Innovative technologies in teaching Russian as a foreign language

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Abstract


Last decade saw growing interest to innovative technologies in methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language (henceforward RFL). The article presents a review of most recent scientific publications on modern computer technologies. The material of the research includes conference papers, manuals, monographs, dissertations of 2018-2019, materials of congresses of International Association of Teachers of Russian Language and Literature (MAPRYAL) (2016, 2019), Russian Society of Russian Language and Literature Teachers (ROPRYAL) (2015, 2018), articles in scientific journals “Russian Language Abroad” and “The World of Russian Word” which are considered to be the most authoritative journals in the sphere of methods of teaching RFL. The research methods are descriptive and statistic methods, method of continuous sampling. The research revealed main issues on possibilities and reasonability of using innovative technologies in teaching RFL. The growing number of publications on the issue shows the perspectives of innovative technologies in teaching RFL.


Full Text

The issue of using innovative technologies in teaching, on the whole, and in teaching Russian as a foreign language (RFL), in particular, is especially actual nowadays because of general level of technical appliances increasing, teaching methods developing, which results in finding most effective, accessible methods and means of education aimed at “reaching maximum of possible mutual understanding in a multipolar world” (Strelchuk, Lonskaia, 2018: 751). The term “education technology” has different definitions. In the aspect of me- thods of teaching RFL, the following definition from E.G. Azimov, A.N. Shchukin' dictionary is actual: “Education technology (from Greek technē - art, craft, mastery + lógos - learning) is a system of most rational ways of scientific activity organisation, which allow to reach the chosen aim of education during minimal period of time with the least effort and means” (Azimov, Shchukin, 2018: 350). The term was widely used in the second half of the XXth century because of programmed education development (Ibid.). Nowadays, the term includes two notions: technology of teaching and technology in teaching. This differentiation shows the two parts of the term meaning. The first notion defines “methods of teachers' scientific activity organisation which allow to reach the aims of education in the best way”, and the second one relates to “ways of using technical means of education in educational process and the means themselves” (Ibid.: 351). The main characteristics of education technologies are effectiveness and efficiency, ergonomics, high motivation to subject learning. “The present stage of methods of teaching RFL can be characterised by innovation, development, move forward” (Taranova, 2017). This definition leads to the idea that learning nowadays meets innovations and productive changes, new methods and technologies, which can make lessons and means of their results estimation more effective. Speaking about innovations in education technologies, we should, first of all, state what exactly this notion contains. According to V.G. Kolosov, “innovative technologies are a set of methods, means and actions which provide innovative activity” (Kolosov, 2002: 15). Under the term “innovative technologies in professional education” we understand “technologies, aimed at forming students’ systematic creative technical thinking and their ability to generate outstanding technical ideas while solving creative production tasks” (Scientific Electronic Library). Among numerous technologies we can point out the following ones: - cooperative learning; - project technologies (project method); - tandem method; - case study; - edutainment; - distance learning; - computer education technologies; - gaming technologies, etc. (Azimov, Shchukin, 2018: 351). Innovative technologies can be used not only as a means of explaining the material to students, organising distance learning, but also as a useful resource for the teacher. These can be ready-made materials (information resources, open learning resources, simulators) or services for working out materials and organi- sing learning (services for creating learning materials, test constructor, class mana- gement, etc.). Let us analyse scientific publications on innovative technologies in more detail. In 2018-2019, candidate dissertations on using innovative technologies in education process were defended. For example, V.A. Zhiltsov showed the possibility of using distance lear- ning as one of perspective education forms. He started a pilot project named “3D active and communicative education environment” (TAKOS) where he consi- dered the potential of virtual platform as a means of Russian language environment reconstruction. The potential of electronic educational resources is also characterised by I.V. Voronina, who suggests to take them as special means allowing to form communicative skills of future teachers while studying multimedia and internet technologies (Voronina, 2018). Apart from using distance learning and computer technologies, scientists also describe issues of using certain interactive education technologies. For example, I.O. Amelina writes about “the possibility of combining didactic potential of media resources and interactive technologies for active development of students’ relevant competences” (Amelina, 2019: 6) and “creating… a model… based on converging case methods and media resources, for example, authentic cinema and telefilms, as a teaching means at a pre-university stage of teaching RFL” (Amelina, 2019: 8). V.M. Filippova explores linguodidactic potential of project method and its using in teaching RFL “as an effective method of teaching and controlling the level of communicative competence and also a means for developing exploratory, creative and practical skills and abilities of a foreign student” (Filippova, 2019: 3). Researches on studying and using innovative technologies are now published in scientific journals. We analysed materials of congresses of ROPRYAL, MAPRYAL, scientific journals “The World of Russian Word”, “Russian Language Abroad”. The results are presented in Table. Table Year General number of articles Articles on innovative technologies in methods of teaching RFL Russian scientists Foreign scientists Articles on other issues MAPRYAL 2015 953 27 2 924 2019 374 16 7 351 ROPRYAL 2016 426 18 3 405 2018 327 21 1 305 «The World of Russian Word» 2017 91 - - 91 2018 102 4 1 97 2019 45 - - 45 «Russian Language Abroad» 2017 170 15 4 151 2018 126 13 5 108 2019 109 5 2 102 The table shows the general number of articles in the above-mentioned editions and the number of articles devoted to innovative technologies in teaching RFL written by Russian and foreign scientists. The articles can be divided into several groups according to their topics: 1. Theoretical articles on general specifics of innovative technologies, their components and peculiarities of using. For example, L.V. Moskovkin, A.N. Shchukin study methods of teaching RFL, their future (Moskovkin, Shchukin, 2015). M.N. Rusetskaya tells about a new scientific and practical area - digital pedagogy and distance education as a consequence of education development (Rusetskaya, 2019). E.V. Senchenkova, O.A. Nekoz characterize main information and communication technologies in teaching RFL (Senchenkova, Nekoz, 2017). N.D. Afanasieva, S.S. Zakharchenko, I.B. Mogileva describe advantages and disadvantages of distance education (Afanasieva, Zakharchenko, Mogileva, 2016). I.A. Orekhova, D.S. Trukhanova explore methodical potential of virtual environment as one of innovative technologies (Orekhova, Trukhanova, 2019). Alexander Gross features technological integrity as a principle of language programs realization (Gross, 2019), I.A. Leshutina presents modern education technologies which can be used in teaching RFL at the professional level (Leshutina, 2017). The authors of the article “Influence of information technologies on contents and methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language” conclude about the necessity of changing basic grammar and vocabulary A1 and A2 because of using different electronic means and technologies (Dobrenko, Sokolova, 2018). E.N. Pavlicheva, N.A. Barannikova, E.V. Rubleva in their article “Distance learning for different groups of users in individualized learning” propose a differ- rentiated approach to users during distance learning and present a classification of users and their characteristics (Pavlicheva, Barannikova, Rubleva, 2016). Some articles are devoted to organization and functioning of mass open online courses (MOOC). For example, E.M. Afanasieva tells about the history of MOOC in the system of open education, their realization, structural elements and content (Afanasieva, 2018). E.A. Vlasova, O.S. Eremina, O.A. Kultepina characterise principles of MOOC constructing, analyse their linguistic and methodical traditions (Vlasova, Eremina, Kultepina, 2018). Many methodists are also interested in blended learning. S.S. Khromov, V.G. Apalkov, N.K. Nikonova describe a linguistic and didactic model of integrative (blended) learning (Khromov, Apalkov, Nikonova, 2016), while N.A. Bure describes mixed learning as a new paradigm of modern educational environment (Bure, 2019). 2. Articles, devoted to practical issues of using and potential of certain innovative technologies. We can divide such articles into several groups: ● articles about electronic manuals, textbooks, and complexes: “Characteristics of interactive course books on Russian as a foreign language” (Vasilieva, Fedotova, 2019); “Development of a network textbook on RFL: challenges and solutions” (Levina, 2015); “The basic course as a key element of an interactive educational complex on Russian as a foreign language” (Khorokhordina, 2018); ● articles on functioning electronic platforms, resources, distance courses: “Electronic platform ‘Business Russian” B1: principals of selecting and constructing teaching material” (Blum, Ryazantseva, 2018); “Experience in creating electronic resources on major subjects at pre-university stage” (Vasilyeva, Levina, 2015); “Prin- ciples of integration of e-courses in teaching Russian to foreigners at the university” (Khorokhordina, 2018); “Distance learning of RFL: successful experience of using the portal ‘Education in Russian’ ” (Rusetskaya, Elnikova, Pavlicheva, Rubleva, 2017); “The portal ‘Education in Russian’ as educating and intellectually developing Internet space” (Shipelevich, 2018); ● articles on using innovative technologies for forming certain skills and abilities in different aspects, types of speech activity: - phonetic: “Forming phonetic skills in teaching Russian as a foreign language in digital era” (Deryabina, Dyakova, Mitrofanova, 2019); - grammar: “Forming grammar skills of foreign students with the help of in-formation technologies” (Puliaevskaya, Skobelkina, 2019); - writing: “L2 writing instruction in Russian: new challenges and new solutions of digital era” (Lebedeva, 2017); - listening: “Modern technologies in teaching aural skills: organizing students’ homework on the LMS canvas” (Andreeva, 2017); - reading: “Cybertext as a new type of educational text” (Akishina, Trya- pelnikov, 2015); - speaking (monologue and dialogue): “Potential interlocutor as an effective assistant in the formation of dialogical skills and abilities on the lessons of Russian as a foreign language” (Polyakov, 2017); ● articles on forming competences: - cross-cultural: “On Russia. Questions and answers: short country study course” (Kalenkova, Kastelina, Chubarova, 2018); - linguistic and country-studying: “Language and culture distance course for foreign students of philology” (Ushakova, 2015); - cultorological: “The role of the cultural component in RFL teaching: integration experience of new information technologies in Italian and Russian universities” (Berardi, Buglakova, Petanova, 2015); ● articles on potential of innovative technologies, including distance education, specialized programs, applications and portals which can assist in foreign students testing: “Using the electronic training system for certification exams pre- paration” (Bulygina, 2015); “Computer certification testing: content, contingent, context” (Korchagina, 2015); “Cloud-based technologies as a supporting tool for developing computerized adaptive tests” (Varlamov, Zakirjanov, 2016); ● articles where innovative technologies are considered as a potentially effective means in composing, organising and checking exercises, tasks for students, learning Russian as a foreign language: “The use of computer technologies in the course of Russian language and speech culture in the architectural university” (Egorova, 2016); “Exercises in teaching Russian as a foreign language: tradition and new reality” (Elnikova, 2017); “Modern technological support of exercises system on the teaching of Russian as a foreign language” (Vokhmina, Kuvaeva, 2019); ● articles on certain innovative technologies: - project method: “21st century skills and project-based learning in teaching Russian as a foreign language” (Andrianova, 2018); - quest-technologies: “Russian language 3D quest: creation, approbation, opportunities of practical use” (Osadchiy, Maev, Jiltsov, 2018); “The use of quest technology at the lessons of Russian as a foreign language” (Rubleva, 2019); - case technologies: “Using innovative educational methods and technologies in the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language” (Ukhova, 2016); - edutainment technologies: “Edutainment technologies and their place in the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language” (Rubleva, 2016); - word clouds: “Multimedia technology cloud of words as a way of educational information visualization in teaching Russian language to foreign students who study medicine” (Goncharenko, Ignatenko, Altukhova, 2017); - gaming technologies: “Professionally oriented teaching of Russian language for foreign motor mechanics students, based on gaming technologies” (Kulaeva, Agapova, 2016); - modular technologies: “Modular technologies for professional pedagogical education” (Minasyan, 2015). Apart from the above-mentioned groups, we can point out articles: ● devoted to using innovative technologies as a means of missing language environment compensation: “From experience of teaching Russian as a foreign language in non-Russia-speaking environment with help of authentic Russian website ADME.RU” (Karaulova, 2017); “Using linguo-didactic features of the internet application Wechat for teaching Russian to Chinese students in a non-language environment” (Un, Martynova, 2018); ● as an effective assistant in a self-guided learning: “Informal learning of Russian language with online resources: Spanish learners' perspective” (Shafirova, Cassany, 2017); “Methodical concept of Langteach-online project for independent study of Russian language and culture by foreign students” (Kuznetsov, 2019). We have to mention the fact that innovative technologies are potentially effective not only for teaching foreign students, but also as a means of teaching teachers: “Portal ‘Pushkinonline’: open space for cooperation” (Yaskevich, 2016); “Online conference as a tool for implementing continuous education of teachers of Russian as a foreign language” (Nefedova, 2018); “Professiogram of Russian as a second language teacher as the basis of usage of screen culture” (Voropaeva, 2019). The above-presented analysis of articles showed that issues of innovative technologies are nowadays extensively studied in different aspects. The researchers pay attention to teachers as participants of integration processes and to students as well, to all levels of education (starting from preparatory level and ending with level C2), to all specialities (humanitarian, natural, technical sciences). The articles consider students of different nationalities (students from China, Kazakhstan, Italy, Spain, Germany, etc.). Let us present correlation of articles in materials of congresses (Figures 1-4). The diagrams show the growing number of articles on innovative technologies by Russian and foreign scientists, which proves growing interest to the issue. Figure 1. MAPRYAL 2015 Figure 2. MAPRYAL 2019 Figure 3. ROPRYAL 2016 Figure 4. ROPRYAL 2018 Let us also show the correlation of articles in the journals “The World of Russian Word” (Figures 5-7) and “Russian Language Abroad” (Figures 8-10). Figure 5. “The World of Russian Word” 2017 Figure 6. “The World of Russian Word” 2018 Figure 7. “The World of Russian Word” 2019 Figure 8. “Russian Language Abroad” 2017 Figure 9. “Russian Language Abroad” 2018 Figure 10. “Russian Language Abroad” 2019 The diagrams demonstrate that: - there is some interest to the topic of innovative technologies in both jour-nals, but to different extent; - the materials on the topic in the journal “The World of Russian Word” are not published in every issue and every year, so there is smaller interest to the topic; - materials on the topic are published regularly. In 2018, there were more articles and, consequently, more interest, but in 2019, there were slightly less articles, this, however, does not categorically mean slump to the topic. Articles on the topic certify actuality and prospective of the research. We can also find materials on the topic in other sources, which proves its actuality and relevance. There are a lot of manuals, monographs on innovative technologies, methods of using, potential and practicability of their integration in education process. Here are some of them: “Methods of organising distance learning in Russian as a foreign language” (Azimov, 2006); “New computer technologies in teaching Russian as a foreign language” (Atabekova, 2008); “Modern intensive methods and technologies in teaching foreign languages” (Shchukin, 2010); “Integration of information and pedagogical technologies in teaching RFL (metho- dological aspect)” (Tryapelnikov, 2014); “Theory of RFL teaching: past, present, future” (Moskovkin, Shchukin, 2015). There is more detailed information about manuals and monographs at the site “Dictionaries and encyclopaedia at Academic” (books.academic.ru). The interest to the topic is revealed in holding conferences on studying innovative technologies and their functioning and their using in teaching RFL. Here is the list of such conferences: - https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=32510505 - International conference of advanced training “Modern technologies of teaching Russian as a foreign language” (Kirov, November, 30, 2017, Vyatka State University); - http://www.rki.today/2019/04/23.html - International research and prac-tice conference “Pre-university training of foreign citizens in Russia: History and modernity” held on October, 23-25, 2019. During the conference a panel discussion “Electronic education environment in pre-university training: Best practices” took place; - http://www.kon-ferenc.ru/konferenc01_10_18_21.html - All-Russia research and practice conference-webinar “Modern technologies in teaching Russian as a foreign language” held on October, 29-30, 2018 by the chair of the Russian language of Orenburg State Medical University of Ministry of Health of Russia. We can also mention interest to developing and introducing innovative technologies in teaching process in advanced training where we can see several directions. The first direction includes courses on theoretical problems aimed at giving teachers general knowledge of new technologies to be used in teaching, for example: - http://www.zlat.spb.ru/page272.html - “Information Technologies in Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language” organized by the publishing house “Zlatoust”; - https://pushkininstitute.ru/external_courses/9 - “Information and Commu-nication Technologies in Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language” organized by Pushkin State Russian Language Institute; - https://el.mpgu.su/course/info.php?id=2070 - “Information Technologies in Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language”, organized by Moscow State Pedagogical University. The second directions comprises distant courses which help teachers to upgrade their qualification with the help of information technologies, for example: - https://mgu-russian.com/ru/teach/courses/rki-deti/ - distance course of teaching children RFL (Lomonosov Moscow State University); - http://rusist24.rudn.ru - distance courses “Methods of teaching Russian (as a foreign, non-native language): a variety of theories and practices”, “Methods (theory and technology) of linguodidactic testing in Russian state testing system of foreign citizens”, Faculty of Advanced Training, RUDN University). Thus, the review of materials on the topic “Innovative technologies” allowed to make the following conclusions: 1. Using innovative technologies in teaching RFL help solve different problems of methods of teaching RFL, for example, education process organisation, creating linguistic environment, defining the role of the teacher at the lesson, fin- ding effective ways of information presentation. 2. Education process reveals advantages and disadvantages of using innovative technologies. 3. There are numerous innovative technologies which can be applied in different spheres, for different specialities, levels of education. They play an important role in modern education. 4. Innovative technologies can be used for teaching both students and teachers. 5. Studying these technologies is actual, multi-aspect and highly prospective.

About the authors

Manetu Ndyay

Cheikh Anta Diop University

Author for correspondence.
Email: taamanet@yahoo.fr
Republic of Senegal, Dakar, Habib Bourguibа Ave., BP: 5036 Dakar-Fann

Candidate of Pedagogy, Head of the Department of Russian as a Foreign Language, Faculty of Sciences and Education Technologies

Wu Hyong Ti Nguyen

National University of Ho Chi Minh City

Email: huongchinv@hemussh.edu.ru
10-12 Dinh Tien Hoang, Ben Nghe Ward, 1st District, Hochiminh City, Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Candidate of Philology, Dean of the Faculty of Russian Philology, Institute of Social and Humanitarian Sciences

Evgeniya O. Grunina

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Email: grunina-eo@rudn.ru
10 Miklukho-Maklaya St., bldg. 2, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation

assistant of the Department of Russian Language and Methods of its Teaching, Philological Faculty

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