Vol 27, No 2 (2023)


Beyond words in evaluation: Formulaic language in critical reviews of research articles across disciplines

Kashiha H.


Formulaic language, characterized by phraseological patterns such as lexical bundles, has been observed to significantly influence the discourse of speakers and writers. These patterns tend to differ across genres and disciplines. However, the examination of formulaic language in evaluative genres, particularly across different disciplines, has been relatively limited. This study aims to explore the use of formulaic language in review feedback on manuscripts submitted by Iranian junior researchers to international journals across three disciplines. Using a discourse analytical approach, the study analyzes the frequency, structure, and function of the most prevalent four-word lexical bundles in 120 authentic peer reviews (recommending either major or minor revisions) in applied linguistics (AL), engineering, and business (40 from each discipline). The study explores how reviewers employ formulas to convey their comments to writers. The results reveal disciplinary differences in the usage, structure, and function of lexical bundles among reviewers. However, commonalities exist due to the inherent conventions of the evaluative genre. These disciplinary tendencies are also reflected in the organization of reviewers' reports and their commenting styles. The study contributes to enhancing the understanding of evaluative practices within specific disciplines by offering valuable insights into the phraseological patterns used in peer reviews and highlighting the discipline-specific formulaic expressions employed by reviewers to provide constructive feedback to authors.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):251-275
pages 251-275 views

Taking back control: The role of image schemas in the Brexit discourse

Martín de la Rosa V.


Can image schemas sustain the discourse on Brexit while building up emotional and evaluative dimensions in the process? This paper analyzes the embodied meaning used in the Brexit discourse as seen through the lens of the pro-leave newspaper (The Telegraph). By way of a discourse-based approach, the main goal of this study is to show the persuasive role that two recurrent image schemas (CONTAINMENT AND FORCE) play in the characterization of the Brexit discourse, which were used to evoke strong feelings of fear and anger to mobilize readers into taking a defensive position against the EU at the time of the referendum. Regarding the material to be analyzed, a corpus of 43,576 words was compiled, distributed in 34 opinion articles and 13 leading articles, from May 22 to June 22, 2016. The data were analyzed from the perspective of Conceptual Metaphor Theory, where the embodiment of the mind plays a key role. The analysis reveals that the use of the metaphor scenario ‘take back control’, bringing together the use of image schemas and conceptual metaphor, galvanizes the readership’s support against the EU through the use of this realistic formula in a less cognitively demanding manner. The study of image schemas seems to provide an important avenue for understanding the representation of complex political issues such as that of Brexit, underpinned by the use of highly compressed and simple information with a deliberate emotional load.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):276-296
pages 276-296 views

Mapping models in novel metaphors and their effect on gaze behavior and default interpretations in native and target languages

Kiose M.I.


In the study, we address the problem of existing differences in reading and understanding novel metaphors in the text fragments in native and target languages (L1 and L2), with these differences potentially attributed to both the specifics of forming analogies in native and target languages, and the mapping characteristics of metaphors. The study identifies the contingency effects of several primary metaphors onto the gaze behavior and default interpretation of textual novel metaphors in L1 (Russian) and L2 (English). To proceed, we use the text fragments in L1 and L2 containing novel metaphors appearing in more and less focal syntactic positions in a two-stage oculographic experiment. We obtain the participants’ gaze metrics values and the participants’ responses specifying the target domains of the novel metaphors, which further allows us to disclose the contingencies. Methodologically, the study is grounded in the metaphor processing theories developed in cognitive psychology, which explore the structure of analogical reasoning and associative fluency as manifesting potentially different effects in L1 and L2. To validate it, we also address the cognitive linguistic theories which provide the framework for identifying the primary metaphor models (here the models PATIENT (OBJECT) IS AGENT, PARTS ARE WHOLE, CONCRETE IS ABSTRACT) and for testing their effect onto information construal. We hypothesize that reading and understanding metaphors will proceed differently in L1 and L2, which is attributed to associative fluency in metaphor mapping in native and target languages. The experiment results do not show the differences in understanding the mapping model PATIENT (OBJECT) IS AGENT in L1 and L2, whereas these differences appear in understanding the models PARTS ARE WHOLE and CONCRETE IS ABSTRACT with higher default interpretation index in L1. The model PATIENT (OBJECT) IS AGENT is also found to stimulate higher gaze costs. The results suffice to claim that there are differences in the cognitive costs produced by primary metaphor models, which allows us to range and specify their role in information construal in L1 and L2.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):297-315
pages 297-315 views

Lateralization of emotion word in the first and second language: Evidence from Turkish-English bilinguals

Mergen F., Kuruoglu G.


As interest in cognitive sciences has grown over the years, language representation in the brain has increasingly become the subject of psycholinguistic studies. In contrast to the relatively clear picture in monolingual language processing, there is still much controversy over bilinguals’ processing of their two languages. The goal of this paper is therefore to provide more evidence on the way emotion words are processed and represented in the brain in late bilinguals. The study seeks to answer three questions: 1. Are positive words processed faster than negative and neutral words in both languages of bilinguals? 2. Is there a difference in the speed in which emotion words are processed in the first (L1) and second language (L2) of bilinguals? 3. How are emotion words represented in the bilingual brain? Participants were late Turkish-English bilinguals (N = 57). We used a visual hemi-field paradigm, in which the stimuli were presented either on the right or left of a computer screen. By pressing the designated keys, the participants performed a lexical decision task in which they determined whether the visually presented L1 and L2 words were real words or non-words. The first result showed that positive words are processed faster than negative and neutral words in both languages of bilinguals, providing further support for the differential processing of emotion words. Second, longer response times were found for L2 as compared to L1. Finally, we found bilateral hemispheric representation for both English and Turkish. These results contribute to the psycholinguistic literature by providing evidence from the relatively understudied language pairs such as English and Turkish.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):316-333
pages 316-333 views

Linguistic creativity and multimodal tropes in cinematic discourse

Zykova I.V.


The present article explores the creative potential of language that is realized in cinematic discourse and is based on the case study of eight popular Soviet comedy films of the 1960s with the overall running time of 670 minutes. The choice of this period is determined by the sociohistorical relevance of the sixties in the development of Russian culture and cinematic art. The goals of this paper are to identify and categorize the verbal means that trigger the creation of cinematic tropes, and to define the transformations that these verbal means acquire as a result of their involvement into constructing cinematic figurativeness. To achieve these goals, a complex methodology has been elaborated. It includes three stages of analysis and rests on conceptions that have been recently developed in linguistics, film studies, and research on multimodality. According to research findings, cinematic figurativeness originates in two kinds of verbal means. Non-figurative verbal means (i.e. words used in their literal meanings; free word-combinations, etc.) and figurative verbal means (i.e. literary metaphors; idioms, etc.) are employed for the creation of three kinds of cinematic tropes: cinematic metonymies, cinematic metaphors, and cinematic irony. In the process of the formation of cinematic tropes, verbal units of both categories are transformed in a variety of ways: structurally, grammatically, semantically, and pragmatically. The investigation has revealed a dual or reverse character that linguistic creativity has in cinematic discourse: verbal units provide the creation of cinematic tropes and at the same time they themselves acquire certain innovative properties. The results could contribute to further studies of creativity in cinematic discourse as well as in other types of multimodal texts, including media, advertising, visual poetry, and electronic literature.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):334-362
pages 334-362 views

Tense-aspect constructions in Jish Arabic: Morphological, syntactic, and semantic features

Habib S.


This paper aims to examine the present and past tense-aspect constructions in Jish Arabic, an undocumented Arabic variety of Upper Galilee (Israel), and delineate their morphological, syntactic, and semantic features. Nine such constructions are identified, and the structure of each construction is discussed. In addition, using the Natural Semantic Metalanguage approach (NSM), an explication (a definition using simple words) of the meaning of each construction is presented. In discussing the Jish Arabic constructions, a comparison is made with their English counterparts, which are chosen as a familiar point of reference. The comparison with English does not make the explications prone to Anglocentrism, as the explications are built via a simple, universal language. This language ensures their translatability into Jish Arabic and their verification by native Jish Arabic speakers. In addition, it makes their meanings accessible to non-specialists, as the explications can be translated into any language. This study can be seen as a contribution to the field of theoretical linguistics, particularly descriptive linguistics, as it documents the tense-aspect constructions of an undocumented variety. In addition, it can be seen as a contribution to the field of applied linguistics, especially as it compares these constructions to their English counterparts. It is hoped that this paper will stimulate the investigation of tense-aspect constructions in other non-standard Arabic varieties, most of which are undocumented.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):363-391
pages 363-391 views

Research on word stress in Iranian languages by Soviet and Russian scholars

Ivanov V.B., Silanteva L.G.


In recent years, considerable material has been accumulated in the field of experimental studies of Iranian languages, including the works by Soviet and Russian scholars, enabling us to make new generalizations regarding the acoustic characteristics of word stress as part of the problem of speech recognition. The study of Iranian languages has been rather uneven: most of the acoustic studies focused on Persian, and only a few covered other 11 languages described in this article. In addition, most of these studies have been published in Russian and therefore remain unknown to the wide international linguistic community. The purpose of the article is to sum up the achievements of Soviet and Russian scholars regarding the acoustic properties of the stressed syllable in Iranian languages. Different views of Soviet, Russian and foreign authors were compared. A number of positions with weak points in reasoning were screened out, and the most well-reasoned ones adopted as the most probable traits of word stress in Iranian languages. Tonal stress was found in Mazandarani, Persian and Tajik; quantitative - in Dari (Afghanistan), Sarikoli and theoretically in Rushani; multicomponental - in Abyanei, Gavruni, Gilaki, Pashto, and Wakhi. Ossetic is likely to have quantitative stress, but statistical proof hasn’t been found yet. Apparently, the overall situation reveals that tonal and quantitative stress types are typical for many Iranian languages. Dynamic stress is found in several languages, but only as a part of multicomponental one; and spectral stress is the rarest feature. The results achieved could be used in automated transcription and speech recognition services.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):392-417
pages 392-417 views

Linguacultural aspects of the value and semantic attitude to the speech act of promise in Russian

Zagidullina M.V., Ghodrati A., Shafaghi M.


The study develops the speech acts theory in terms of the “condition of sincerity” (Searle 1965). It aims to identify the attitude to the speech act of promise in the Russian communicative culture. The article analyzes the statistically significant consolidation of the value and semantic attitude to the speech act of promise considered as a specific action. The data were drawn from the Russian-language corpus ruTenTen11, provided by the research resource Sketch Engine. The corpus linguistics methods were applied to extract a subcorpus of occurrences of the query “promise” (311,365 occurrences) which was used to identify the value and semantic attitude to it. The results showed that in the Russian language, the speech act of promise is perceived mainly negatively. The word “promise” is fused with the lexical and semantic field of the “empty word”. This contradicts the normatively fixed meanings of the word “promise” itself, as well as the essence of the speech act of promise. The “condition of sincerity” in relation to the speech act of promise is marginalized and becomes meaningless. The study showed that the methods of corpus linguistics open the prospect of clarifying the features of not only modern word usage, but also the linguistic and ethnocultural context of such large groups of statements as speech acts. The article contributes to the theory of speech acts in terms of identifying the essential features of the “common ground” (Clark & Carlson 1982) of the participants in communication, as well as contributing to the development of linguistic axiology. The proposed methods can be used to identify the attitude to other speech acts in Russia and other linguistic communities. The results can be used in teaching Russian as a second language.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):418-443
pages 418-443 views

Multimodal metaphor and metonymy in political cartoons as a means of country image construction

Guan S., Sun Y.


The interrelation of metaphors and metonymies often attracts the attention of linguists, but the combination of multimodal metaphors and metonymies, which are important components of cognition and are essential for the creation and understanding of multimodal texts, has not been sufficiently studied. The purpose of this study is to delineate the interaction between multimodal metaphors and metonymies in political cartoons and identify their role in forming the country image. The research material includes 30 political cartoons on the topic of the Sino-American trade dispute 2018-2021, selected from Yandex search engine according to keywords (tags, Hashtag). We considered the metaphors and metonymies contained in the cartoons and analyzed their cognitive interrelation. Since the currently existing categorization of the varieties of metaphtonymy does not meet the goal, we used our own typology of the interaction of multimodal metaphors and metonymies, which includes two categories: inclusive and interactive. We have identified 20 interactive and 10 inclusive political cartoons with characteristic cultural attributes. The use of cognitive-discursive analysis allowed us to reveal the features of visual, verbal and conceptual interaction of metaphorical transfers and metonymic shifts in the construction of the positive image of China and the negative image of the United States. The results showed that multimodal metaphors and metonymies in political cartoons are intertwined in different ways, they can make an impact on the mind of people and form the country image.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):444-467
pages 444-467 views

Linguistic and statistical analysis of the lexical ‘Langue-Parole’ dichotomy in a restricted domain

Sheremetyeva S.O., Babina O.I.


Development of new digital methods for analyzing the ‘Langue-Parole’ dichotomy is one of the most sought-after, but least researched problems of modern theoretical and applied linguistics. This determines the relevance of this study, the purpose of which is to develop a methodology for the automated linguastatistical analysis of a domain-related lexical layer in the context of the ‘Langue-Parole’ dichotomy and to apply the methodology to the Russian-language domain “Research on athlete integrative physiology” (RAIP). The study was conducted on the material of the Russian-language corpus including 56 RAIP domain texts of 300,000 wordforms in total published over the 2013-2020 period in the scientific journals “People. Sport. Medicine” (formerly “SUSU Bulletin. Series “Education, Healthcare, Physical Culture”), “Theory and Practice of Physical Culture”, etc. The key methodological approach is the ontological analysis of corpus data using statistical and linguistic modeling methods. The domain-specific language and speech are modeled by the corresponding lexicon and corpus, while the ‘Langue-Parole’ lexical dichotomy is represented by the values of the linguistic-statistical concept verbalization parameters of the domain concepts in the lexicon and corpus. The computational parameters include the indices of lexical diversity, structural complexity, conceptual syncretism, lexical structural complexity vs. conceptual syncretism correlation, and syncretical concept junction when verbalized in the corpus. The main results of the study are: 1) а methodology for analyzing domain-specific lexical dichotomy ‘Langue-Parole’, which can be ported to other domains and national languages; 2) the RAIP domain-related resources, including language-independent ontology, conceptually annotated Russian corpus, onto-lexicon, linguistic-statistical parameter values of the lexical ‘Langue-Parole’ dichotomy; and 3) tools that automate certain stages of the study.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):468-499
pages 468-499 views


Review of Vishnyakova O.D., Lipgart A.A. (eds.). 2023. World Languages and Cultures as an Object of Philological Investigation. Moscow: Nauka, 456 p.

Butenina E.M.



Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):500-506
pages 500-506 views

Review of Maria M. Buras. 2022. Linguists Who Came in from the Cold. Moscow: AST Publishing House (Series The Great Sixties). ISBN 978-5-17-144664-2

Nikitin O.V.



Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2023;27(2):507-514
pages 507-514 views

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