TEACHING MODELS OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE FOR BILINGUAL LEARNERS IN RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN EDUCATION SYSTEMS

Abstract


The article considers the implementation of different methods of learning and teaching Russian for bilingual learners in educational systems in Russia, former soviet countries and far abroad countries (EU, USA, Canada). Pragmatic goals of different categories of learners which are based on satisfaction in personal communicative needs and educational status of Russian determine content of teaching.

Disintegration of the USSR in 1991 and further period in interrelations between former soviet republics that got status of independent states both with other world and among in themselves was accompanied by new views upon that civilization values of the XX century. If we try to specify mail characteristics of this period which is still in progress, we can underline first of all opposite estimation of the political situation from different sides of the previous Cold War time. The end of the Cold Was with expectations of breaking through all the walls (both in direct and indirect meanings of this word) was very quickly substituted by time when all clichés were returned both in mass media and political vocabulary. At the same time, we can presume that at the background of globalization and anti-global movement (both trends are still actual and may be such in the nearest future) world community forms new civilization code. We’d like to concentrate just on one of the sides of this code, namely, concepts of “Russian World” - something close to “Pax Americana”, although not completely identical, and “Russian Civilization”. Both the former and the latter notions can be determined differently according to views of the concrete researcher. The views of the authors of the given article in brief are as follows: Russian World unites all people speaking Russian, known Russia culture etc., mainly belong to Russian diasporas (language and “Heritage Speakers” of the far abroad countries culture etc); Russian Civilization - civilization of the people living on the territory of Russian Federation and in majority of former soviet republics (post soviet area), excluding Baltic states (we know that some researches include these states in the notion of Russian Civilization). Our view is based mostly on linguistic characteristics, not on politic prevailing in this or that country.The authors believe that this extra linguistic introduction is necessary for proper understanding of the authors positions which would be rendered furthers on.The next characteristic of the contemporary period which we take into consideration is quick informatization of the world which in fact successively completes with the world of real life, offers alternatives practically in all spheres of communication, excluding household.Let’s introduce in brief language features of contemporary period characterized by the fact that language functions not only in real life but in virtual reality as well.Virtual world has some characteristics correlated to real world. Comparing common site on one hand and professional sites in the other we can characterize virtual communities on the following positions:system of values;semiotic system(signs and meanings);ethnic standards / traditions;esthetic standards.The last fact can be looked upon as compensation mean, functioning as super segment units (stress and intonation). At the same time, we can state that virtual verbal communication doesn’t influence language system significally. Under these circumstances the following tasks stay in front of Russian Learning and Teaching Studies:exposure of potential capabilities, which virtual communication give to the Russian language functioning;elaboration of methods in teaching Russian language in virtual communication;expansion Russian language with virtual communication means.The second but not less important indication of the language characteristic is contraposition in extra linguistic reality of the invariant, i.e. language of the metropoly to Russian language variants in the former soviet countries. To designate such phenomenon notions (terms) “National variants” / “Isolated variants” are used.The last fact can be looked upon as compensation mean, functioning as super segment units (stress and intonation). At the same time, we can state that virtual verbal communication doesn’t influence language system significally. Under these circumstances the following tasks stay in front of Russian Learning and Teaching Studies:exposure of potential capabilities, which virtual communication give to the Russian language functioning;elaboration of methods in teaching Russian language in virtual communication;expansion Russian language with virtual communication means.The second but not less important indication of the language characteristic is contraposition in extra-linguistic reality of the invariant, i.e. language of the metropoly to Russian language variants in the former soviet countries. To designate such phenomenon notions (terms) “National variants” / “Isolated variants” are used.We believe that this phenomenon is connected with the fact that Russian is still the only means of international communication. Russian also ensures intercultural dialog as well a scientific and economic cooperation. It is true even in the present situation when Russian undergone considerable losses in the former soviet countries. We would like to stress that former soviet countries up to now continues to be polyculture, i.e. bilingual (subordinated and coordinated bilingualism). Choice of language as communication means depends on the language functions (Law Status) and personal communication needs in the process of social interrelations (Social linguistic Status) - see Table 1.Communication means and language functionsTable 1Personal needsLanguages1. Personal civil integration1. The State Language2. Getting information in different spheres2. Russian Language and global languages3. Preserving national identity in the polylingual environment3. Languages of diasporas.We can contend that nowadays mastering “Russian Language Standard” (“coded language”) is obligatory to get social success for different groups of speakers (migrants, compatriots abroad, mixed marriages children etc.). At the same time, we should not forget that language being a social instrument preserves certain system of values which has the leading role under conditions of intercultural communication.Contemporary language situation both in former soviet countries (FSC) and in far abroad countries with Russian speaking diasporas determines tasks of Russian Learning and Teaching Studies:to describe Russian language variants functioning in the FSC taking into consideration it’s Law, Social linguistic and Educational Status in each concrete case;to elaborate flexible models of Teaching Russian for different groups of learners based on concepts on bilingual education systems both in Russian Federation, FSC and far abroad countries.While solving these tasks it is necessary to consider the following factors which influence formation of contemporary bilingual education system:declared civilization values as basic thing of bilingual education (concept “Russian World”/ “Russian Civilization”);use of Russian as Education / Teaching Language in the FSC;consideration multicultural factor in bilingual education systems in Western countries (EU, USA, Canada);preserving Russian national identity in the limited language environment in polyculture space.Contemporary model of bilingual education in the most part of the FSC continues J. Gasprinsky’s traditions, i.e. teaching is conducted according to National State Education Standard, main Russian language text-books may be only national but text-books of Russia may be used as complimentary material.As an example we can refer to Kazakhstan Education Standard:Russian is obligatory subject in all schools (Russian, National, mixed);in higher education (universities) tuition is based on language basis, i.e. some students get education in Russian and some - in Kazakh;Russian language text-books are created on Kazakhstan authors and include regional peculiarities.Bilingual education systems bilingual education systems in this case forms subordinated bilingual speakers, i.e. if there more students, representing the title nation, the language of the title nation dominates; in the case when Russian speakers prevail - Russian dominates. At the same time in the FSC where Russian has no Law Status, Russian diasporas are being formed in the last 25 years.We already stated that under these conditions these people can be called “Heritage Speakers” because their language functions in the limited language environment in the absence of official bilingual language policy. In this case Russian diasporas and teaching Russian in the FSC are identical to diasporas of far abroad countries.Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language (RFL) up to recent time was not typical for the FSC. But language policy in many of them made this question, i.e. use of RFL methods in secondary school education (2 hours per week). This situation emerged due to the following factors:law Status of the Russian language (absence of such);considerable emigration of Russian Speakers (not only ethnic Russian);competition with English due both to its demand in the national education systems and language situation in general, which influenced not only by Russian culture but Western Civilization as well. For instance, in Kazakhstan private English schools Haileybary are open as well as about 100 English education centers are open in Dushanbe (Tajikistan). Compare with only one center of Russian World Found.introducing of National State Education Standards at all levels of education. According to these standards Russian is included in general education discipline “Foreign Language” and can be either obligatory (side by side with English, Germany, French) or elective (supplementary discipline).Situation in other states of the FSC is very similar: most part of Lithuania school’s students choose Russian as the second or the third foreign language; in Georgia there are about 50 schools where Russian is the second language. We must stress the point that schools where Russian studied from the 5-th, 6-th - 10-th classes as the 1-st, 2-nd, 3-d foreign language (elective) do not belong to system of bilingual education, because foreign languages are integrative part of modern general education curricula.Nevertheless, Education Status of the Russian as a foreign language in the FSC nowadays do not correspond to real language situation, considerable of population (in some of the countries even most) do not look upon the Russian as a foreign language.We’d also like to remind that Russian education is still meant to have higher level in comparison with the National one. That is why that representatives of the national elite in many states of the FSC give priority to Russian education. The same situation can be seen among the people who were educated in Soviet universities - they prefer their children to follow their example.We can resume that advance meant of Russian in the FSC is primarily connected with reinstitution of poliethnic environment which necessary and sufficient condition to form bilingual speakers as a foundation of polyculture language personality.We can state that nowadays in the national education systems of FSC Russian is taught in three models that were already mentioned. Two of them dominated in the Soviet Republics at the time of the USSR. The last of them, i.e. RFL is comparatively new for education systems of the FSC.In European countries there are national strategies of a native and a title nation languages development. They are based either on European Charter (p.exs. France) of national legislature (p.exs. Estonia).As we already mentioned nowadays in far abroad countries Russian undergoes considerable changes in the social functions and there for conditions of its studying. Onthe one hand Russian belong to world languages and is included in number of educational disciplines. On the other hand, Russian is language of numerous Russian diasporas and competes with English as young generation means both in the sphere of socialization and the sphere education.On the base of our analyses we resume that Russian speaking students in far abroad countries should be single out in a separate group. This group has different others motivation and there for supposed to use other models of education:method of teaching Russian in the Limited Language Environment (RLE) [1];method of teaching Russian as a Foreign Language (RFL).In our view it is necessary to use only terms and definitions based on theoretical concepts proved by experimental way which take into consideration following:psycholinguistic qualification of students;characteristics of language environment;Language Educational Status.If we take this system, we can group students in several categories: those for whom Russian is a mother tongue (Russian Native Speakers), uses of Russian as not a mother tongue (Bilingual Speakers, Heritage Speakers) and learns Russian as a world language (Foreign Learners) [2].In our opinion in some research work nowadays there is a mixture of approaches: on one hand qualification of a language from the student’s position; on the other hand, definition of method’s direction in teaching language.We’d like to stress that mother tongue (Native Speakers) is the language of personal self-identification. In this case students are bearers of the Russian (ethnic origin is no concern) and methods of language teaching are oriented to language as object of scientific knowledge (“Linguistics”): in this case it has Educational Status - the Russian as a Language of Education.On the other hand, teaching Russian to users according to Russian school of method has, first of all, pragmatic goals which are based on satisfaction on personal communicative needs. In this case methods used are directed to teaching Russian as instrument for a communication. Depending on psycholinguistic qualification of users and their language environment there are four directions methods:Monolingual language environment: teaching Russian foreigners (bearers of languages of far abroad countries) in Russia (that is in the country of the language studied) - Russian as a Foreign Language (RFL);Bilingual language environment: teaching Russian bearers of title language of RF subjects as well in some states of the FSC when real official bilingual situation takes place, when both languages are used in all spheres of communication (household, administrative, economical, scientific, cultural etc.) - Russian as Not Native Language (RNN);Limited language environment: teaching Russian Heritage Speakers when language is used mainly in household, in family communication (Russian diasporas in far abroad countries) - Russian in Limited Language Environment (RLE) [1];No Russian language environment (absence of language environment): teaching Russian bearers of other languages in far abroad countries - Foreign (Russian) Language (FL).We can designate actual bilingual education problems as follows:strengthening of the Russian language educational status both in states of the FSC and far abroad countries in their systems of general and supplementary education.increasing motivation of learning Russian both in the RF subjects and the FSC as well as in far abroad countries; winning competition between Russian and English in the educational systems of FSC.providing educational process with up to date methods.The Russian language educational status is mainly connected with educational means which determine methods of teaching and educational system - see table 2.Methods of teachingTable 2Educational SystemGeneral EducationSupplementary Educationin RussiaRussian Language (“Linguistics”)the Russian as a Second Language - “Russian” in national schools in the RF subjectsRussian as a Foreign Language - higher educationabroadRussian Language(“Linguistics”) - Russian schools in FSC;Russian as the Second Language - “Russian” in national schools in the FSC;“Foreign Language” - RussianRussian in restricted linguistic environ- ment - Sunday schools in Russian diasporasSeveral comments.The Russian language in the General Education System.The Russian language (“Linguistics”) - goal: formation of scientific Russian language world picture. Teaching on the base of descriptive linguistics. Educational Status - Language of Teaching and Education.The Russian as Not Native (RNN) - goal: formation of subordinated bilingual speakers both in the RF subjects (the State Language of the RF) and in the FSC (in cases when Russian is look upon as language of intercultural communication, i.e. can be used in different spheres: social, professional, cultural). Teaching on the base of comparative linguistics. Educational Status - subject discipline.Foreign (Russian) Language (FL) - goal: learning Russian as academic discipline “Foreign Language” in far abroad countries (in accordance to its social linguistic world status). Teaching on the base of comparative linguistics; usage for the most part of grammar- translation method. Educational Status - subject discipline.The Russian language in the Supplementary Education System.The Russian as a Foreign Language (RFL) - goal: formation of communicative competence at the level, sufficient for effective intercultural communication. This presumes reaching certain pragmatic / extra linguistic goals, i.e. learning Russian by foreign students to be able to get Russian higher education. Teaching on the base of functional linguistics, RFL method. Educational Status - Language of Teaching and Education.The Russian in Limited Language Environment (RLE) - goal: preserving national identity in Russian diasporas. Teaching on the base of descriptive linguistics with use of comparative and functional linguistics. No Educational Status [3].In closing, we will summarize what we believe are key findings of our research. Pragmatic goals which are based on satisfaction in personal communicative needs and educational status of the Russian language determine the content of teaching.

O A Uskova

Lomonosov Moscow State University

Krzhizhanovskogo str., 24/35, Moscow, Russia, 117218

T V Vasilyeva

Moscow State University of Technology “STANKIN”

Vadkovsky pereulok, 3a, Moscow, Russia, 127005

A L Kuznetsov

Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University (MADI)

Leningradsky pr., 64, Moscow, Russia, 125319

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Copyright (c) 2016 Ускова О.А., Васильева Т.В., Кузнецов А.Л.

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