Definition of Translation and Its Objects for Training Foreigners in Russian

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Translation theory has adopted to differentiate two values of the term translation: process and productive. Process as the first translation value is defined most often as a special type of speech activity. In this article translation is defined as the interconnected usage of receptive and productive types of speech activity; this is carried out for the reproductive purposes of replacing the interpreted text with equivalent text in the other language at a duplication already made or still ongoing communicative activity. The text received, as a result of such replacement, is bearing the second value of the term translation. The main criterion of the successful translation is the equivalence of the two texts. Equivalence is reached at different levels: 1) level of language signs (words); 2) statement level; 3) level (structures) of the message; 4) level of the description of a situation; 5) communication purpose level.

About the authors

M A Bragina

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia


B A Bulgarova

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia


I Yu Popovich

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia



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