Vol 27, No 2 (2019)

ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The industrial policy as a driver of the Indian economy’s development
Galischeva N.V.
Abstract

The aim of this research is the Indian industrial policy in 1950-2010s, its main direction and perspectives of its future evolution. The methodological basis of the study is such methods as induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis. The systematic approach to the overall study of the Indian economy and the Indian industrial policy in particular has become the base of this research. The author thoroughly analyses its main specific features during the pre-reform period, as well as identifies the causes and the nature of its transformation at the beginning of the 1990s. At the same time the author underlines that taking into account the national-specific features of a mixed society, the industrial policy of the prereform stage facilitated the successful holding of industrialization during which the industrial sector has become the fastest growing sector of the Indian economy. The author underlines the main directions of the New Industrial Policy, 1991 , among which the most important ones are the following: abolition industrial licensing, the reduction of the public sector in the national economy, amendment of Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969 , attraction of foreign direct investment and advanced technologies, liberalization of industrial policy at the local level and the replacement the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 , by the Foreign Exchange Management, 1999 . Apart from that the author examines the most representative theories of the Indian economists (R. Agraval and C. Rangarajan) which made a significant contribution to working out the industrial policy in 1990s. The author also draws attention to the main elements of a future ready industrial policy discussed in India at the present time. The author stresses that for all its diversity at different stages of socio-economic development the Indian industrial policy always based on both the economic and social components (the New Industrial Policy, 1991 , also added the ecological component). It means that accelerating the annual economic growth rate, the Indian industrial policy has contributing to solving a wide range of social tasks - from the creation of new jobs to poverty and undernourishment alleviation. The article also presents statistical data on the dynamics of gross domestic savings and gross domestic capital formation in the Indian economy, annual average economic growth rates in India from 1990-1991 to 2016-2017 financial year as well as the Indian GDP by industry of origin in 2000-2017.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):205-222
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The socio-economic situation in South Africa in the early 2000-ies
Mitrofanova I.B., Liozner V.L.
Abstract

The article describes political changes, unstable economic development and the difficult social situation in the country after the fall of the apartheid regime. South Africa’s raw materials orientation in the international division of labor and the weak development of manufacturing industries due to the narrow domestic market and lack of investment are shown. The factors that reduce economic growth rates have been identified: low investment activity in the country, declining volumes of foreign investment, a backward structure of industrial production in which extractive industries dominate, rising unemployment, low levels of education, and health care. The characteristic of the catastrophic stratification of South African society, the position of the white minority is given. The place of the country in the international division of labor is shown. Considered the main sectors of the economy of South Africa, among them: industry, agriculture, financial sector and transport network. After the abolition of the apartheid regime, South Africa retained in its foreign trade an emphasis on the export of mineral raw materials, coal and metallurgy products. Today, South Africa faces a number of serious socio-economic problems, generated both by the legacy of apartheid and by the influence of modern factors, both internal and external, that directly affect the country's economy and mutually aggravate each other. Second, a low level of education is a major socio-economic problem in South Africa. It takes a countdown from the days of apartheid, when the broad masses of a non-full population were either completely illiterate or received an education of poor quality. Thirdly, a serious problem is the glaring level of social stratification and poverty, which has been preserved since the days of apartheid.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):223-234
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Scenarios of the Polish economy dynamics in 2017-2022 on the Ramsey type model basis
Chychuryna V.A., Olenev N.N.
Abstract

The article contains a methodology of identification of the dynamic Ramsey model for the Polish economy. It includes two different scenarios of the development of the Polish economy for five years (2017-2022) and the comparison of the forecasts made on their basis. The first scenario is built using the model parameters estimated basing on the data for the period 1991-2016. The second scenario considers a more recent period (2010-2016), which is picked according to a hypothesis that the statistical data of this period describing the labor force dynamics shows its trend more representatively. The method of model identification is based on evaluating the proximity between the calculated and statistical time series of macroeconomic indicators (output, consumption, investment, export, import). The GDP and investments volumes are predicted for the five years’ period and the visualization of the forecasted trend is made for the both identified models.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):235-248
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Government policy in developing social capital of small industry in facing ASEAN Economy Community era
Rinawati H.S.
Abstract
This study aimed to know the obstacles and the government policy in developing the social capital of small industry in facing competition in ASEAN Economy Community (AEC) period. Using quantitative and qualitative as the methodology, this study obtained the data through interview and focus group discussion. The result showed that the development of social capital that not maximum enough was becoming the obstacle for small industry. The connection between the businessman association with other party, such as big industry, civil society organization, banking and other stake holders should be expanded. Meanwhile the government had done some policy in developing the social capital of small industry by holding a training and competition, increasing the access and relation of small industry with foreign and national company, also helping on the social capital. Therefore, small industry still can survive in facing the AEC era.
RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):249-258
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INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION MARKETS
World fish market: current trends, state and prospects
Andronova I.V., Yakimovich E.A.
Abstract

The article analyzes the state of the world fish market, problems and prospects for its development in the context of current trends in the world economy. The authors emphasize the importance of the space allocated to the world fish market in solving global problems of our time, such as fighting hunger, ensuring food security, sustainable development, etc. The article presents the current state of world fishing and fish farming, the main producers and exporters, Russia’s place in this market. Reflected issues related to the role of developing countries in this sector of the economy. Conclusions are drawn about the problems and prospects of the world fish market from the point of view of the sustainable development of the world community and the growth of consumption of this food product by the population of the planet.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):259-268
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Justification of the warning replacement of the elements of technical means of customs control
Bondarenko S.O., Saurenko T.N., Gapov M.R., Shakun E.N.
Abstract

The effectiveness of customs control of goods transported across the customs border to a significant extent depends on the reliability of the technical means of customs control. The reliability of their functioning is ensured by the timeliness of preventive replacements of the elements of these means. The random nature of the failures of these elements and their relatively high cost make it necessary to thoroughly justify the terms of preventive replacements. The justification of the terms of replacements presupposes the existence of an appropriate scientific methodological apparatus. The development of this apparatus is the goal of this article. The scientific and methodological provisions developed in the article will make it possible to reasonably determine the replacement times and the composition of the replaced elements of the technical means of customs control. Their use will reduce the cost of maintaining the technical means of customs control in working condition. At the stage of creating the technical means of customs control, it will improve the quality of the operational documentation, and in the course of their operation, based on the collection and processing of relevant statistical data, will allow for a reasonable correction of the replacement time.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):269-279
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Theoretical and methodological aspects of the formation of an effective forage base
Egorova O.V.
Abstract

This article is devoted to the organization of agricultural production of feed. Studied basic views on the definition of “fodder” and “fodder base”, and their relationship to agriculture. On the basis of the system approach the main factors influencing efficiency of system of agricultural production of forages for cattle are revealed. The criteria for increasing the efficiency of feed production in the process of structuring the formation of the forage base are substantiated. The analysis shows how the agricultural sector is not a closed system. The level of economic development of feed production and the formation of the feed base is determined not only by internal but also external factors, the organization of the correct interaction of which acts as a starting point for accelerating scientific and technological progress in the industry and increasing the level of development of agriculture.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):280-289
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University-business cooperation: directions of interaction
Sidorova A.A.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of promising areas of university-business cooperation (UBC) based on the study of modern Russian and foreign experience. It justifies the relevance of the broad approach to the interpretation of UBC within which it is proposed to consider cooperation between universities and business not as a set of isolated transactions within a limited range of areas of interaction, but as a system of long-term mutually beneficial relations with a wide range of possible types of cooperation that can also include the state and community organizations. The article analyzes 14 types of joint activities of universities and business within four main blocks - education, research, valorization (knowledge and technology commercialization) and management, which can serve as a basis for developing a system of indicators for assessing the effectiveness of UBC. The conclusion is made about the need to adjust the state policy in the field of science and education in order to reduce the imbalance in the development of these areas of cooperation both in Russia and in Europe.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):290-302
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Labor performance as one of the elements of personnel control and management in hotels in Syria
Alhammoud M.F., Zobov A.M., Almyshrqi H.
Abstract
Increased productivity is one of the least studied and challenging aspects of hotel and restaurant business management. The requirement to ensure productivity growth in order to survive and sustain business, including in Syria’s resurgent hospitality industry, is becoming increasingly important for managers. The active work of hotel managers in motivating and controlling staff in hotels should be a relevant and popular element in the development of a modern entrepreneurial culture, and better service. This article discusses what service productivity means, especially in the hospitality industry. This is confirmed by a study of the degree of compliance of the respondent hotels, which have become the object of the study, and labor productivity indicators in order to find a suitable standard of measurement and management system for the hotel industry in Syria. The article also provides an overview of the latest trends in the hotel business of Syria and a detailed analysis of the current tourism situation in Syria, including the study of the productive capacity of the labor force in the field of tourism and hotel in Syria on the basis of age, gender and educational level of workers in this field. This study has an important impact in determining how to increase production capacity in the sector of tourism and hotel in Syria.
RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):303-312
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INTERNATIONAL LABOR MARKET AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
The relation of environmental and climatic changes and migration situation in Oceania
Ochirova G.N., Moiseeva E.M., Maksimova A.S.
Abstract

The article presents overview of environmental and climatic, economic and migration situations in the countries of Oceania. In order to determine the relation of environmental and climatic changes and migration processes in the island states and territories of Oceania, New Zealand and Australia, analytical reports and censuses of the population of the states, estimates and statistics of international organizations are studied. The article analyses the state policy of island states and territories in the field of sustainable development and migration, as well as immigration policies of the main host countries such as Australia, New Zealand and the USA. It was found that internal and external migration in Oceania is mainly driven by socio-economic factors (problems with employment, education and medical services), while internal migration is usually directed to urban area, and external - from the city to foreign countries. Exploring the peculiarities of climate change and natural phenomena and their impact on the livelihoods of people in the region of Oceania, we can conclude that natural and climatic influences directly and indirectly affect different spheres of life of the local population. Nevertheless, the impact of climate change and natural phenomena on the migration of the population of Oceania at the moment is insignificant (no more than 10-12% of international flows), however, in the case of an increase in the intensity and frequency of na- tural disasters, and also due to an increase in the number and density of population (71 million people will live in the region to 2100) an increase in the flow of environmental migrants is inevitable.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):313-325
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The role of labour market integration, language proficiency and inter-ethnic contacts in shaping life satisfaction among immigrants in the Netherlands
Pletneva I.E.
Abstract
Studies show relatively low life satisfaction among immigrants and ethnic minorities. At the same time, it was found that subjective well-being plays an important role in the process of social integration of immigrants. This study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the meditative role of integration in the labor market and inter-ethnic contacts in the relationship between language proficiency and life satisfaction among the first and second generation of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands. Based on data from the Netherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study (NELLS), an analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. The results showed that despite the fact that language acquisition does not have a direct effect on increasing life satisfaction among immigrants, it does have a positive effect through increasing labor integration and contacts with members of the ethnic majority.
RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):326-337
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WORLD CAPITAL MARKET
Financial factors of stimulating consumer activity to achieve the goals of the country’s national economic security
Bystriakov A.Y., Grigorieva E.M., Savenkova E.V.
Abstract

In the context of the sanctions regime, the development of the national economy of Russia should be viewed from the angle of national economic security. The modern sanctions regime has begun and is still based on financial restrictions and prohibitions, which affects the need for a specific monetary policy of the country. In this regard, an important aspect of achieving the goals of national economic security are financial factors. As a methodological approach, the paper uses a descriptive approach to assess the relationship between the impact of the different channels of the transmission mechanism (welfare channel, exchange rate pass-through) and economic variables such as consumer demand. The contribution to the consumer price index of each of the three components is estimated: index of food products, index of non-food products and index of paid services. The significance of the contribution of the index of food products is revealed, which is confirmed by the results of regression analysis of the dependence of consumer prices on the exchange rate. The paper proposes a combination of inflation targeting and industrial production targeting to achieve a more significant effect of monetary policy implementation in the conditions of the sanctions regime and for the purposes of national economic security. Also, taking into account the significant contribution of changes in the exchange rate to the consumer price index, it is proposed to pay more attention to the impact of the Bank of Russia on the exchange rate.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):338-352
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Deoffshorization of economy of the Russian Federation: evolution of approaches and main priorities of the present stage
Smirnov E.N.
Abstract

In recent years in the Russian economy a number of actions for deoffshorization was held, in particular, there was developed a legislation on government procurement and also about activity of the controlled foreign companies. At the same time, there is a num- ber of the problems connected with improvement of an economic situation in the country, amnesty of the capital and further improvement of currency, customs and tax control. In the article are analysed the main directions of improvement of a regulatory framework of deoffshorization, feature of its development in the conditions of economic sanctions and also are proposed measures for improvement of deoffshorization taking into account increase in transparency of offshore schemes, extents of disclosure of tax information and improvement of investment climate of the country. The author came to a conclusion that it will be possible to speak about effective deoffshorization when the fiscal and monetary authorities will not proceed the policy at that business in our country is unprofitable and unprofitable. A barrier is also that in Russia there are no equal conditions of the competition in respect of conducting business activity to foreign countries. Therefore the policy deoffshorization has to be connected with creating favorable conditions for development of small and medium business.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):353-365
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The impact of the Turn to the East Policy on foreign direct investment in the Russian Far East
Lee H.
Abstract
This study aims to measure the effectiveness of Russia’s Turn to the East Policy, addressed by the federal government in 2012, on the economic development of the underdeveloped Far Eastern regions, in terms of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows data. To do so, this paper analyzed the results of the representative policy mechanisms - designed to promote the Far Eastern investments - of the Turn to the East Policy, comprised of the Eastern Economic Forum (EEC), Advanced Special Economic Zones (ASEZs), and Vladivostok Free Ports (VFPs), based on the secondary data from the governmental organizations. From the study, in spite of the previous contentions on those policy mechanisms amongst policymakers, we elucidate the incremental growing FDI - majorly contributed by the East Asian countries: China, Japan, and South Korea - propensity in the Far East. The three Eastern Asian countries promote investments in the Russian Far East for different eco-political purposes. And it further analyzed that for Russia, despite the remarkable magnitude of Chinese and Japanese FDI compared to South Korea, South Korea is still the most attractive partner, in terms of lack of threats: The Chinese expansionism, and the Kuril Island dispute with Japan.
RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):366-374
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GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
Classification of integration associations according to the degree of development of a single transport space
Komov M.S.
Abstract

In modern conditions of development of integration processes in the world economy, special importance is attached to the transport sector. The formation of a single transport space (STS) in the regions creates additional opportunities for the economic development of the integrating countries. At the same time, the literature does not pay enough attention to the definition of the essence of the single transport space and the classification of integration associations according to the degree of its development. Therefore, there is a need to develop such a classification. The article substantiates the expediency of classification of integration associations according to the degree of development of a single transport space. The author's formal-logical classification is developed, which is based on three basic types of a single transport space: transport and logistics type provide a positive multiplier of integrated economic growth for all participating countries; innovative-logistic and customs-logistic types cause polarization in the action of the multiplier of integrated economic growth (in particular, both positive and negative growth rates of GDP values of the participating countries are possible); industrial and logistics type provide a zero multiplier of integrated economic growth for all participating countries. The conclusion is made about the possibility of unification and harmonization of transport space in the practice of integration associations on the basis of the developed classification.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):375-385
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EU in the system of trade interests of USA
Konovalova Y.A., Ushanov S.A.
Abstract

Article is dedicated to the trade and economic links of USA and EU. The authors tried to find out key features and characteristics of these cooperation. The result of the investigation and the analysis is development of the term “economic anamorphosis”, the concept of which is the critical domination of the weight and share of limited list of partners in the system of bilateral cooperation, when one of the partners is regional economic integration, and the biggest share of trade, capital, human and other flows is attracted by these determined limited list of countries. Such situation can be estimated as disproportion of partner’s estimation and evaluation by each other. It means that economic integration is estimated not as the complex partner and subject of the global economy but with the using of deduction method.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(2):386-400
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