Vol 9, No 3 (2018)

LINGUISTICS OF THE TEXT
METAPHOR OF FORM IN “LILY” (architectonics of Icelandic Fourteenth century Christian Drapa)
Ogurechnikova N.L.
Abstract

Aim of the study is explication of the narrative technique of the person who composed “Lily”; research demands attention to the following aspects of the drapa: 1) its architectonics, i.e. correlation between the form and the content including topoi, symbolism and narrative strands; 2) the language of “Lily” and forms of narration in the text; 3) correlation between language and meter in “Lily”. The first of the three mentioned aspects of the text constitutes the subject matter of the paper, attention is also given to the value of the text in skaldic poetics and verbal culture of Iceland. Materials and methods. The first section presents information on the surviving manuscripts and shows the value of “Lily” in the culture of Iceland; references to Icelandic folklore and modern recordings help realize importance of the text. In the second section technique of the author(s) is studied with regard to both, medieval Christian literature and verbal culture of medieval Iceland. The study is carried out on the basis of edition [8] and all available Russian translations of medieval Latin literature. Analysis of the latter enables to identify the literary topoi and corresponding archetypes of medieval consciousness reflected in “Lily”. The third section is devoted to semantics of the title and to other textual symbols. The fourth section considers the mode of text existence and addresses authorship. Results. Analysis shows that the content of “Lily” does not go beyond few archetypes of medieval Icelandic and European Christian consciousness. Specificity of “Lily” is described as metaphor of form; the collocation denotes all semantic processes entailed by the transfer of the form of drapa into the sphere of traditional Christian culture. Metaphor of form is treated as a natural consequence of the main achievement of Icelandic skalds - involution of poetic form and turning it into artistic device [5], - a prerequisite to versatility of poetic content. Conclusion. “Lily” is finally classified as a text which highlights semantic and functional potential of the skaldic form and on the whole complies with the canon of skaldic poetics. Assumption is made that the author of “Lily” did not realise himself as the author of the text, though the surviving text is, no doubt, result of his individual effort. Working with traditional material, the author of “Lily” most probably created his text in accordance with principles of Icelandic Oral Tradition.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):505-535
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SYNTACTIC MARKERS OF THE “AUREATE” STYLE OF THE ENGLISH MEDIEVAL POETRY
Vyshenskaya Y.P.
Abstract

The article concerns the matter of investigating the poetic language phenomenon the value of which is acquired as a result of the influence of relations with the work of literature grammar basis. The problem under study is solved on the “golden” style phenomenon proper to the medieval English poetry. Courtois chivalric poems textual material is taken as an illustrative source as a most representative to research peculiarities of the “aureate” style. The “belles-lettres” style is considered as an element of the model “style - text - discourse”, the character of their interrelations making influence on the style components as well as the nuances of their combination. The epoch of changing the Middle Ages by the Renaissance is marked by the simultaneous changing the oral forms of the text existing by written ones accompanied by interacting of the oral and written forms of the bookish and oral speech. The character of the process of the work of literature grammar basis forming during the period of the late Middle Ages is under the influence of the process of the epoch under consideration and stylish tendencies caused by humanistic direction which intensified in Europe at time. Within the scope of the tendency classical rhetoric guides are replaced by national ones. The latter oriented to Latin, French and Provençal patterns. This fact induced their emulative character that can be observed in he tendency to use the experience of both classical and modern Italian writers (Dante, Boccaccio, Petrarca). The situation in England of the time concerned reflects the one in continental Europe which is manifested first of all in the tendency proper to the Italian humanistic art to elaborate and refine style known as “aureate” or “golden”, the term introduced into scientific circulation by Lydgate. The syntactic layer of the phenomenon is served as a subject of the present study.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):536-552
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LITERARY SOURCES OF ORNAMENTAL SUBJECT COMPOSITIONS OF FRENCH PRINTED TEXTILES OF THE END OF THE XVIII - THE BEGINNING OF THE XIX CENTURY
Tkach D.G.
Abstract

Printed textiles are one of the most ancient and significant branches of the design of textiles, the development of which, within the framework of the European cultural tradition, includes consideration of such questions as canonical schemes of ornamental constructions and style trends of fine art. The end of XVIII - beginning of XIX century was a period of flourishing of French applied art, its dominance in Europe as a generally recognized standard. It was also a period of rising public interest in French literature, the images of which were embodied in one of the most widely replicated types of applied art - ornamental printed textiles. The article describes the main sources of ornamental plot compositions of French printed textiles of the late XVIII early XIX century. The emergence reasons in drawings of a heel-tap of these or those characters and scenes from literary works are defined, the semantic analysis is carried out them. The technique of the translation of art and graphic language of a book illustration in language of subject textile ornamentation is revealed.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):553-563
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HARD PROSE OF POETRY TRANSLATION: POETRY WRITTEN NOT BY A GENIUS, TRANSLATED NOT BY A NATIVE SPEAKER...
Ragachewskaya M.S.
Abstract

The article deals with a practical analysis of translation strategies used for the translation of poetry from the translator’s native language (Russian, Belarusian) into a foreign one (English). The academic literature on the theoretical problems of poetic translation is scarce, therefore, in their work a translator relies on publications that have an empiric character. The main goal of the article is to single out specific translation strategies and methods for the translation of poetry into a language which is foreign for the translator. The research was conducted with the use of anonymous material, for ethical reasons, and it is based on the author’s own translation of two poems and subsequent analysis of the strategies applied. Special attention is paid to the consistent application of such techniques as defining the general syntactical structure of the source poem, identification of images and stylistic devices for the realization thereof, adherence to the dominant elements of the given poetic form - metre, rhyming pattern, syntactic emphases. A separate and final stage of translation is verification, e.g., checking the acceptability of the resulting text against a native speaker’s perception. While working with complex syntactical constructions and multiple metaphors, the author of the article has included one more stage: search for phraseological equivalents in English. Besides, it is worth analyzing the omissions and additions, and a balanced approach to the necessity of “sacrificing” some of the poetic elements of the original text. The article also provides references to the dictionaries of rhymes, which are indispensable sources for poetry translation. The theoretical significance of the article consists in its contribution to the study of means of rendering poetic structures and imagery from Russian/Belarusian into English. The practical value of the article consists in a detailed empirical analysis of consecutive steps and strategies when doing poetic translation. The main conclusions and concepts of the article can be used in the university teaching, in general and special courses in the theory and practice of fiction and poetry translation.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):564-574
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FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR
TO THE QUESTION OF THE PRONOUN ONE
Trufanova I.V.
Abstract

The relevance of the selected topic is due to the fact that in the linguistic literature the volume of return pronouns is ambiguously interpreted, on the one hand, there are several different classifications of pronouns on semantics, on the other hand, the pronoun one refers to different semantic categories. One was not the subject of a special linguistic study. The author's goal was to substantiate the belonging of one to the return pronouns and to establish his place in the group of returnable costs. The material was collected by us in the National Corps of the Russian language. The method of substituting one of each other's pronouns yielded the following conclusions. One has a set of homonyms among adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, opening words. The return pronoun one in all case forms allows a substitution for each other, its homonyms do not allow such a replacement. The method of replacing each other in place of one and the same allows us to establish that before us: a reflexive pronoun or phraseology belonging to another part of the speech. In the accusative case, the pronoun being analyzed has forms for replacing the names of animate and inanimate subjects, it is not always possible to replace it with one another in other cases, when subjects of the same action are not persons. One is related to the animated and the inanimate, and each other is primarily animate. The results of this study can be used in lexicography when specifying the parttime homonyms of homonyms one and one in morphology in the development of semantic classifications of pronouns.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):575-594
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CORRELATION OF MORPHEMIC AND SYLLABIC DIVISION IN THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
Popova E.N., Tomashevich S.B.
Abstract

The statement about unity and entirety of language system, interdependency and interaction of different level language elements belongs to the circle of fundamental problems in language theory. There is a specific correlation between sounding and meaning. Syllable and morpheme correlation studying could clarify two-side nature of language sign. The article demonstrates the analysis of correlation between syllabic borders and word boundaries, between syllabic borders and morphemic junctures in different word classes in conversational, scientific and literary texts. The correlation between syllabic borders and morphemic junctures demonstrates main grammar tendencies and may be considered as a typological feature. The question of syllable and morpheme correlation is especially important for synthetic languages, for it is they where isomorphic phenomenon of correlation between form and substance is denied. The analysis shows that quantity of morphs and syllables in word is practically the same. Nevertheless it is impossible to speak about coincidence of syllable and morpheme. Conjunction frequency of syllabic borders and morph junctures depends on the word class, the type of morph juncture, the level of its semantic and syntactic independence and the type of the text. Considering syllabic border and morph juncture correlation the scientific text differs from the conversational and the literary ones, nouns and adjectives oppose verbs. The main method is statistical, analytical and descriptive methods are also used. Correlation of morphemic and syllabic division characterizes the Russian language as fusional and flectional language and demonstrates its main grammar tendencies. Correlation regularity between morph and syllable, between syllabic borders and morphemic junctures and word boundaries shows the unity of sounding and meaning of morpheme and word. The leading role in this unity belongs to meaning.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):595-611
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FUNCTIONAL SEMANTICS
“LINGUISTIC ENCYCLOPEDIA” - AN UNKNOWN LEXICOGRAPHICAL PROJECT OF THE 1930S
Nikitin O.V.
Abstract

The article analyses the project of “Linguistic encyclopedia” of the 1930s. The concept of publication was designed by the famous historian and theoretician of linguistics R. O. Shor in the form of expanded memorandum to the Research Institute of linguistics. The idea of creating a “Linguistic encyclopedia” included in the context of scientific discussions, social and political situation of the 1920- 1930s and those tasks which arose before the Soviet scientists on the language construction, technique of learning languages of the southern regions of the country, the development of the General theory and methodology of linguistics. The author emphasizes obvious ideological nature of many statements, which testifies to the struggle of different directions in linguistics and the growing pressure of marrism. For the first time the original text of this project from the collection of the Archives of Russian Academy of Sciences is presented and commented. The paper solves an obscure problem in the history of linguistics and contributes to the objective understanding of the complex processes of linguistic sociology of science in the period of adaptation to the new conditions (discussions, repression of traditional comparative studies, fighting with “polivanovchshina”, etc.).

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):612-624
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THE CONTENT AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEAR AND CIRCUMNUCLEAR ZONES OF LEXICAL-SEMANTIC FIELD “INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS” ON THE MATERIAL OF F. DOSTOEVSKY’S NOVEL “THE IDIOT”
Denisenko V.N., Romanova I.A.
Abstract

The article discusses the structure of lexical-semantic field “interpersonal relations” based on the novel “The Idiot”, by F. Dostoevsky. In the article we describe the set of lexical item representing the field, as well as the place of units of the field in the author's style. The subject of the research was chosen by the relevance of studying vocabulary as a layer of a literary language that discloses information about the material and spiritual culture of society. The relevance of this work can also be considered from the point of view of the need for the development of a comprehensive methodology for the linguistic analysis of semantic relations within the lexical-semantic field “interpersonal relations”. Our goal is to highlight all the variety of units of lexical-semantic field “interpersonal relations” used in F.M. Dostoevsky’s novel. Also we want to reveal the uniqueness of their contextual use, as well as to trace the dynamics of relations and at the same time the change in the lexical content as for relation descriptions between characters. We have developed criteria for selecting lexical markers. We used continuous sampling method, analysis of vocabulary definitions and componential analysis during the preparation of the article. It is established that the lexical-semantic field “interpersonal relations” is a clearly structured system, a well- structured system, which units are united by common semantic features. The pre-nuclear zone is made up of units united by the name of field “relation”, but with a small number of differential signs. In the field we are considering, these are 'negative attitude', 'positive attitude', 'intense', 'non-intensive', 'benevolence', 'hostility', 'sympathy', 'pity', 'indifference'. These features determine the structure and place of the field we are considering in the lexical-semantic system of the Russian language, helping to native speakers’ mind to expand the idea of the content and structure of the lexical-semantic field “interpersonal relations”. Most of the vocabulary of lexical-semantic field “interpersonal relations” are words with a high emotional code that characterizes the author’s style. The linguistic personality of Dostoevsky can be called an individually and creatively verbalized world view through the prism of the writer's consciousness.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):625-639
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A LINGUISTIC COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SPEECHES OF THE PRESIDENT OF RUSSIA VLADIMIR PUTIN AND THE 44-TH PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA DELIVERED THE HEADS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE UNITED STATES AT THE 70-TH MANAGING ASSEMBLY OF THE UN IN 2015
Chichina M.O.
Abstract

The purpose of the article is the conduction a linguistic comparative analysis of the speeches of the President of Russia V.V. Putin and the 44th US President Barack Obama, delivered by these leaders at the jubilee 70th UN General Assembly. The author of the article uses the method of system linguistic analysis, which involves study of the semantic structure of texts, the analysis of vocabulary and rhetoric techniques used by President of Russia V.V. Putin and the 44th US President, Barack Obama. The speech of the state leader being a special type of the political discourse apart from the linguistic realizations of the linguistic personality of a particular person also reflects the basic principles of the mindset of the people and reveals its attitude to history and current political situation. The basis for carrying out of the comparative analysis was the general theme of the speeches by V.V. Putin and B. Obama - the 70th anniversary of the United Nations Organization - an important international event. Each word of the leaders of such states as Russia and the USA pronounced from the high tribune of the UNO is meaningful, therefore analyzing of those meanings that are hidden behind the use of appeals, metaphors, comparisons, and constructions of pronouns ‘we/I’ is a matter of particular interest.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):640-650
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SMALL-FORMAT “NEWS FLOW” MEDIATEXTS IN THE FOCUS OF LINGUISTICS: GENRE AND LANGUAGE PECULIARITIES
Remchukova E.N., Apostolidi A.A.
Abstract

Today the media sphere is one of the most active functional areas of the modern Russian language, and it demonstrates the major current trends of modern Russian speech in the most vivid way. This is what conditions the study of small-format texts of the “news flow”, which belong to the basic and most widespread media texts. These texts are characterized by a stable structure and certain genre and linguistic features, the description of which is the purpose of the study. News stories of news agencies, captions, news tickers and other text materials of T.V. news programs were chosen as sources of material. It is small-format news media texts that represent media speech “in its pure form”. The volume of such texts varies from a single utterance to texts of an average volume, consisting of 4-6 paragraphs (up to 5000 characters). The nature of the genre determines the placement of information in these texts according to the “inverted pyramid” principle, well-known in journalistic practice, as well as the prevalence of the informative component, semantic density, syntactic minimalism in such texts. The article considers the main common feature of small-format news media texts - linguistic asceticism, consisting in “anti-creativity”, “neutrality” of speech, absence of distinct metaphorical and evaluative linguistic means, in simple syntactic structures. The most striking linguistic features of these texts, which singles them out in a separate group, include a large number of abbreviations, borrowings, structures that indicate the source of the news information. Small-format news media texts have significant linguodidactic potential. A stable structure and fairly rigid regulation of the language give grounds for their more active use as didactic material in the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language (RFL) and Russian as a non-native language (RNL).

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):651-668
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CATEGORIZATION OF LANGUAGE NOMINATIONS IN THE SOCIOLINGUISTIC SPACE OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Moskvitcheva S.A., Li X.
Abstract

In this article, the principles of language taxonomies construction depending on the social and political categorization of language space are introduced. It is proposed to strictly differentiate the concepts of language categorization and classification/typology/taxonomy. Categorization is understood as a form of cognition, it connects the subject and the object of cognition, therefore its products are representations of different levels of abstraction in the individual or collective consciousness. Taxonomies and classifications, as methods of cognition, refer to epistemology and represent principles of regulation by the result of categorization. Since the socio-political categorization of language space is fundamentally discursive in nature, therefore, it represents the points of view of various subjects of cognition, it is unlikely to talk about the existence of terminology in this field in the strict sense. We are dealing with multiple nominations stemming from different periods, ideologies and the pragmatic goals of various actors of glottopolitics, which leads to broad contextual synonymy and antonymy of nominations in this area. The discursive nature of these nominations results in a fundamental difference in the semantic field of formally similar nominations in different cultural and political regions, which complicates adequate translation and requires careful semantic research.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):669-684
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SCIENCE 21.0
HONORIFIC TITLES IN BRITISH ENGLISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH
Yuryeva J.B.
Abstract

Our modern, globalized world is developing along the path expanding the cooperation in economic, political, social and cultural life. The result of this interaction is the rapid growth of cultural exchanges and direct contacts between state institutions, social groups and individuals of different countries and cultures. The interrelation of language and culture plays an important role in communication both between the members of one group and with the representatives of other cultures. English is a global language and the term “English as an International Language” (EIL) corresponds to British English (BrE), American English (AmE), Canadian English (CanE), and Australian English (AusE). The present paper aims at showing differences between the usage of honorific titles in two varieties of the English language - American and British - relating to address forms used in everyday interaction and explaining the differences through social and interpersonal relations, cultural values and politeness strategies. The recent study of address forms is relevant as it helps us to find out speaker’s cultural peculiarities and to determine different usage of honorific titles in AmE and BrE. We draw on G. Hofstede’s Cultural dimensions (1991), Politeness theory (Brown and Levinson 1987, Hickey and Stewart 2005, Leech 2014), Intercultural pragmatics (Kecskes 2014, Wierzbicka 1991/2003). The data has been obtained through observation, questionnaires and interviews which contained a number of questions and situations, covering different social contexts: everyday communication with interlocutors of different age, sex and occupation. The study focuses on the main tendencies which illustrate the impact of culture on the usage of honorific titles in American English and British English.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):685-695
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GRAMMATICAL BUILD OF HYDRONYMS OF NORTHERN REGIONS OF KARAKALPAKSTAN
Mambetova G.J.
Abstract

This article deals with hydronyms of northern regions of Republic of Karakalpakstan: Shumanai, Kanlikul, Xodjeli, Kungrad, Muinak, Karauzyak, Takhtakupir, Kegeli, Nukus and Chimbai dictricts. Hydronyms make up a great and particular group of toponyms. In Turkic languages, specifically in the Karakalpak language hydronyms have a variety of peculiarities on grammatical structure. The article analyzes and proves that hydronyms of northern regions of Karakalpakstan are separate and complex and are formed with the aids of hydronymic affixes - li, li, ma, liq. In the article it’s been ruraled linguistic role of word formation affixes in forming hydronymic names. In the article it is stated on grammatical peculiarities, destructions of word affixes, participating in formation of hydronyms, linguistic units related to national peculiarities of karakalpak people, customs, rituals, wildlife, living in water, names of plants). Particularly the affixes -li/-li affect in explaining zoohydronyms, phytohydronyms and hydronyms that mean the relief features of water bodies. It is proved that appellative hydronyms can alone act as separate hydronyms, and also in the Karakalpak language complex hydronyms are more common than individual hydronyms. There are forms of complex hydronyms formed from two, three, four components, individual hydronyms forming complex and united hydronyms are subject to the grammatical structure of our language. Hydronyms of the northern regions of Karakalpakstan are not formed in all forms of word formation. Hydronyms are formed by the method of affixing complex hydronyms (addition of words, addition of words + affixation) and lexicon-syntactically. The formation of hydronyms in other ways is insignificant.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):696-711
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PRAGMATONYMS ON THE BASIS OF PROPER NAMES WITH A NATIONAL-CULTURAL COMPONENT IN RUSSIAN ADVERTISING
Omelianenko V.A.
Abstract

This article is devoted to description of pragmatonyms on the basis of other classes proper names with a national-cultural component in the cultural linguistics and communicative-pragmatic aspects. There are revealed the most typical sources of proper names. In this article, author used a method of continuous sampling, country studying method and introspection linguistics approach. The pragmatonyms on the basis of proper names are widely used in advertising for the formation of generalized positive image of domestic goods which act as a well-being integral part of the entire country. The function of analyzed units allows the nominator to characterize features of commodity, specify the producer, location of production, designate the target audience for its consumption, and transfer the unfamiliar product from the category of “alien” to the category “own”. Appeal to the consumer patriotic feelings is used with commercial purposes as well, as a means of speech manipulating on the one hand, and as a promotion of domestic products to strengthen the Russian market.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):712-728
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THE SEMANTICS OF YELLOW COLOR TERMS IN CHINESE AND RUSSIAN LINGUOCULTURES
Wu P.
Abstract

The article considers the importance of yellow color in Chinese and Russian linguocultures. It is known that the vocabulary of color designations as elements of a specific language dictionary is a special microsystem, its description has a significant cultural value. In a comparative study of vocabulary, which denotes color, it is possible to see the fixation of a special kind of sign memory of each linguoculture to be compared. Unlike comparing the grammatical structure of languages, the lexical comparative description of this group of units allows us to see a significant number of coinciding or convergent elements characterizing universal cognitive processes. The relevance of the proposed article is determined by a comparative analysis of the lexical class of color markings by the example of a specific primary color of two unrelated languages. The aim of the study is to compare the semantic volume of color identification in yellow in Chinese and Russian linguocultures. The method of research was the work of Russian linguists N.B. Bakhilina, Т.М. Vasilyeva, T.I. Vendina, 1. Guriev, I.V. Dvoretsky, V.G. Kulpina, F.N. Novikov, S.G. Ter-Minasova, T.Yu. Svetlichnaya. The novelty of the work is the reference to the vocabulary of color designation in Russian and Chinese in a comparative aspect. In the work a complex method of investigation is used, methods such as dexryptic, contextual, statistical, comparative are used. The sources of the research were the work of Russian and Chinese linguists, Russian and Chinese dictionaries, art and journalistic texts in Russian and Chinese. The results and material of the research can be used in reading lecture courses on the lexicology of Russian and Chinese languages, as well as in special courses on the problems of the relationship between language and thinking, and the cultural peculiarities of Russian and Chinese color lexicon.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):729-746
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NAKHCHIVAN ETHNOTOPONYMS IN RUSSIAN SOURCES OF THE 19TH CENTURY - THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY
Pashayeva G.G.
Abstract

Toponyms, especially oikonyms, are closely related to the ethnic composition of the population of a particular territory. Because, they are the product of the thinking of the people who created them. In most cases, you can determine the geography of the distribution of different peoples by place names. Azerbaijan and its inseparable part Nakhchivan is one of the ancient settlements of the Turkic tribes. Therefore, the toponymic layer of these territories retains the characteristics of the lexical, semantic system of the Turkic language. As part of the Nakhchivan toponyms, one can find elements that belong to the ancient Turkic language. At the same time, a large number of oikonyms contain the names of ancient Turkic tribes, which played a big role in the formation of the ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijani people. The task of this article is to study the Nakhchivan toponyms in Russian written monuments of the XIX - early XX centuries associated with the Turkic tribes by means of semantic methods - comparison and analysis of the component. Note that Russian local lore sources provide rich material for studying the toponyms of a given territory. Due to historical conditions some of Nakhchivan villages have disappeared, some of them are in Armenia now and some of their names have been changed. Thanks to Russian sources, we can have a complete picture of these villages. An analysis of the toponymic material shows that some of the Nakhchivan toponyms are associated with such large Turkic tribes as kangarli, oguz, bulgars and other different offshoots of the Turkic tribes.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):747-760
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LANGUAGE AND CULTURE: CONTEXTS IN BRITISH ENGLISH AND IRAQI ARABIC
Mohammed A.F.
Abstract

The use of language in interaction entails more than simply exchanging information about realistic ideas and objects amongst people; it is an important process, in which the relationships among people have outlined and negotiated. Any language refers to a particular culture, so learning any language does not mean learning only the grammar and the vocabulary of this language, but in fact, it is learning the behaviour and the customs of society as well as the characteristics that distinguish this community from others. There are no similar languages to the same extent as the social reality. We know that being aware of the culture is like being aware of the language so that we know that they are homogeneous psychological facts. Communication between people happens through direct linguistic messages and other messages that denoted by cultural features that are only understanding through the knowledge of the patterns specific to the society that produced them. The ideal and complex relationship between language and culture shows us that language is closely related to culture that influences each other, develops together and ultimately forming what it is to be human. Therefore, taking part in conversations, people consciously or unconsciously show their identities, their belongings to a specific culture or group and also their tendencies to become close or distant from others. By using language, people define their relationships to each other and identify themselves as part of a social group, implying that language is culture and culture is language.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):761-773
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THEME OF MIRACULOUS BIRTH IN KARAKALPAK FOLK LEGENDS AND ITS HISTORICAL BASES
Kalbaeva G.S.
Abstract

The present article deals with the analysis of leading motives of legend character’s miraculous birth. Historical bases of the motif was studied in comparision with the ancient archaic conceptions and with the motifs arising on the base of Moslem and before Islamic religious notions as well. It is proved that the ideal basis of miraculous birth motifs in legends, tales, epic poems are connected with the Greek, Babylon, Assyrian, Iranian, Central Asian myths of Creation Man in ancient times. “The Birth of Persey”, greek myths about “Devkalion and Pirre”, Iranian myths about the Birth of Kaiumars (Gaimartan from “Abesto”) are analyzed. The process of diffusion of the motif with the structural, semantic changes is interpreted. It is ascertained that the certain motif has various forms at different stages of the development of conscience and human civilization. The birth of main character without father in germ (embryo) (from sunrays, moonshine, windgust, seafoam, from water, fruits, charms of fruits, exorcism and etc), from intermarriage with animals and birds, gift of children to married couples from messengers of heavenly bodies or of other world, origin of miraculous phenomena in the days of character’s birth have been analyzed. All these have been grounded on the concrete materials rarely occurring in Legends of genealogical or ethnogenealogical features. In creation of character’s image, artistic mounting of ideologic content of the work and repercussion of events the poetic role of miraculous birth theme is of great imporfance. For example, artistic desert in creation of ideal images of world known historical persons as prophet Mogamed, Korkut ata, Iskander shakh, Chingiz khan, Amir Temur, Edige and others are revealed. In the article comparative historical method of investigation is used by accompaning typological analysis of plots. Comparative analysis of national peculiarities of motifs about miraculous Birth in Karakalpak folk legends with artistic works of other peoples is simultaneously carried out.

RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics. 2018;9(3):774-786
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