Designing the Positive Organizational Behavior Questionnaire: Prevalidation Results

Cover Page

Cite item


The purpose of the study was to design an original questionnaire for diagnosing positive organizational behavior (POB) of employees and further test its psychometric indicators of validity and reliability. The author of the concept of POB F. Luthans did not offer any diagnostic tool for assessing it; therefore, the authors decided to create own questionnaire. A theoretical analysis of the concept and existing scales for diagnosing the five components of POB (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, subjective well-being and emotional intelligence) was conducted. The empirical study was in the form of an online survey. The sample consisted of 172 respondents, aged 22 to 60, who worked in various fields of activity. The psychometric indicators of the POB questionnaire were assessed, including the reliability and consistency of the items, the correspondence of the theoretical conceptualization to the factorial structure of the questionnaire. The construct validity of the questionnaire was tested using The Satisfaction With Life Scale by E. Diener et al. (adapted by D. Leontiev and E. Osin) and The Life Orientation Test by M. Scheier et al. (adapted by T. Gordeeva, O. Sychev and E. Osin). As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, a five-factor structure of the questionnaire was formed, which corresponded to the ideas about the five-component structure of POB in F. Luthans’ theoretical concept. The reliability was assessed by analyzing the values of Cronbach’s alpha. The results showed sufficient reliability and consistency of the items of the questionnaire (the value of Cronbach’s alpha of the total scale of POB was 0.890). The assessment of construct validity confirmed the presence of significant relationships between the individual subscales of the POB questionnaire and the scales of satisfaction with life and life orientation, which indicated the substantive similarity of the scales. The study showed that the created measuring tool had sufficient validity and reliability and could be used for further research purposes.

About the authors

Wladimir A. Stroh

National Research University Higher School of Economics

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3627-9950
SPIN-code: 1193-1908

Ph.D. in Psychology, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Science

20 Myasnitskaya St, Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation

Vasilisa V. Dayneko

National Research University Higher School of Economics

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6279-8463
SPIN-code: 9110-7476

3rd Year PhD Student, Doctoral School of Psychology

20 Myasnitskaya St, Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation


  1. Abbe, A., Tkach, C., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2003). The art of living by dispositionally happy people. Journal of Happiness Studies, (4), 385‒404.
  2. Andrews, F.M., & Crandall, R. (1976). The validity of measures of self-reported well-being. Social Indicators Research, (3), 1‒19.
  3. Badoux, A., & Mendelsohn, G.A. (1994). Subjective well-being in French and American samples: Scale development and comparative data. Quality of Life Research, (3), 395‒401.
  4. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191‒215.
  5. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122‒147.
  6. Boyarinceva, A.V. (1995). Motivational and cognitive characteristics of the personality of a young entrepreneur. Ph.D. in Psychology Thesis. Moscow. (In Russ.)
  7. Boyarinceva, A.V. (2003). Self-efficacy test. In L.M. Mitina (Ed.), Psychology of Development of a Competitive Personality (pp. 217–219). Moscow: MPSI Publ. (In Russ.)
  8. Bradburn, N.M. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago: Aldine.
  9. Broad, J.D., & Luthans, F. (2020). Positive resources for psychiatry in the fourth industrial revolution: Building patient and family focused psychological capital (PsyCap). International Review of Psychiatry, 32(7‒8), 542‒554.
  10. Cartwright, S., & Cooper, C.L. (2014). Towards organizational health: Stress, positive organizational behavior, and employee well-being. In S. Cartwright, C.L. Cooper (Eds.), Bridging Occupational, Organizational and Public Health (pp. 29–42). Amsterdam: Springer.
  11. Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (2014). Dispositional optimism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18(6), 293‒299.
  12. Cherniss, C. (2000). Emotional intelligence (EI): What it is and why it matters. New Orleans: Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations.
  13. Culbertson, S.S., Fullagar, C.J., & Mills, M.J. (2010). Feeling good and doing great: The relationship between psychological capital and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(4), 421‒433.
  14. Dayneko, V.V. (2022). Positive organizational doctrine: Positive organizational behavior by F. Luthans and positive organizational scholarship by K. Cameron. Organizational Psychology, 12(1), 175‒200. (In Russ.)
  15. Dayneko, V.V., & Stroh, W.A. (2022). Positive psychological capital: Concept and measurement. Mir Psikhologii, (1), 4‒14. (In Russ.)
  16. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542‒575.
  17. Diener, E.D., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71‒75.
  18. Dutta, S., & Khatri, P. (2017). Servant leadership and positive organizational behaviour: The road ahead to reduce employees’ turnover intentions. On the Horizon, 25(1), 60‒82.
  19. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books, Inc.
  20. Goleman, D. (2013). Emotional intelligence: Why it may matter more than IQ. Moscow: Mann, Ivanov & Ferber Publ. (In Russ.)
  21. Gooty, J., Gavin, M., Johnson, P.D., Frazier, M.L., & Snow, D.B. (2009). In the eyes of the beholder: Transformational leadership, positive psychological capital, and performance. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(4), 353‒367.
  22. Gordeeva, T.O., Sychev, O.A., & Osin, E.N. (2010). Development of a Russian-language version of the Life Orientation Test (LOT). Psikhologicheskaya Diagnostika, (2), 36‒64. (In Russ.)
  23. Homburg, C., Müller, M., & Klarmann, M. (2011). When should the customer really be king? On the optimum level of salesperson customer orientation in sales encounters. Journal of Marketing, 75(2), 55‒74.
  24. Ivanova, T.Yu., Leontiev, D.A., Osin, E.N., Rasskazova, E.I., & Kosheleva, N.V. (2018). Contemporary issues in the research of personality resources at work. Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 85‒121. (In Russ.)
  25. Jerusalem M., & Schwarzer R. (1986). Selbstwirksamkeit. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-Efficacy: Thought Control of Action (pp. 15‒28). Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Psychologie.
  26. Kochetova, Y.A., & Klimakova, M.V. (2019). Methods for diagnosing emotional intelligence. Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 8(4), 106‒114. (In Russ.)
  27. Lussier, B., & Hartmann, N.N. (2017). Salesperson’s positive organizational behavior capacities and their influence on customer relationship outcomes: An abstract. In P. Rossi (Ed.), Marketing at the Confluence between Entertainment and Analytics: Proceedings of the 2016 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) World Marketing Congress (pp. 801‒802). Amsterdam: Springer.
  28. Luthans, F. (2002). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy of Management Perspectives, 16(1), 57‒72.
  29. Luthans, F., & Youssef, C.M. (2007). Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management, 33(3), 321‒349.
  30. Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Avey, J.B., & Norman, S.M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541‒572.
  31. Luthans, F., Youssef, C., & Avolio, B. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  32. Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H.S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, (46), 137‒155.
  33. Lyusin, D.V. (2006). New technique for measuring emotional intelligence: EmIn Questionnaire. Psikhologicheskaya Diagnostika, (4), 3‒22. (In Russ.)
  34. Lyusin, D.V., & Ushakov, D.V. (Eds.) (2009). Social and emotional intelligence: From processes to measurements. Moscow: Institute of Psychology of RAS. (In Russ.)
  35. Martin-Krumm, C., Delas, Y., Lafrenière, M.A., Fenouillet, F., & Lopez, S.J. (2015). The structure of the state hope scale. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(3), 272‒281.
  36. Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2002). D.R. MSCEIT – Mayer – Salovey – Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
  37. Muzdybaev, K. (1999a). Phenomenology of the hope (first paper). Psihologicheskii Zhurnal, (3), 18‒27. (In Russ.)
  38. Muzdybaev, K. (1999b). Phenomenology of the hope (second paper). Psihologicheskii Zhurnal, (4), 26‒35. (In Russ.)
  39. Osin, E.N., & Leontiev, D.A. (2008). Approbation of the Russian-language versions of two scales for the express assessment of subjective well-being. Proceedings of the 3rd All-Russian Sociological Congress. Moscow: Institute of Sociology of RAS. (In Russ.)
  40. Palmer, B., Gignac, G., Bates, T., & Stough, C. (2003). Examining the structure of the trait meta‐mood scale. Australian Journal of Psychology, 55(3), 154‒158.
  41. Pekaar, K.A., Bakker, A.B., van der Linden, D., & Born, M.P. (2018). Self-and other-focused emotional intelligence: Development and validation of the Rotterdam Emotional Intelligence Scale (REIS). Personality and Individual Differences, (120), 222‒233.
  42. Rasskazova, E.I., & Lebedeva, A.A. (2020). Screening Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE): Validation of the Russian version. Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, 17(2), 250‒263. (In Russ.)
  43. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185‒211.
  44. Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D., & Lopes, P.N. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence as a set of abilities with the Mayer ‒ Salovey ‒ Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. In S.J. Lopez, C.R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive Psychological Assessment: A Handbook of Models and Measures (pp. 251‒265). New York: Taylor and Francis Group.
  45. Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219‒247.
  46. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1992). Self-efficacy as a resource factor in stress appraisal processes. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-Efficacy: Thought Control of Action (pp. 195‒213). Washington: Hemisphere.
  47. Schwarzer, R., Erusalem, M., & Romek, V. (1996). Russian version of General Self-Efficacy Scale by R. Schwarzer and M. Yerusalem. Inostrannaya Psikhologiya, (7), 71‒76. (In Russ.)
  48. Schweizer, K., & Koch, W. (2001). The assessment of components of optimism by POSO-E. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(4), 563‒574.
  49. Seligman, M.E. (2000). Optimism, pessimism, and mortality. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 75(2), 133‒134.
  50. Sergienko, E.A., & Vetrova, I.I. (2009). Emotional intelligence: Russian-language adaptation of The Mayer – Salovey – Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Version 2.0. Psychological Studies, 2(8), 10‒21. (In Russ.)
  51. Sherer, M., Maddux, J.E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R.W. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51(2), 663‒671.
  52. Shults, C. (2008). Making the case for a positive approach to improving organizational performance in higher education institutions: The community college abundance model. Community College Review, 36(2), 133–159.
  53. Snyder, C.R. (1995). Conceptualizing, measuring, and nurturing hope. Journal of Counseling & Development, 73(3), 355‒360.
  54. Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570‒585.
  55. Snyder, C.R., Sympson, S.C., Ybasco, F.C., Borders, T.F., Babyak, M.A., & Higgins, R.L. (1996). Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(2), 321‒335.
  56. Sokolova, M.V. (1996). Scale of Subjective Well-Being. Yaroslavl: NPC “Psihodiagnostika” Publ. (In Russ.)
  57. Stotland, E. (1996). The psychology of hope. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.
  58. Tsiring, D.A., & Evnina, K.Yu. (2013). Issues of optimism and pessimism diagnostics in the context of dispositional optimism theory. Psychological Studies, 6(31), 6. (In Russ.)
  59. Wong, C.S., & Law, K.S. (2002). Development of an emotional intelligence instrument and an investigation of its relationship with leader and follower performance and attitudes. Leadership Quarterly, (13), 1‒32.
  60. Yelshansky, S.P., Anufriev, A.F., Kamaletdinova, Z.F., Saparin, O.E., & Semyonov, D.V. (2014). Psychometrical indicators of the Russian-language version of the C.R. Snyder’s Scale of Hope. Modern Scientific Researches and Innovations, (9‒2), 92–98. (In Russ.)

Copyright (c) 2023 Stroh W.A., Dayneko V.V.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies