); as a result of contextual analysis of media texts, the main functions of neoderivatives are characterized (nominative, expressive-evaluative, ludic). The conducted research is characterized by the novelty of the speech and language material and identifies the specifics of the socio-cultural and linguocognitive perception of reality in the modern language consciousness of the representatives of Russian society. The results of the research contribute to the solution of practical problems of journalism.

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Neologisms in media texts in different periods have attracted close attention of scientists studying the Russian language functioning and development. Works on derivatology, neology, and neography present a structural-semantic analysis of neologisms (Zemskaya, 2004; Kasyanova, 2006; Namitokova, 2015; Popova et al., 2005; Senko, 2007; Ulukhanov, 1996, etc.), studies of their linguocognitive component (Kubryakova, 2004; Ratsiburskaya, 2020; Plotnikova, 2003, etc.), their functional and stylistic characteristics (Koryakovtseva, 2016; Nikolina, 2015, etc.). In recent years, the research of neologisms in sociocultural and linguopragmatic aspects is particularly relevant (Ilyasova, Amiri, 2009; Ratsiburskaya, 2018). The polyfunctionality of lexical and word-formation innovations of usual and nonusual nature determines their high pragmatic potential. In modern media, neoderivatives primarily perform nominative, expressive-valuation and playful functions. The study of neoderivatives in the functional aspect is relevant to identify their socio-cultural and linguopragmatic specificity, their role in a modern media text, conditioned by extra-linguistic factors.

By its purpose, “media speech is always associated with certain coordinates of social space-time” (Konkov, 2019: 327). As noted in scientific research, media speech “is directly included in the general practical activity of society. Media speech is utilitarian in nature, media publications are part of our general, not just speech life” (Konkov, 2019: 327).

The phenomena associated with the extra-linguistic basis of media speech are now quite well-studied. “They are manifested in the dominance of electronic media; the increase in the share of materials with a pronounced authorial self; the increasing importance of the addressee factor <...>; the activity of dialogue along with the monological type of speech; the expansion of conversational genres; <...> the activation of the entertainment function” (Veshchikova, 2019: 91–92).

At the beginning of the 21st century changes in the scientific paradigm are associated with the rapid development of mass media. “The processes of mediatization of all aspects of society have moved the mass media language from the periphery of literary language to its center” (Klushina, Nikolaeva, 2020: 13). Scholars have noted the mediocentricity of contemporary culture (Klushina, 2018; Toshovich, 2018; Chernyavskaya, 2013, 2015). “By mediatization scholars understand the spread of media influence on the most important areas of social life and the reverse process of involving various aspects of social activity in the information sphere, i.e. creating zones of intersection of media and social phenomena... Mediatization of public life is the most important social function of modern media” (Klushina, 2018: 49), which affects social life and public consciousness.

Currently, scholars talk about the replacement of the book era with the information and media era. In our time of the Internet and digital technologies “it is the media that dictate the fashion for the speech behavior of society, it is the media that create new communicative norms, a special media culture, form mass language consciousness and form the media version of literary language” (Klushina, 2018: 7).

The influence of the Internet on modern society, science, and linguistics in particular, is considered in many studies (Kolokoltseva, Lutovinova, 2012; Ivanova, 2018; Ivanova, Klushina, 2018; Klushina, Nikolaeva, 2020; Ratsiburskay, 2021; Toshovich, 2014). The Internet is seen as a new speech formation and a new communicative and social space, as a kind of stylistic space.

In studies of modern media speech, “special attention is paid to the problems of linguoecology, directly related to the development of digital technology. These are issues such as speech aggression, trolling, cyberbullying, etc.” (Klushina, Nikolaeva, 2020: 18; Efremov, 2019).

In recent years, researchers have written extensively about the multimediality of media space, including Internet communication.

In the studies of Russian and foreign scientists, multimodality and polycodality have replaced logocentrism as key words in explaining the processes of understanding and sense-making (Jancsary et al., 2016; Kress, 2010). This approach “takes into account not only the verbal level of the text, but also its media dimension, which significantly expands the boundaries of the text, turning it into a polycode and endowing it with new structural and semantic characteristics due to the media and technological properties of a particular media channel” (Dobrosklonskaya, 2019: 188).

Researchers have repeatedly emphasized the strengthening of the authorial principle in modern media (Kormilitsyna, 2005, etc.) along with the trend toward intellectualization.

The indicated trends in modern Russian-language media practice are considered on various material reflecting the functioning of different units and subsystems of the Russian language. Of particular scientific interest at the beginning of the 21st century in this respect are neologisms of usual and nonusual nature, which are widely represented in Russian-language media texts and reflect the creative speech practice of native speakers.

The study of Russian neoderivatives in sociocultural and linguopragmatic aspects from the point of view of the above-mentioned trends represents the topicality and novelty of the present article. It should contribute to the discovery of the specifics of sociocultural and linguocognitive comprehension of reality by contemporary language consciousness of the Russian sociologists.

The results of the study can be used in journalistic practice in preparing media texts and their further linguistic interpretation, as well as in lexicographic (neographic) practice.

The aim of this research is to show the structural-semantic and functional specificity of Russian neologisms reflecting actual social realia.

Methods and materials

The research is based on the lexical and word-formation neologisms from the Russian-language texts of the Russian print and electronic media at the beginning of the 21st century (Kommersant, Moskovsky Komsomolets, RIA Novosti, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Rossiya-24,, and others). The majority of the linguistic and speech facts cited in the article are the newest new words, recorded in the texts of mostly 2020–2021.

The authors used methods of structural and semantic analysis of neologisms with the use of component analysis, word-formation analysis, content analysis, contextual analysis; descriptive and classification methods. During the analysis of new forms, we used data from lexicographical, including nongraphic sources.


  1. As a result of the research we have identified thematic groups of neologisms of usual and nonusual nature reflecting actual social realia: neoderivatives of pandemic topics; neoderivatives reflecting digital reality, Internet realia, business realia, etc.
  2. The topical word-formation means of the Russian language and ways of creating the considered neologisms are determined: the usual ways of suffixation, prefixation, prefixoidization, agglutinative type addition; the non-usual way of contamination, as well as non-usual ways of polycode neologisms, including hyphenation, parenthesis, quotation, use of ideograms and numbers, font and color highlighting.
  3. As a result of the contextual analysis of Russian-language media texts the main functions of neologisms are characterized: nominative, expressive-evaluative, playful.
  4. The results of the study contribute to solving practical problems of journalistic activity.


1. Russian journalism “has always had an ideological modus operandi; it has always been aimed at establishing basic ideologemes in society and creating axiological coordinates that correspond to the specific tasks of the era” (Klushina, 2018: 100).

The massification of culture is another media effect. In the media texts of the yellow press, there is “individualization of not the processes of creativity, of consumption, where the choice of ways to carry out activity is set by power structures, and consumption is organically embedded in the procedures of total control of man and his needs” (Kostina, 2009: 20). Media language influences the formation of a special mass media consciousness. “Media became the most powerful means of influencing the human mind not only through facts, arguments and interpretation, but also through changing forms of thinking” (Klushina, 2018: 77).

A special sphere of media space is represented by the Internet media. “With the emergence of the Internet and the development of digital technologies,” as scholars note, “new opportunities and new ways to carry out mass, group and interpersonal communication have emerged” (Klushina, Nikolaeva, 2020: 17).

Unfortunately, in modern conditions, some forms of communication can manifest themselves in aggressive speech behavior: “in the era of media product competition and oversupply in the information market, the author tends to use any means of fascination without thinking about the ecology of the Internet space” (Klushina, Nikolaeva, 2020: 45).

Modern electronic and print media create ample opportunities for using various visual technologies, which determine the multimediality of media space. “We can consider in terms of multimedia any text in which, in addition to letters, there are pictures, photographs and other signs of non-letter nature” (Klushina, Nikolaeva, 2020: 157), in particular, color, graphics, font, symbols, sound, video, etc. Otherwise, such text is called polycode text.

Polycodality, multimediality enhance the expressive potential of the text due to new non-letter information, which is carried in the multimedia sign (Chernyavskaya, 2013; Toshovich, 2018). The importance of the visual factor “has increased due to the development of new media formats, visual technologies and electronic environments, that is called ‘digital culture’ ” (Chernyavskaya, 2021: 174).

The beginning of the twenty-first century is characterized by an increased authorial presence in media texts. “The selection of facts reflects the author’s position just as much as it finds its expression in the selection of linguistic means. <...> The range of subjectivization in media material is very wide – from an emphatically documentary to an emphatically personal depiction of events” (Klushina, Nikolaeva, 2020: 211–212).

One of the main functions of media texts – the function of influence and persuasion – is provided by the addressee’s personal authority, the author’s interpretation of reality through the creative use of linguistic means, ways of subjectivizing a statement and other factors.

Another feature of modern media that has been noted by researchers is the tendency toward intellectualization. The tendency to intellectualization of media language is manifested, in particular, in the language game, based primarily on precedence and requiring the addressee to have a high intellectual and cultural level. In addition, entertainment discourse is becoming increasingly influential: “gaming strategies attract the addressee, give greater freedom to the addressee and are aimed at creativity. <...> The addressee of entertainment discourse uses exaggerated expressiveness and consumerization in presenting information, intrigue and publicity” (Klushina, 2018: 35).

The considered characteristics of the mass media are reflected to a greater or lesser degree in the neologisms in the Russian-language texts of the Russian mass media.

2. Vocabulary neologisms of Russian language and Russian speech are studied in modern science in the aspect of colloquial tendencies of communication in mass media and Internet, oral and written nature of communication, expressivization of speech, creative functions of language in media and Internet communication.

If we consider the influence of external and internal factors, in particular, on vocabulary, we must take into account that “autonomous processes occurring within the lexical subsystem of language and aimed at improving the system of signs, are ultimately mediated by an external stimulus, in particular the actualization of any social phenomena, concepts” (Volkov, Senko, 1983: 45). At the same time, the latter “activates a linguistic mechanism seeking to give an already known concept a denotation convenient for a given state of the linguistic system, correspondding to certain tendencies in its modern development” (Volkov, Senko, 1983: 45).

In modern science, domestic and foreign, there is no single, accepted by all researchers, approach to the definition of neologism. In particular, it is debatable to distinguish neologisms as units fixed in the language, and ocasionalisms as unique speech units that are used only once. Thus, in the reference literature, neologisms are often understood not only as new language units fixed in the usus, but also as non-usual neologisms, which are defined as individual author neologisms.

The terms novation and innovation, new formation, new word, neolexeme, neoderivat, neonym, as well as ephemerism, occasionalism and many others are used in studies of neology (for more details see: Alatortseva, 1999; Kasyanova, 2006; Koryakovtseva, 2016; Senko, 2007, etc.).

Many researchers presume to call all new words neologisms, as this term seems semantically the most capacious, terminologically clear and justified (Kasyanova, 2006). In this paper, the terms novation and innovation are used as general names for any new phenomena in language and speech, that is, as generic with respect to the term neologism. By neologisms (including word-formation) are understood only usual formations, and the terms new formation and neoderivat are applied to usual and nonusual (occasional) new words created in the Russian language with the help of various word-formation methods. To solve the problems set in this study, the opposition of these terms and related phenomena is not essential, because both usual and nonusual neologisms are relevant in reflecting significant social realia.

3. In the mass media, word creativity is an inexhaustible resource for comprehending the actual agenda. In 2020–2021, pandemic topics related to the COVID-19 coronavirus epidemic have become particularly relevant in the media. The coronavirus “has fundamentally changed the way we live. Social and economic life was almost completely paralyzed” (Zelenin, Butseva, 2020: 98). The reflection of the pandemic in the mass media “allows us to reveal values that, on the one hand, define the picture of the world of our contemporaries and, on the other hand, show the clash of different points of view” (Karasik, 2020: 40).

According to scholars, “society’s reaction to all this has generated a new vocabulary that has become a utilitarian tool for discussing problems related to the coronavirus epidemic. The emergence of new speech metaphors, memes, lexical, word-formation innovations related to these problems <...> demonstrates language creativity as an integral part of language, adapting our ways and forms of interaction to extra-linguistic reality” (Zelenin, Butseva, 2020: 98; Pavlova et al., 2021; Gromenko et al., 2021).

The key words of the pandemic era (coronavirus, covid, pandemic, inoculation, mask, vaccine, etc.) are used to create suffix neoderivatives, as well as derivatives with productive prefixes of opposition, negation, absence (anti-, without-), temporal semantics (pre-, post-): Despite “coronavirus” restrictions, the festival continues;[1] Therefore, it is better not to experiment, not to risk health, not to hold “covid parties”;[2] I do not know, maybe it seemed to me, but in movies and TV series of the pandemic time actors kept “social distance” between them...;[3] In Europe a new vaccine scandal;[4] Anti-virus code;[5] Antiviral measures are not cancelled;[6] The anti-vaccination movement is gaining more power year after year. And now a new attack – the “sect of the vaccine-less <...> Videos regularly appear in social networks, as such principled anti-vaccinationists are led out of public transport, stores, entertainment venues with police;[7] Anti-vaccinationists ...talking nonsense;[8] Since December 1, 2020 Hospital 19 has started to work in a no-vaccination mode..;[9] No white, vaccine-free spots left on the map of Russia;[10] Return of tourism to pre-coronavirus level is not yet in the plans;[11] Covid hospitals are moving to pre-coronavirus life;[12] The expert predicted the return of unemployment to pre-pandemic level in 2022;[13] In pre-pandemic time, the number of forum participants exceeded...;[14] Rest in post-coronavirus era will be different;[15] Post-coronavirus syndrome today is comprehensively studied by scientists <...> appearance of insomnia after coronavirus infection became one of the main symptoms of post-coronavirus <...> For the first time in 7 years an obsession to get married appeared <...> People agreed with children, with mortgage, even post-coronavirus.[16]

Mass media and social networks “turned out to be one of the main factors of active linguistic creativity, the spread of covid vocabulary in the sociolinguistic space and its adaptation” (Zelenin, Butseva, 2020: 98). The negative evaluation of such neologisms is connected both with the semantics of the affixes (anti-) and with the semantics of the original words, which reflect negative social phenomena.

Socially significant words often act as the first parts of complex neoderivatives created by agglutination, with the first indeclinable part. The initials for such derivatives are words naming the realia of the coronavirus era, Internet communication, digital reality, and business spheres: In Vladivostok, yellow covid buses appeared;[17] For several days we were treated at home, but her condition got worse and worse, and she was hospitalized in the Izhevsk covid-center;[18] Psychiatrists already have new diagnoses: coronaneurosis, coronapsychosis and further down the list, depending on the number of masks, gloves, bags on peoples’ heads, number of disinfections of everything, etc.; No kidding;[19] ...In the world they say about the third coming of the coronacrisis;[20] I am very grateful to the Musk project, which diluted this corona-situation;[21] According to scientists, the high volume of private investments in a number of regions led to the rapid development of business-corruption and reduced domestic bribery;[22] What do “enlightened” Internet-teachers impose their witnesses;[23] It is proposed to spell out the rules for online processes;[24] “Frankly speaking, I do not understand what prevented them from calling me and find out what I think about these ‘telegraph disclosures,’ – she wrote on instagram;[25] It is necessary to begin with the establishment of responsibility, up to criminal responsibility for those who organize or form such trash content, trash streaming <... > There is no tested and good practice of legal regulation of trash-streaming problem;[26] Large and wealthy IT-companies continue ignoring requests of Roskomnadzor <...> IT-giants earn huge money in our country, but they do not pay taxes to the budget...[27] Due to the BlackLivesMatter movement, which has intensified recently, the acronym BLM has become relevant in complex derivatives: ...adherents of progressive values do not intend to limit themselves to BLM-activism and racial issues.[28] This theme is also supported by other newcomers, who use the name of the criminal D. Floyd as a precedent: In America, another round of Floyd madness is taking place.[29]

In complex neoderivatives, the negative evaluation is usually associated with the semantics of the original words (coronaneurosis, coronapsychosis, coronacrisis, business corruption, telegram disclosures, etc.).

Modern digital reality is also reflected in media neologisms, in particular in neoderivatives with prefixes cyber- and crypto-. Thus, the prefix cyber- marks derivatives associated not only with the digitalization of society, but also with the designation of various manifestations of cybercrime: This is how this city of the future is seen – as a cyber city;[30] New participants will be transferred to the cyber polygon;[31] If there are cyber criminals, there should be cyber investigators;[32] ...We should expand the powers of Roskomnadzor and create cyber police...;[33] Cyber attorney. During the year the number of crimes committed with the use of information and communication technologies increased by 74 percent;[34] Cyber conflicts should be taken seriously and very seriously[35]; Cyber crime review... All this is the work of cyber racketeers;[36] How it turned out that in the main pipeline of America gaping huge cyberbreaches, the FBI decided not to specify;[37] ...all cyber-sonic developments are cyber-secret.[38]

Actual neoderivatives are also formed using the prefix crypto- with the seme ‘hidden:’ ...Zug (Swiss canton. – authors comment.] has long had a reputation as a ‘crypto valley:’ many blockchain startups and cryptocurrency companies operate or register their activities there;[39] ...cybercriminals are making progress in developing and deploying swarm-based attacks. <...> a possible threat could be realized if preparations are not made now to counter it by adopting crypto-flexibility. <...> As a result, the organization will need to prepare to move to quantum-resilient crypto-algorithms...;[40] The editors did not find this material. Maybe they are cryptoalternates?[41] The social significance of the above prefixoids is evidenced by their rather broad syntagmatic possibilities, so these prefixoids are combined with the bases of animate and proper nouns.

Derivatives with prefixes cyber-, crypto- often have a terminological character and fulfill a nominative function. The negative expression of such derivatives is primarily due to the semantics and evaluation of the original words (cyberconflicts, cybercriminals, cyber racketeers, cryptoalternates, etc.).

The pronounced creative nature of neoderivatives is manifested in the word-formation game. The expressive and playful beginning is especially characteristic of neoderivatives created by non-usual means, in particular by contamination. The headline “Kholuyn”[42] combines the name of the Western holiday “Hallo-ween” with the invective “kholuy” (‘groveler’): Ex-president Kravchuk calls the whole Belarus “kholuyi” <...> President Zelenski says that only Ukraine’s membership in the NATO military bloc can solve all its problems...[43] In this context, there are elements of verbal aggression.

In some cases, when creating a contaminated new formation, precedent texts are used: Irrefutable tellevidence[44] – to tell + (irrefutable) evidence; Covid does not show[45] – covid + sight (‘give no sign’). Often personal proper names are involved in the creating contaminated formations: ...Khodorkovsky’s attempts to create a hodosyachya [‘pig’] party[46] – Khodorkovsky + pig; Vladimir Putin showed bear-delicacy. ...On May 14, at a meeting with permanent members of the Security Council, Russian President Vladimir Putin unexpectedly passionately stood up for Ukrainian politician Viktor Medvedchuk[47] – Medvedchuk + sensitive. The playful use of proper names can contribute to an aggressive context.

Scientists associate such outbursts of word-formation activity in the media with situations that can be subjected to comic interpretation and thus serve as an impetus for language play. “The pronounced expressive and evaluative nature of most such neologisms contributes, first of all, to the realization of the influential function of the media” (Radchenko, 2021: 658).

Polycode neologisms, containing letter signs in non-letter means, in particular graphic means (hyphens, brackets, quotation marks, etc.), ideograms, numbers, typographic and color highlighting, are often considered as a manifestation of the language game (Popova, 2013; Toshovich, 2018; Chernyavskaya, 2013).

Thus, in hyphenation the original word may be split with a hyphen into parts corresponding to independent words: Mara-fon – usual marathon in the title of the article is hyphenated according to the proper name Mara: Before the premiere of The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, our Los Angeles correspondent Galya Galkina chatted with Rooney Mara: the girl who beat Scarlett Johansson, Kristen Stewart and Natalie Portman to the role in the top movie of January[48].

Hyphenation can accompany contamination: Cat-astrophe! Wild cats have taken over almost all of Australia[49] – the contamination of the words cat and catastrophe with a formal modification of the latter; Ele-seevsky Gastronome Legend was left without goods and customers – the contamination of the adverb ele ‘hardly’ and the name of the famous Moscow gastronome “Eliseevsky”. The contamination is accompanied by a hyphenation to highlight the evaluative adverb.

One part of a usual word may also be separated by parentheses, creating the possibility of ambivalent understanding of the new construct: Dark and (un)scary: the city celebrated Halloween;[50] It is (un)good that they moved it: the pros and cons of moving the December essay[51].

One part of the source word can be separated by quotation marks: You will not have to “MiG”nut’ [wink]. New MiG-35s will be assembled at the Sokol plant in Nizhny Novgorod.[52]

Combining the elements of different code systems as part of a new formation – codographixation – also refers to polycodification. Codographixation can use elements of the alphabet of the natural language and numbers, ideograms: 100LITSA [capital]. Magazine about people in Vladimir;[53] Sberbank OnL@ne: A step towards mobility is a step forward![54]

Polycode texts also include constructions with typographic and numerical emphasis: The most sCANNdalnye [scandal] dresses of the festival – about the Cannes Film Festival.[55] In the headline GUD BAYDEN, TRUMP. Can the new president kick the old one out of the White House?[56] the transliterated English goodbye etiquette formula is highlighted in color, symbolizing both the farewell to former President Trump and the new President Biden’s rise to power.

Polycode texts, as a synthesis of verbal and non-verbal means, as a result of interaction between different code systems have become one of the features of modern media texts and are now a bright expressive and evaluative means of influencing the recipient’s consciousness.


Neologisms as a component of media texts are characterized by social conditionality, which is manifested in their structural and functional characteristics. Thus, neologisms with typical structure created by usual ways of word-formation are characterized by both nominative and expressive-evaluative functions, which are conditioned by semantics and evaluation of word-formation means and source words. For non-typical neologisms, created by unusual means, the expressive-evaluative and playful functions, due to the occasional nature of word-formation methods, are of priority. Linguistic and speech innovations reflect changes in the linguistic consciousness of the members of Russian society, new formats of knowledge about the changed reality. In this regard, it is relevant to continue studying word-formation innovations of modern media in the linguistic and cognitive aspect.


1 Den’ Goroda. 29.07–04.08.2020.

2 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 28.04.2021.

3 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 26.04.202.

4 Pervy Channel. 25.04.2021.

5 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 27.04.2021.

6 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 26.03.2021.

7 Nasha Versiya. 02–08.11.2020.

8 Vesti FM. 11.02.2021.

9 26.03.2021.

10 Rossiya-1. 26.03.2021.

11 Rossiya-24. 13.05.2020.

12 Rossiya-1. 07.06.2020.

13 Izvestiya. 26.02.2021.

14 The Fifth Channel. 29.05.2021.

15 The First Channel. 27.04.2020.

16 Moskovsky Komsomolets. 28.04.-04.05.2021.

17 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 12.11.2020.

18 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Nedelya. 31.03.2021.

19 Sevastopolsky Gorodskoy Forum. 25.10.2020.

20 NTV. 06.04.2021.

21 NTV. 02.05.2021.

22 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 22.04.2021.

23 Rossiya-24. 31.07.2020.

24 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 08.04.2021.

25 RIA Novosti. 27.05.2021.

26 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 22.01.2021.

27 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 20.04.2021.

28 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 26.04.2021.

29 The First Channel. 13.07.2020.

30 Rossiya-1. 13.02.2021.

31 Kommersant. 03.12.2020.

32 Radio Rossii. 18.01.2020.

33 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 22.01.2021.

34 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 26.04.2021.

35 The First Channel. 11.03.2021.

36 NTV. 14.05.2021.

37 The Fifth Channel. 16.05.2021.

38 Business FM. 18.05.2021.

39 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 08.04.2021.

40 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 06.04.2021.

41 Vesti FM. 10.02.2021.

42 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 07.04.2021.

43 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 07.04.2021.

44 Kommersant. 18.12.2020.

45 Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 04.02.2021.

46 Vesti FM. 18.03.2021.

47 Kommersant. 15.05.2021.

48 Elle Girl. January, 2012.

49 10.01.2017.

50 Dialogue. 02.11.2019.

51 Godliteratury.RF. 10.12.2020.

52 Patrioty Nizhnego. 26.07.2017.

53 Journal 100Lits. Retrieved from

54 CNews. 25.02.2013.

55 CNews. 25.02.2013.

56 Moskovsky Komsomolets. 11–18.11.2020.


About the authors

Larisa V. Ratsiburskaya

National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9332-050X

Doctor of Philology, Professor, Head of the Department of Modern Russian Language and General Linguistics

23 Prospekt Gagarina, Nizhny Novgorod, 603022, Russian Federation

Elena A. Zhdanova

National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3700-0613

Candidate of Philology, lecturer of the Department of Modern Russian Language and General Linguistics

23 Prospekt Gagarina, Nizhny Novgorod, 603022, Russian Federation


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