Cover Page

Cite item


This article deals with hydronyms of northern regions of Republic of Karakalpakstan: Shumanai, Kanlikul, Xodjeli, Kungrad, Muinak, Karauzyak, Takhtakupir, Kegeli, Nukus and Chimbai dictricts. Hydronyms make up a great and particular group of toponyms. In Turkic languages, specifically in the Karakalpak language hydronyms have a variety of peculiarities on grammatical structure. The article analyzes and proves that hydronyms of northern regions of Karakalpakstan are separate and complex and are formed with the aids of hydronymic affixes - li, li, ma, liq. In the article it’s been ruraled linguistic role of word formation affixes in forming hydronymic names. In the article it is stated on grammatical peculiarities, destructions of word affixes, participating in formation of hydronyms, linguistic units related to national peculiarities of karakalpak people, customs, rituals, wildlife, living in water, names of plants). Particularly the affixes -li/-li affect in explaining zoohydronyms, phytohydronyms and hydronyms that mean the relief features of water bodies. It is proved that appellative hydronyms can alone act as separate hydronyms, and also in the Karakalpak language complex hydronyms are more common than individual hydronyms. There are forms of complex hydronyms formed from two, three, four components, individual hydronyms forming complex and united hydronyms are subject to the grammatical structure of our language. Hydronyms of the northern regions of Karakalpakstan are not formed in all forms of word formation. Hydronyms are formed by the method of affixing complex hydronyms (addition of words, addition of words + affixation) and lexicon-syntactically. The formation of hydronyms in other ways is insignificant.

About the authors

Gulnaz J Mambetova

Karakalpak language department of the Nukus State Pedagogical Institute named after Azhiniyaz

Author for correspondence.

Senior Scientific Researcher of the Karakalpak Language Department of the Nukus State Pedagogical Institute Named After Azhiniyaz; Interests: lexicology, terminology, onomastics, toponymics, gidronimika

Khudaybergenov 14, Nukus, Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan, 230100


  1. Ataniyazov, S. (1966). Toponym of South-eastern Turkmenistan. Ashkhabad.
  2. Yuzbashev, R, Budagov B. (1974). Problems of toponyms in Azerbaijan. Baku.
  3. Konkobaev, K. (1975). About Kirghiz toponyms in with Besh components. Moscow.
  4. Garipova, F.G. (1991). Investigations on hydronymy of the Tatarstan. Моscow: Nauka.
  5. Shakurov, R. (1976). Bashkir toponyms off the big Irgir river basin. Saransk. pp. 209—212.
  6. Коraev, S. (1970). Toponymics. Tashkent: Fan. pp. 14—15. (In Uzbek.).
  7. Nafasov, T. (1989). Why the village is so named? Tashkent: Fan.
  8. Nafasov, T. (1989). Explanatory dictionary of Uzbek toponyms. Тashkent: Ukhituvchi. (In Uzbek.).
  9. Dusimov, Z. (1985). The toponyms of Khorezm. Tashkent: Fan. (In Uzbek.).
  10. Karimova, L. (1982). Learning of toponyms in Uzbek languages. Tashkent: Fan. (In Uzbek.).
  11. Ohunov, N. (1994). Interpretation of place names. Tashkent: Uzbekistan. (In Uzbek.).
  12. Enazarov, T. (2002). Etymological researches of Turkish simple toponyms. Tashkent: University.
  13. Begaliev, N. (1993). Hydronyms of Samarkand region (linguistic analysis): [dissertation]. Samarkand.
  14. Ulukov, N. (2008). Historical and linguistic studies of hydronyms of the Uzbek language. Tashkent: Fan. (In Uzbek.).
  15. Abdirakhanov, A. (2010). Toponymics and etymology. Pavlodar. (In Kazakh.).
  16. Abdimuratov, K. (1966). Toponymics of Karakalpak: [abstract of dissertation]. Nukus. (In Karakalpak).
  17. Kurbanov, M.D. (2011). Lexical-grammatical peculiarities of geographical terms in the Karakalpak language. Nukus. (In Uzbek.).
  18. Khоlmuminov, Х. (1993). Bоysun’s essence and its all around microtoponyms: [dissertation]. Тashkent. (In Uzbek.).
  19. Pakhratdinov, K. & Bekniazov, K. (2010). The structure of the toponyms of Karakalpakstan, Journal of Science and Society, 1—2, 69—70. (In Karakalpak.).
  20. Dusimov, Z. & Egamov, H. (1996). Brief explanatory dictionary of geographical terms. Nukus. (In Karakalpak.).
  21. Khoshanov, К, Zarimbetov, А. (2012). On the study of toponyms originated from the hydronyms of Karakalpakstan, Science and society, 3—4, 71.
  22. Da’wletov, A., Da’wletov, M. & Qudaybergenov, M. (2010). Modern Karakalpak literary language. Nukus: Bilim. (In Karakalpak.).
  23. Grammar of Karakalpak literary Language (Word Formation and morphology) (1994). Nukus: Bilim. (In Karakalpak.).
  24. Bekbergenov, А. (1971). Sacramental meanings of Numerals in Karakalpak Language. In: Researches on Karakalpak Language. Nukus: Karakalpakstan. pp. 186—191. (In Karakalpak).
  25. Jzanuzakov, Т. (1971). Customs and traditions in Kazakh anthroponymy//ethnography of names. Moscow. (In Kazakh.).
  26. Explanatory dictionary of Karakalpak. (1988). Nukus: Karakalpakstan. Т. III. (In Karakalpak.).
  27. Dusimov, Z. (1969). Education of the toponyms of Northern Khorezm, The journal “Uzbek language and literature”, 5, 79—80. (In Uzbek.).
  28. Modern karakalpak literary language (2010). Nukus: Bilim. (In Karakalpak.).
  29. Bekbergenov, A. (1979). Word formation in the Karakalpak language. Nukus: Karakalpakstan. (In Karakalpak).

Copyright (c) 2018 Mambetova G.J.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies