Comparative analysis of the Russian and Western education and scientific-training system

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Abstract


The article compares the Russian and Western strategies of higher education and scientific training and their implementation in the state policy. The author considers the three-level structure of scientific training which includes in the West Bachelor’s, Master’s and PhD programs, while in Russia in the previous period - specialty, PhD program - to defend the thesis and get the degree of Candidate of Science - and Postdoc program - to get the degree of Doctor of Science. After Russia signed the Bologna Declaration at the Berlin Conference of ministers of education in September 2003, these differences were eliminated and already in 2010 Russia implemented all basic principles of the Bologna process by having transformed its system of education and scientific training on the basis of the British-American model. The author considers both advantages and losses of this reform. Thus, Russia introduced the same education standards with the West and accepted the single certification system (Bachelor, Master, PhD), which is certainly a positive side of the reform. On the other hand, by removing the specialty level, Russia lost the basis for mass scientific training without the Master’s level: today we have a negative situation in the system of higher education, when thousands of young people with Bachelor’s degree cannot find job or continue studying and scientific career without Master’s degree, but they do not have money to pay for Master’s program due to financial difficulties. As a result, the production and science systems do not get enough qualified specialists and young scientists for whose training the state has already spent a lot of money. The author concludes that it is necessary to use effective foreign experience but without ignoring the Russian education and science achievements and with taking into account national traditions and specifics of the national development.


About the authors

L. S. Ruban

Institute of Social-Political Studies of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
Email: lruban@yandex.ru
Fotievoi St., 6-1, Moscow, 119333, Russia

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