LMS Moodle tools to form and develop grammar skills when teaching a foreign language at a non-linguistic higher education institution


Problem statement . The author analyzes LMS Moodle tools “Book”, “Lesson”, “Quiz”, and “Assignment” to form and develop grammar skills, and also shares the experience in realizing, creating and implementing into educational e-courses some interactive grammar tasks and exercises for non-linguistic university students. Methodology . The stages of grammar skills formation and development are indicated. The potential capabilities of LMS Moodle tools “Book”, “Lesson”, “Assignment”, “Quiz” to create interactive tasks and grammar exercises are analyzed. Results . Online tasks and exercises of various types - imitation, transformation, and substitution, based on “Book”, “Lesson”, “Assignment”, “Quiz” to form the grammar skills of students, are described in detail, and their examples are given. The algorithms to introduce interactive tasks and exercises into electronic courses are carefully shown. Conclusion . The author concludes about the effectiveness of using online grammar tasks and exercises created using LMS Moodle tools “Book”, “Lesson”, “Assignment”, “Quiz” for the formation and development of grammar skills for non-linguistic university students.

Full Text

Problem statement. Knowledge of the grammar rules - the grammatical structure of foreign language, the patterns to construct correct meaningful speech segments in this language - is necessary when learning a foreign language. However, knowledge of grammar rules only does not guarantee either the grammatically correct formation of statements in a foreign language or an adequate understanding of the interlocutor during foreign language communication. Awareness of the meaning of a certain grammatical phenomenon is the initial stage in mastering the skill of its use or understanding. The more originality in the meaning of a foreign grammatical phenomenon in comparison with the law of the native language, which is identical in function, the more efforts will be required to form the corresponding phenomenon in a foreign language. One of the important tasks of a foreign language teacher is the formation of the skill to correlate a communicative task with a certain grammar structure. It is very important that the grammatical stereotype, which requires awareness of the communicative intention, as well as the subject of thought, and the conditions of the communicative situation, is instantly actualized in the speaker’s mind. Various aspects of the formation and development of grammar skills are considered in many studies. E. Komleva et al. give a comprehensive description of innovative methods of teaching English grammar in terms of communicative functions taking into account the pragmatic aspect [1]. Functional approach in teaching English grammar to the University students is considered by M.A. Abdullaeva [2]. R.I. Kuryaeva describes the optimum way of teaching grammar - the study of its grammar while consolidating all the grammatical nuances in colloquial speech [3]. N.O. Shpak et al. consider the problems of teaching students English grammar based on their native language [4]. The formation of the correct grammatical stereotype is facilitated by the implementation of a large number of substitution, transformation, imitation, and translation exercises. These various exercises can be performed by students both in the classroom and independently (self-directed learning of students). The introduction of LMS Moodle into the educational process of universities allows a foreign language teacher to conduct interactive work to form and develop grammar skills in students of non-linguistic universities, to introduce new types of work to make this process more efficient, and meet up-to-date learning requirements. I.I. Volskaya et al. describe the use of information and communication technologies in teaching foreign languages [5]. N.V. Belozertseva et al. take into account monitoring and evaluation procedure with LMS Moodle [6]. S. Karpenko et al. [7] and L.L. Khoroshko et al. [8] describe the creation of an electronic testing system in smart training based on LMS Moodle. E. Kasieva studies the problems of teaching English using interactive technologies [9]. The motivation for learning English grammar by means of LMS Moodle is written by V.Kh. Zabirova et al. [10] Some points to use LMS Moodle to teach the foreign language grammar are considered by N.V. Khudolei [11]. Online formation and development of students’ grammar skills can be carried out in addition to classroom activities. N.V. Devdariani et al. recommend the use of online simulators for teaching the foreign language grammar [12]. The principles of creating interactive foreign language educational content to be used in distance learning are substantiated by V.G. Karavaeva [13] and I.S. Mintii et al. [14]. The aim of the study is to introduce foreign language teachers to the LMS Moodle tools that are most suitable to form and develop students’ grammar skills, as well as to show the methods of using the Moodle tools, and to demonstrate some examples of grammar exercises and tasks that can be created and implemented by means of LMS Moodle. Methodology. Teaching the foreign language grammar is an integral part of the teacher’s work with students. The formation of grammar skills should be carried out in stages. There are four stages in the formation of grammar skills: 1) introduction and primary study; 2) training; 3) control of grammar skills; 4) the use of grammar structures in speech [15, p. 29]. The purpose of the introduction and primary study stage is to create an indicative basis for grammatical action to be able to subsequently form a skill in various communicative situations. At this stage, the teacher needs to explain to students the meaning, formation, and use of the grammar structure, as well as to ensure control of its understanding by students, and its primary study. New grammatical material can be introduced and carried out both under the teacher’s guidance in the classroom, and independently (or remotely). At this stage, it is advisable for the teacher to adhere to sequential actions: 1) Give a general presentation why the new grammar structure is used, and how it functions (e.g.: Today we will learn what to say if...); 2) visually create and present learning and speech functional situations typical of a new grammatical structure; 3) ensure control of students’ understanding the meaning of the new grammar structure, and its correct use; 4) clearly formulate the grammar rule; 5) analyze the grammar structure using some introductory exercises. The purpose of the training stage is to develop the grammar skills in students. The development of grammar skills implies a relatively accurate reproduction of the grammar structure both in typical and in variable speech situations. To develop grammatical skills, imitation, substitution, and transformation exercises are used. The control of grammar skills can be carried out in speech activities while listening, speaking, reading, or writing, and by means of special control exercises [15, p. 43]. Grammar skills can be controlled orally and in writing; grammar control can be carried out both under the teacher’s guidance and using LMS Moodle. New grammar structures should be activated in students’ speech without any prompts in accordance with speech circumstances. To do this, the teacher can use different materials, and a system of various exercises using texts, monologues, dialogues, sound and video files, etc. Traditionally, these kinds of work are done in the classroom using a teaching board, as well as textbooks, student workbooks, handouts, and sound recordings, video films, etc. However, the LMS Moodle toolkit can successfully replace them. Using LMS Moodle tools, the teacher can effectively form and develop students’ grammatical skills, and carry out various kinds of work with different types of exercises. It is important for the teacher to correctly identify and choose the most effective LMS Moodle tools suitable for various stages of the grammar skills formation and development. To be more exact, “Book” and “Lesson” are considered the most effective tools at the stage of introduction and primary study of grammar materials. “Quiz” is best used at the stage of training, as well as to control grammar materials. “Assignment” is best suited for use at the stage to apply grammar structures in speech. The teacher also needs to be able to properly configure these tools so that they bring maximum results to students. Besides, the teacher needs to decide on the types of tasks - introductory, training, or control - and, taking them into account, adequately set up a points system for completed tasks, set the number of attempts or time allotted for exercises, think over a system of penalty points for incorrectly completed exercises, and carefully consider the transitions between grammar materials and tasks, etc. In addition, the teacher should select high-quality grammar materials: up-to-date texts, explanations, tables, diagrams, images, sound and video files, etc., which will be correctly uploaded to the e-learning courses. Results and discussion. We have analyzed and examined the LMS Moodle tools “Book”, “Lesson”, “Quiz”, and “Assignment” to create various grammar exercises based on them. Using these tools and exercises in practice proves their effectiveness to form and develop grammar skills among students. “Book” is considered one of the most convenient LMS Moodle tools to place both informational theoretical materials on any grammar points of a foreign language, and a variety of exercises on certain grammar topics to develop grammar skills. The “Book” is a multi-page online resource, similar to a real book, containing chapters and subchapters. The “Book” can include media files (sound and video files), as well as voluminous textual information that the teacher can divide into sections (chapters or pages). The “Book” can be used to display training materials for individual sections, or as an e-reference book. It is obvious that mastering the theoretical grammar foundations is one of the most difficult and time-consuming types of work for students when learning a foreign language. Mastering grammar rules requires not only theoretical, but also practical work with them using numerous exercises and training activities. Usually, the study of grammar requires students to use several sources of information: a grammar book, a workbook/student’s book, a textbook, a sound recording (disks or sound files). The “Book” is able to replace these multiple sources of information because it allows the teacher to create a single multipage book containing a lot of text information divided into sections, as well as media files. To set up “Book” in an e-course, the teacher should: - turn the editing on, and choose “Book”; - set the main parameters of the “Book” (the name of the “Book”, its appearance - the table of contents of the “Book”, chapters and sub-chapters or pages); - save and show. Then proceed to fill in the “Book” with the relevant grammar materials: - add a new chapter, add a subchapter; - download grammar materials; - save changes, finish editing. The students can look through the “Book” pages, or subchapters, using the table of contents or the transition buttons “Previous” or “Next”. Students can leave the “Book” by clicking the “Exit Book” button. When studying foreign grammar, it is more expedient for the teacher to place the main theoretical material in the chapters of the “Book”, and in the subchapters it is more convenient to place examples of the grammar in use by means of various tasks, exercises, and texts. The table of contents of the online “Book” is presented as hyperlinks to the specific grammar topics (presented as chapters and subchapters). Using the table of contents students can easily navigate to the desired chapters or subchapters, and, if necessary, return to them and re-learn poorly learned grammar materials. The teacher can easily edit the “Book”, and make the necessary changes to its content at any time. For example, the “Book” can be supplemented with certain exercises or examples, sound files or video files, which is a great advantage of this tool. Figure 1 shows the design of the online grammar “Book” in the “Foreign Language” e-course prepared for non-linguistic bachelors in economics. The “Book” is used by us at the stage of introduction and primary study of grammar material. The table of contents shows that the theoretical and practical material is clearly structured, as it is divided into chapters. The first three chapters present separate theoretical points (e.g.: Present Continuous Tense, Past Continuous Tense, Future Continuous Tense), the next four chapters provide practical material in the form of a variety of introductory exercises on these grammar topics. Figure1. A fragment of the e-“Book” containing grammar theory The theoretical grammar materials are easy to understand as they are presented in the text-form. In our e-courses for bachelors, we choose the way of presenting grammar materials in the native language followed by examples given in a foreign language, and their translation into the native language. This is done because bachelors of a non-linguistic university, as a rule, are of elementary or pre-intermediate language proficiency levels, and a large amount of theoretical information in a foreign language would make mastering grammar difficult for them. Grammar rules given in the native language are much easier to understand and remember. Therefore, for students with elementary, beginners, and pre-intermediate levels of language proficiency, it is more expedient to provide theoretical grammar materials in their native language so that students can correctly understand the meaning of the grammar structure, its functional focus, as well as the features of its use. In addition, students have the opportunity to compare the grammar structures of their native and foreign languages. Intermediate, upper-intermediate, and advanced language proficiency students can be given theoretical grammar materials in a foreign language. The theory of grammar, provided in a foreign language, allows students to be more fully immersed in the foreign language, which makes mastering foreign grammar a more interesting process. Exercises to work out theoretical grammar materials should be selected by the teacher, taking into account the levels of students’ language competences. The teacher needs to clearly understand that practical tasks in grammar should correspond to the students’ language proficiency levels: unfamiliar vocabulary should not distract students from the grammar structures being studied. Grammar exercises should use modern language; they should be of various types so that students can comprehensively work out the studied grammar structures. Figure 2 shows a fragment of the “Book” containing a practical task to train the grammar construction “Present Continuous Tense”. This page of the “Book” shows an example of a substitution exercise that we use during the development/ training stage of teaching grammar skills. Figure 2. A fragment of the e-“Book” containing a substitution grammar exercise In this substitution exercise, students are asked to choose the correct forms of auxiliary and semantic verbs from the drop-down menu list, and insert them into sentences, according to the “Present Continuous Tense” grammar rule. This exercise is intended for elementary and pre-intermediate language proficiency students. Doing grammar substitution exercises helps students form grammar stereotypes, and give them the necessary communicative flexibility, and it also teaches them to recognize grammar phenomena. In general, substitution exercises are aimed at developing both productive and receptive grammar skills in students. In the “Book” the teacher can use any free materials available on the Internet, and adapt them in the e-course, taking into account the purpose and objectives of the learning, as well as the levels of students’ language competences. The “Book” can be used both in the classroom, and for students’ independent activities; besides, is also convenient for distance learning. “Lesson” can be used for self-directed learning of new grammar topics at the stages of introduction and primary study of new grammar materials, using different sets of questions. “Lesson” allows the teacher to arrange grammar content and practice exercises in an interesting and flexible way. The teacher can place grammar materials linearly, i.e. in the form of sequential learning pages, but can also create a more complex scheme that contains various paths and options for the learner. Grammar materials can be presented in various ways: text, tables, images, educational videos. The teacher can use grammar materials that are freely available on the Internet. To arrange grammar materials, the teacher can make a system of transitions from the main page to pages explaining certain grammar points. There can be introductory “lessons” containing only reference grammar materials; but it is more expedient to supplement “lessons” with training exercises, while the grammar materials are worked out by students using “Multiple Choice”, “True-false”, and “Essay” question types. The teacher can upload these training exercises both after each page of the “Lesson”, and after its final page, when all grammar points have been studied by students. The teacher needs to think over the system of transitions between the “Lesson” pages, so that the correct answer allows the student to move on to the next question, and if the answer is wrong, LMS Moodle would return the student to the grammar section that was mastered poorly so that the student could re-learn this grammar material. Also, the teacher should think over, and correctly set up a system of grading points for passing the “Lesson” (e.g.: the score decreases for incorrect answers or additional attempts to pass the “Lesson”). We use “Lessons” with video and text grammar materials in our e-courses. Figure 3 presents the start page of the “Conditionals Lesson” to show the system of transitions to the subsequent “Lesson” pages - “Conditionals type 0”, “Conditionals type 1”, “Conditionals type 2”, “Conditionals type 3”, “Mixed Conditionals”. Each type of “Conditionals” is uploaded as a separate “Lesson” subsection. Students can study the grammar materials sequentially, moving from “Conditionals type 0” to “Conditionals type 1”, but, if necessary, they can immediately review and study the “Mixed Conditionals” subsection. This is convenient, since students can see all the “Lesson” contents at once, and they do not waste time searching for the needed subsection or re-reading well known materials. In addition, the figure shows the progress bar so that students can track how many percent of the “Lesson” grammar materials has already been studied. We usually perform the “Lesson” containing questions to check up the studied grammar materials - “Check yourself”. The question section can be placed both after each “Lesson” subsection, and after all the subsections studied: the button “Check yourself” directs students to practical tasks and exercises of the “Lesson”. Figure 3. Start page of the “Lesson” containing transitions to various grammar materials Figure 4 shows the final “Lesson” page with the “Check yourself” button, which is the transition to the controlling questions, while the “Back” button can transit students to the previous pages of the “Lesson” if necessary. To increase active interaction and control of understanding, we use in our “Lesson” various question types - “Multiple choice”, “Short answer”, “Matching”, “Essay”, etc. Depending on the chosen answers, students can go to the next “Lesson” page (in case the answer is correct), or return to the previous pages (if the answer is wrong). Grades for the “Lesson” are stored in the e-gradebook. Our students note the convenience of working with the “Lesson”: it is visual, informative, clearly structured; it helps to make online self-control of new grammar material development; besides, the “Lesson” can be studied as many times as it is required. To upload the “Lesson” to an e-course, the teacher needs to create its template, which will then include the content of the “Lesson” with controlling questions. To make the template the teacher should: - turn editing on - choose “Lesson”, give its name and description; - set the “Lesson” parameters (Appearance - Progress bar (Yes) - display ongoing score (Yes) - display menu (Yes) - slideshow (Yes) - use default feedback (Yes); Availability (if necessary: available from - deadline - time limit); Flow control - allow student review (Yes) - maximum numbers of attempts - action after correct answer (normal - follow lesson path); Grade (maximum grade)); - save and display. Figure 4. Final page of the “Lesson” containing transitions to grammar exercises (“Check yourself”), and to previous pages (“Back”) After the “Lesson” template is made, the teacher needs to upload its content: Add a content page - page title - page contents - description (“next” - transition) - save page. By analogy, the other “Lesson” pages should be uploaded. After uploading all the pages, it is necessary to upload the pages with controlling questions: Edit - Actions - Add a question page - Select a question type (“Multichoice”, “Essay”, “Matching”, “Short answer”, “True-false”); follow the instructions to create a definite question page - Save page. In the same way, the teacher creates the required number of controlling pages, trying to correctly adjust the transitions system. “Quiz” allows the teacher to create tests consisting of questions of different types: “Multiple choice”, “Matching”, “Short answer”, “True-false”, “Ordering”, “Essay”, etc. The tests can have multiple attempts; test questions can be shuffled, and random questions can be selected from the question bank. Each test can have its time limit if necessary. Each attempt is graded automatically, and the grade is recorded in the grade book. The teacher can choose whether hints, feedback, and correct answers are shown to students, and when they are shown. Tests can be used at the stages of grammar skills training and control, as well as for students’ self-assessment. The most commonly used “Quiz” question type is “Multiple Choice”, where a single grammar question is followed by several possible answers, from which students must choose the correct answer. But we also use in our e-courses some other types of test questions for primary study, effective training, and careful control of the grammar structures being studied: “Multi-essay”, “Drag-and-drop matching”, “Kprime/Matrix”. In “Kprime/Matrix”, several statements must be evaluated by the students as “true” or “false”. This type of question is very similar to “True/False” question type, but “Kprime/Matrix” allows the teacher to introduce multiple statements and answers at the same time, unlike “True/False”, where only one statement and one answer can be posted. Figure 5 shows an example of a “Kprime/Matrix” Quiz grammar exercise that can be used with students at the stage of introduction and primary study of grammar structures. In this exercise, students should find and mark sentences containing grammatical errors as “false”, and sentences without any errors should be marked as “true”. The question “Kprime/Matrix” is checked automatically by LMS Moodle. After the completed exercise is sent for verification, the student will see the result of his/her work because the correct answers will be marked as ✔, and the incorrect ones - as ×. The students can analyze their results, and make corrections if necessary. Figure 5. An example of “Kprime/Matrix” Quiz exercise To upload “Quiz” to e-course, it is firstly necessary to make the “Quiz” template. When the template is ready, it can be filled in with the necessary content. To make the “Quiz” template, the teacher should: - turn on the editing, and choose “Quiz”; - set the parameters for “Quiz” passing (the number of attempts, the time allotted for the tasks, penalty points for incorrect answers, the deadlines for completing the tasks, a grade/number of points for completing the tasks, etc.); - save the “Quiz” template. All questions used in the “Quiz” are created and stored in the “Question bank”. Therefore, the next step for the teacher is to move to the “Question bank” to create the “Kprime/Matrix” question type. It should be done as follows: - turn on the Quiz editing, and choose “Kprime/Matrix” from the “Question bank”, give the name to the question; - enter the text of the question (formulate the task for the test), set the score for the correct answers, select the evaluation method (e.g.: Kprime 1/0 - each correct answer is evaluated); - fill in the response matrix (fill in each field with the text of the question, and indicate the correct and incorrect answers in the columns “True”/“False”); - save changes. Figure 6 shows a “Drag-and-Drop Matching” Quiz exercise. “Drag-and-Drop Matching” is a variant of the “Matching” question type, in which the answer to each question must be taken from a list of possible answers. The difference between “Matching” and “Drag-and-Drop Matching” is that the latter question type allows students to drag and drop answers to match sub-questions. We use the “Drag-and-Drop Matching” to introduce substitution exercises into the course used at the stage of training grammar skills (e.g.: when learning the English tenses). Figure 6 shows an example of the substitution exercise, in which students should match the sentences with the correct verb forms. When doing “Drag-and-Drop Matching” Quiz exercises, the students have to choose the correct forms, and drag them into the answer forms located next to each sentence. Our students note that doing substitution “Drag-and-Drop Matching” exercises help them carefully review grammar materials, and automate the use of grammar structures in similar sentences. Figure 6. An example of “Drag-and-Drop Matching” Quiz exercise To set up a “Drag-and-Drop Matching” question type, the teacher should: - make the Quiz template; - use the Question bank, and choose “Drag-and-Drop Matching”; - give the name of the question; - set a score for the correct answer; -mix questions and answers; - set up the fields “Question 1” (enter the text of the question, file, etc.), and “Answer 1” (enter the correct answer to the question); - by analogy, set the fields “Question 2” - “Answer 2”, “Question 3” - “Answer 3”, etc.; - save changes. Figure 7. A fragment of “Multi-Essay” Quiz exercise Figure 7 shows an example of “Multi-essay” Quiz exercise used in our e-“Foreign language” course. In general, “Multi-essay” is considered to be a manually graded question type that requires students to write multiple essays. We use “Multi-essay” in an unconventional way. “Multi-essay” is best suited for exercises to control grammar skills, for example, to correct grammar mistakes in sentences or text. In the “question text” field, we enter a sentence (or a text fragment), and in the answer field (in the frame), the student must enter the answer. This is an interesting, non-standard form of work with the “Multi-essay” question type, where the student writes corrected grammar forms as an “essay”. Before entering the answer, the student must comprehensively analyze the sentence from the grammar point of view, find incorrect grammar forms, if any, and correct them manually, remembering the meaning and formation of the grammar constructions. This “Multi-essay” Quiz question type can be effectively used for students of different language proficiency levels. To set up “Multi-essay”, the teacher must: - make the Quiz template; - use the “Question bank” to choose the “Multi-essay” question type; - give the name of the question, if necessary; - give its description, set points for the correct answer to the question; - configure the “Question 1” field: display the question (Yes) - question text - answer format (HTML editor will allow students to use the toolbar; text editor is to enter a text answer) - field size (set the number of lines for the answer) - allow attachments (No) - save changes; - in the same way, make settings for question fields 2, 3, 4, etc. The Assignment learning tool allows the teacher to add communicative tasks, collect students’ works, grade them, and provide feedback. Students can send to the teacher any content: text responses, word documents, PPT presentations, spreadsheets, sound and video files. When evaluating students’ answers, the teacher can leave his/her feedback in the form of comments, or upload a file with the student’s corrected answer, as well as sound feedback. The answers of the trainees can be graded to be stored in the Moodle gradebook. To upload “Assignment” to the e-course, the teacher should: - turn on the editing and choose “Assignment”; - give a name to the “Assignment”, and clearly formulate the task to be performed (in the “Description” section); - set the main parameters for assessing the “Assignment”: the deadlines for completing the task so that the teacher can see whose answers are provided on time, and whose work is overdue: the teacher can reduce the score for overdue work; the number of attached files should be determined; the number of attempts to answer the task should be set up; final score for work should be determined; notification of trainees about the checked work should be set up; the form of the teacher’s response after evaluating the work of students: a comment, a file or a voice message; a convenient parameter for the teacher is a reminder of the timing of checking the students’ works; - save changes. Our students perform various grammar exercises that we have implemented in the Moodle e-course using «Assignments». Such exercises can be performed at different stages of the formation and development of grammar skills. So, at the stage of introduction and primary study of grammar structures, the teacher can perform the following exercises: 1) write out sentences with certain grammar structures; 2) form grammatical forms according to the model; 3) read the grammar forms, and find out their formative features, etc. Students can send their answers to such tasks to the teacher as word files. At the stage of grammar skills training, the teacher can use imitation exercises: 1) listen and repeat the forms according to the model; 2) copy the text or part of it and underline grammar constructions; 3) repeat the grammar construction after the speaker, etc. Students can send answers to such tasks to the teacher as sound files. Besides, it is efficient to use substitution exercises that help develop automaticity in the use of grammar structures in similar situations: 1) open the brackets using the appropriate grammar forms; 2) talk about <...> using a sample; 3) listen to the dialogue and reproduce it in pairs, make up a dialogue by analogy, etc. It is more expedient for students to provide their answers as sound files. Transformation exercises are also successfully used: 1) talk about what you did not do yesterday, but have done today; 2) translate the sentences into a foreign language; 3) react to the following statements using the studied grammar constructions, etc. It is better for students to provide their answers to the teacher as sound files. Grammar skills control can be performed using the following exercises: 1) briefly tell about...; 2) describe the picture (compose situations); 3) name/ insert the grammar forms that need to be used in these situations, etc. Students can provide their answers as word files and sound files. Figure 8 presents the “Assignment” offered by us to our students at the stage of grammar skills control. The “Assignment” consists of two parts. Firstly, students need to choose the correct grammar forms (Present Perfect or Past Simple Tenses), and insert them into sentences. Students are asked to attach their answers as word files. Secondly, students are invited to write a short story on the given topic “My achievements” using the studied grammar structures (Present Perfect and/or Past Simple). The students’ answers must be attached as sound files. It is also shown how the student’s attached files look like in the student’s course. Figure 8. “Assignment” with attached Word and MP3 files in the student’s course The use of LMS Moodle tools “Book”, “Lesson”, “Assignment”, and “Quiz”, as well as numerous types of interactive tasks and exercises created on their basis, help a foreign language teacher to form and develop students’ grammar skills in an interesting, non-standard way. The author’s experience in the development, implementation, and practical use of online grammar exercises confirms that students are more motivated to master foreign grammar. It is due to a variety of interactive tasks that are aimed at bringing maximum results and pleasure to foreign language grammar learners. LMS Moodle allows the teacher to introduce different grammar materials, paying attention to the levels of students’ language proficiency. Grammar materials (both theoretical and practical) implemented using the LMS Moodle toolkit can be adapted both for online group activities and for students’ self-directed learning. LMS Moodle tools “Book”, “Lesson”, “Assignment”, and “Quiz” are very flexible and functional; they can replace numerous textbooks, students’ workbooks, and grammar tutorials. Conclusion. The grammar of a foreign language firstly seems to be incredibly difficult for students, but studying it gives them an understanding that the choice of a particular grammar construction is provided for by strict rules. Mastering grammar is the most important stage in learning a foreign language, and nobody can do without it. The formation and development of grammar skills are important at any stage of teaching a foreign language, since the students first master the basic grammar, and then, on its basis, they master the grammar of higher levels. Therefore, the teacher constantly conducts work on the formation and development of grammar skills in students. In order for grammar teaching to be effective and profound, it is important for the teacher to be able to use not only traditional, but also modern scientific and technical achievements and methods, for example, interactive teaching methods and techniques. The use of the LMS Moodle interactive toolkit helps the teacher diversify the process of teaching students the foreign language grammar rules, and adapt grammar materials depending on the students’ language proficiency levels, and learning goals. The teacher can place a lot of additional grammar materials in the form of various tests, exercises and assignments, and use modern and high-quality materials in the e-courses. It is important that while working with the LMS Moodle toolkit, students have the opportunity not to spend money to purchase textbooks or workbooks, but to work for free with high-quality theoretical and practical grammar materials presented in an interesting and flexible way. We can conclude that the LMS Moodle tools “Book”, “Lesson”, “Assignment”, and “Quiz”, and creative online tasks and grammar exercises developed on their basis are useful and effective at various stages of the formation and development of grammar skills, and can be successfully used by foreign language teachers for both full-time and distance learning in non-linguistic and linguistic universities, as well as in schools and colleges.

About the authors

Natalia V. Khudolei

Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University

Author for correspondence.
Email: nvkkaf@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6574-6362

Candidate in Cultural Studies, Associate Professor of the Department of Foreign Languages and Professional Communications

90 Prospekt Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russian Federation


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