The world’s largest social science infrastructure and academic survey research program: The World Values Survey in the New Independent States

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The World Values Survey (WVS) is an international research program developed to assess the impact of values stability or change over time on the social, political and economic development of countries and societies. It started in 1981 by Ronald Inglehart and his team, since then has involved more than 100 world societies and turned into the largest non-commercial cross-national empirical time-series investigation of human beliefs and values ever executed on a global scale. The article consists of a few sections differing by the focus. The authors begin with the description of survey methodology and organization management that both ensure cross-national and cross-regional comparative character of the study (the survey is implemented using the same questionnaire, a face-to-face mode of interviews, and the same sample type in every country). The next part of the article presents a short overview of the project history and comparative surveys’ time-series (so called “waves” - periods between two and four years long during which collection of data in several dozens of countries using one same questionnaire is taking place; such waves are conducted every five years). Here the authors describe every wave of the WVS mentioning coordination and management activities that were determined by the extension of the project thematically and geographically. After that the authors identify the key features of the WVS in the New Independent States and mention some of the results of the study conducted in NIS countries in 1990-2014, such as high level of uncertainty in the choice of ideological preferences; rapid growth of declared religiosity; observed gap between the declared values and actual facts of social life, etc. The final section of the article summarizes the findings and key publications of the project for its data is widely used to analyse economic and political development, religious beliefs, gender equality, social capital, subjective well-being and many other issues of social development and values change in the world.

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Introduction The World Values Survey (WVS) is an international research program devoted to the scientific and academic study of social, political, economic, religious and cultural values of people in the world. The project’s goal is to assess which impact values stability or change over time has on the social, political and economic development of countries and societies. The project was started in 1981 by its Founding President Ronald Inglehart from the University of Michigan (USA) and his team, and since then has been operating in more than 100 world societies. The main research instrument of the project is a representative comparative social survey which is conducted globally every five years. Extensive geographical and thematic scope, free availability of survey data and project findings for broad public turned the WVS into one of the most authoritative and widely-used cross-national surveys in the social sciences. At the moment, WVS is the largest non-commercial cross-national empirical time-series investigation of human beliefs and values ever executed on a global scale. Project’s overall aim is to analyze people’s values, beliefs and norms in a comparative cross-national and over-time perspective. To reach this aim, the project covers a broad scope of topics from the field of sociology, political science, international relations, economics, public health, demography, anthropology, and social psychology. In addition, WVS is the only academic study which covers the whole scope of global variations, from very poor to very rich societies in all world’s main cultural zones. The WVS combines two institutional components. From one side, WVS is a scientific program and social research infrastructure that explores people’s values and beliefs. At the same time, WVS comprises an international network of social scientists and researchers from 108 world countries and societies. All national teams and individual researchers involved into the implementation of the WVS constitute the community of Principal Investigators (PIs). All PIs are members of the WVS. All the WVS findings and data collected since the last 35 years (1981-2016) are available online, free of charge at the WVSA official web-site ( The web-site was renovated in 2013. The new design features data downloads; online data analysis and production of tables, graphs and maps; availability of documentation at country level organized by waves; lists of publications using WVS data; and a list of all participants with links. The WVS is publishing its findings and publications every day in its social media like Facebook or Twitter. The WVS findings have proved to be valuable for policy makers seeking to build civil society and stable political institutions in developing countries. The WVS data is also frequently used by governments around the world, scholars, students, journalists and international organizations such as the World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the United Nations Headquarters in New York (USA). The WVS data has been used in thousands of scholarly publications and the findings have been reported in leading media such as Time, Newsweek, The New York Times, The Economist, the World Development Report, the World Happiness Report and the UN Human Development Report. Survey methodology and organization management In order to monitor people’s values and value systems, the WVS is conducting comparative cross-national social survey every five years. Every wave of the WVS consists of several dozens of national representative surveys conducted in 50-60 world countries using a common questionnaire. Currently the project’s data-base includes face-to-face interviews with around 380,000 respondents. Every wave, WVS aims at extending its geographical coverage and increasing the number of countries involved into the project. The survey seeks to use the most rigorous, high-quality research designs in each society. The surveys are performed by an international network of social scientists. The WVS works with leading researchers and scholars recruited from each country or society studied. In order to ensure cross-national and cross-regional comparative character of the study, the survey is implemented using the same master questionnaire in every country. The questionnaire from every following wave contains up to 65% of the questions from the previous one. The unchanged part of the WVS questionnaire is called the “core”. The variable part of the WVS questionnaire is developed depending on those processes and phenomena which take place in the world in the current period of time. The questionnaire is regularly updated to guarantee that the program is actually studying modern social process and modern people’s values and that none of most important social, political and cultural transformations which take place nowadays is left behind. Every country or territory in every wave has a Principal Investigator responsible for conducting the survey in accordance with elaborated rules and procedures. The PI is responsible for spearheading the effort to secure funding in his/her country; conducting the survey fieldwork according to the standard requirements, and submitting the dataset and related technical documentation to the WVS Data Archive. Use of the core questionnaire translated into the local language is mandatory. Internal consistency checks are made between the sampling design and the outcome and rigorous data-cleaning procedures are followed at the WVS data archive. The sample type required to be used in the WVS is the full probability sample. In most cases, a list or registry of all households or voters in the country is required to build a full probability sample. Recognizing that quite high cost of full probability samples may prove prohibitive in some cases, in developing countries WVS allows application of a national representative sample based on multi-stage territorial stratified selection with elements of random route sampling. WVS surveys are required to cover all residents and not just citizens in the country in the age of 18 years old and older. The obtained sample should be representative, i.e. it should reflect the main distributions observed in the country’s population in terms of gender and age groups; urban/rural population etc. All interviews are conducted in a face-to-face mode by a local fieldwork organization and are supervised by local researchers. Respondent’s answers could be recorded in a paper questionnaire (traditional way) or by CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview). Other methods of data collections (e.g. post or Internet) are not acceptable in general, except under exclusive circumstances. In WVS the seventh wave of the World Values Survey will be considering application of mixed methods (combination of face to face and post, for example) in some countries on the experimental basis. Since 2000, the World Values Survey project is governed by the World Values Survey Association (WVSA), a non-profit research organization; its legal seat is located in Stockholm (Sweden) and the headquarters is in Vienna (Austria). The purpose and tasks of the WVSA activities is to facilitate the advancement of social sciences around the world by promoting international survey research, deepening research cooperation across societies and encouraging the establishment and development of research and survey centres in the world. WVSA aims at facilitating the spread of information about developments in social surveys by organizing global and regional conferences, workshops and round-tables; facilitating establishment of networks of social scientists, publishing books, journals and promoting social survey in social media. The WVSA organizes trainings in survey methodology and analysis on national, regional and global levels and supports capacity building in local, national and international agencies and bureaus. WVSA is regularly organizing panels at the World Congress of the International Political Science Association (IPSA). In particular, over a dozen of thematic sessions have been organized at the IPSA Congress in Santiago de Chile in 2009, in Madrid in 2012, in Montreal in 2014 and Poznan in 2016. The WVSA is coordinated by three main bodies which include the Executive Committee (EC), the Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC), and the General Assembly (GA). Since 2002, activities of the WVSA are regulated by the Constitution; the new Constitution has been accepted by the General Assembly in April, 2014 at the GA meeting in Doha, Qatar. The GA consists of WVS Principal Investigators for all countries from the two most recent survey waves. GA is the highest decision-making body of the Association. GA decides on strategic questions of long-term relevance, including the methodological standards and requirements to be followed in conducting the survey, approves the financial report delivered by the Treasurer and decides about the changes to the Constitution. The GA meets in regular sessions at least once every five years. The GA elects directly the members of the EC and SAC. The Executive Committee is the central governing body of the WVSA. The EC provides every-day management and strategic planning for the organization, recruits new members, develops the survey questionnaire, organizes meetings and workshops, promotes publication and dissemination of results, raises funds for central functions, and assists local Principal Investigators in their fundraising initiatives. The EC also coordinates data collection, data archiving and data distribution in every survey wave. Current composition of the Executive Committee includes: ¨ Christian Haerpfer, President of the WVSA, Director of the Institute for Comparative Survey Research “Eurasia Barometer”, Research Professor of Political Science, University of Vienna (Austria); ¨ Alejandro Moreno, First Vice-President and Treasurer of the WVSA, Former President of World Association of Public Opinion Research (WAPOR), Professor of Political Science, ITAM - Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); ¨ Christian Welzel, Second Vice-President of the WVSA, Professor at Leuphana Universitat in Lüneburg (Germany); ¨ Eduard Ponarin, Member of the WVSA at Large, Director of Laboratory for Comparative Social Research and Professor of Sociology, Moscow & Saint-Petersburg (Russia); ¨ Bi Puranen, Secretary General of the WVSA, Associate Professor of Economic History, Institute for Future Studies, in Stockholm (Sweden); ¨ Pippa Norris, Member of the WVSA at Large, Professor of Government and IR, Harvard and Sydney Universities (USA & Australia); ¨ Marta Lagos, Member of the WVSA at Large, Director of Corporacion Latinobarometro (Chile); ¨ Ronald Inglehart (ex-officio), Founding President, Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan in Ann Arbor (USA); ¨ Jaime Diez-Medrano (ex-officio), Director, WVS Data Archive in Madrid (Spain). The Scientific Advisory Committee of the WVSA includes leading scholars in the field of social science and survey research who represent all regions of the world. The primary function of the SAC is to maintain technical standards to the highest level of scientific knowledge and to develop the survey instruments for every wave, in consultation with the EC. The SAC is consulted by the EC before major decisions are being made. The current composition of the SAC includes the following scholars: ¨ Juan Diez-Nicolas (Chair), Emeritus Professor of Sociology, President of ASEP, Madrid (Spain); ¨ Yilmaz Esmer (Vice-Chair), Professor of Political Science, Former Rektor of Bahçeşehir University, Istanbul (Turkey); ¨ Marita Carballo (Vice-Chair), Professor of Catholic University, President of Voices Consultancy, Buenos Aires (Argentina); ¨ David Rotman, Director of the Center for Sociological and Political Research, Professor of Sociology, Belarus State University (Belarus); ¨ Renata Siemienska, Professor at the Department of Sociology of Education, Warsaw University (Poland); ¨ Linda Luz Guerrero, Social Weather Stations (the Philippines); ¨ Ian McAllister, Distinguished Professor of Political Science, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); ¨ Catalina Romero, Departmento de Ciencias Sociales, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru (Peru); ¨ Seiko Yamazaki, Research Planning and Development Office, Dentsu Inc., Tokyo (Japan). WVSA has offices in Vienna, Austria (President’s Office & Secretariat), Stockholm, Sweden (External Relations Office) & Madrid, Spain (Data Archive). Since 2015, the WVSA is introducing also a network of regional offices of the Association - regional hubs - who are expected to assist in extension and reinforcing of the WVSA network. Regional Office of the WVSA in Middle East is located at SESRI - Social and Economic Survey Research Institute at Qatar University and is chaired by Dr Darwish Al-Emadi, Vice-President of Qatar University, Doha (Qatar). Regional Office of WVSA in Northern Europe is located at the Institute for Future Studies and is chaired by Dr Bi Puranen, Associate Professor at University of Stockholm (Sweden). World Values Survey time-series and history The World Values Survey is conducted in the mode of so called “waves” (Table 1) - periods between 2 and 4 years long during which collection of data in several dozens of countries using one same questionnaire is taking place. Such waves are conducted every 5 years. In practical terms, every 5 years constitute a “cycle” of WVS survey activities; such “cycle” includes 1-2 years of preparation activities (fund-raising and development of the new questionnaire); on average 3 years of survey fieldwork with additional fundraising efforts undertaken in parallel; 1-2 years for data storage, cleaning and distribution of newly obtained survey findings. While in the next waves WVS is aiming at reducing the actual duration of the period of data collection, the gap between the waves will still be kept at the level of 5-6 years. Such time gaps in between the waves are explained by the nature of the project’s object: people’s values do not change overnight, and often a certain period of time is required before changes in living conditions of the population lead to a change of their value systems. Therefore, in order to trace any differences in population’s value system, a gap of at least several years between the time points is required. As of today, the WVS has been conducted in 108 societies containing almost 90 percent of the world’s population. Table 1 Waves and respondents interviews in WVS1-6 Wave Years Countries Respondents 1 1981-1984 10 13 586 2 1990-1994 18 22 265 3 1995-1998 51 74 148 4 1999-2004 41 61 128 5 2005-2009 54 77 101 6 2010-2014 60 86 274 Total 1981-2014 108 334 502 The reason for the difference in the number of countries included into every wave and the total number of countries covered by the WVS is the limited funding available to support the survey. The actual costs of conducting one wave of WVS are extremely extensive due to high costs of application of face-to-face survey method. For this reason, WVS data-set includes countries for which a good time-series is available while in the some of them WVS has been conducted only once. The number of countries included into all 6 (or at least 5) waves is 15. In the majority of countries, the survey has been conducted for 2-3 times - which might though be enough to estimate the direction of the value change processes. The first quantitative empirical study of population values was conducted in six European states in year 1970 (Great Britain, France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, and the Netherlands). The study was organized under the leadership of the future Founding President of the WVSA Professor Ronald Inglehart. The study became the starting point for the decades-long process of documenting and analysing population value, though the study if 1970 is not included into the WVS project and can be considered as a “pre-WVS” or WVS “test-wave”. The aim of that study was to test the theory of developing shift of values and emerging post-materialist values as a part of the post-war renaissance in Western Europe. The basis of this theory has been developed by Inglehart after he conducted the national survey in France in 1968 in order to investigate the causes of students uprising which were taking place at that time. The survey conducted in France has indicated emergence of the so called “intergenerational value gap” or shift: a large part of the younger, post-war generation no longer prioritized economic security and other materialist values, and instead was placing emphasis on autonomy and personal freedom. Further findings from the six-nation study in Europe confirmed the theory with empirical evidence. Inglehart’s first findings in this regard are summarized in the article “The Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-Industrial Societies” [2]. In order to further validate the revealed change in values systems of different generations, long-term time-series data was required. For this, the newly designed battery by Inglehart four-item materialist-postmaterialist values in 1973 was included into the biannual survey of the European Commission Eurobarometer. It is noteworthy, that the battery remained in the Eurobarometer questionnaire for many years, already after the WVS was established as an independent project [6]. The obtained survey findings have confirmed that earlier revealed differences between value systems of different age cohorts remained stable. Thus, younger generation did not become more materialistic when getting older and therefore, the differences in value systems originated not from the life-cycle effects but from different living conditions of the two generations. Further research work of Inglehart included elaboration of the 12-item materialist-postmaterialist battery index and has proved that discovered shift of value systems is a part of a broader process of intergenerational cultural change caused by modernization [1]. The survey which nowadays is recognized as the first wave of the World Values Survey was conducted in 1981-1982 and grew out of the study launched by the European Values Systems Study Group (EVSSG) under the leadership of Jan Kerkhofs and Ruud de Moor. The EVSSG carried out survey in ten Western European countries in 1981. Due to the high interest created by this study, it was repeated in 10 additional world countries which became the first wave of WVS [7]. The WVS-1 study included such countries as Argentina, Mexico, USA, Sweden, Finland, Hungary, South Africa, Japan, South Korea and Australia. The survey within WVS-1 was conducted mainly in Spring of 1981, but fieldwork in South Korea and South Africa took place in 1982 and fieldwork in Argentina was completed later in 1984. Of outmost interest is the fact that a part of USSR - Region of Tambov in Russian SSR - was included already in the very first wave of WVS in 1981. This part of the country was selected as the “barometrical” for the whole of Russia as the one where vast majority of population distributions and frequency distributions of public opinion polls were extremely close to the general national level for the whole of the former Soviet Union. Therefore, this region of Russia was selected to represent the whole country. The WVS survey will be repeated in the region of Tambov 15 years later in WVS-3. Within the framework of that later study it will be proved that this region indeed serves as a “barometric” territory for the whole country. Therefore, we can say the history of WVS in Russia goes back to the very beginning of the project, to year 1981 [3]. The WVS-1 questionnaire covered a very broad range of topics, such as family values; religious values; religious denominations and religious practices; leisure time practices; media; moral and ethical norms and beliefs; happiness and well-being; feeling of loneliness and other moods; organizational membership; social distance and social tolerance; generalized trust and social capital; social and psychological health; national pride; employment and satisfaction with the job and many others [7]. Findings from this survey suggested that pervasive cultural changes were taking place. In order to further monitor this process, a new, second wave of values study was launched. The second wave was designed already in such way that it could be organized and conducted globally. The second wave was designed and coordinated by Ruud de Moor, Jan Kerkhofs, Karel Dobbelaere, Loek Halman, Stephen Harding, Felix Heunks, Renate Köcher, Jacques Rabier, Noel Timms and Ronald Inglehart who organized the survey in non-EU and several East-European states [4]. WVS-2 was conducted in 1989-1990 in 18 countries and included already two societies within the framework of the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Slovakia, Poland, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Spain, Turkey, Nigeria, South Africa, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, the USA, India, Japan, South Korea and China. Most of the WVS second wave took place in 1990; Switzerland and Poland completed their fieldwork in 1989; Russia and Turkey delivered their data in early 1991. WVS-2 survey covered topics on work, religious, family and political values; attitudes towards environment, national development, voluntary work; social tolerance and social distance; physical, psychological and social health; people’s norms and beliefs in different fields [8]. Further extension of the project thematically and geographically required certain coordination and management activities. WVS PIs from approximately 40 countries met in Spain in September 1993 in order to discuss and to evaluate results from the first two survey waves and decide on the future vectors of project development. Obtained project results from the first two waves have pointed that intergenerational changes were taking place in basic values related to politics, economic life, religion, gender roles, family norms and sexual norms. The values of younger generations differed essentially from those widespread among older generations, especially in those societies which had experienced economic growth. Because these changes seem to be linked with economic development and technological progress, it was decided that the next wave of values study should include societies with different level of economic development in order to study further the link between the economic growth and value change [4]. Third wave of the World Values Survey, WVS-3, was conducted in 1995-1998, independently from EVS whose next survey took place only in 1999 (EVS is conducted every 9 years; so far 4 waves have been implemented). The World Values Survey 3 was conducted in 51 countries and societies, namely: Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Albania, Macedonia, Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Turkey, Great Britain, USA, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, El Salvador, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, South Africa, Nigeria, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In WVS-3, several regional surveys were carried also in some countries in order to test the existing regional differences in value systems of people living in same country. Regional sub-surveys were conducted in Andalusia, Basque Country, Galicia and Valencia in Spain, in addition to the Spanish national survey, as well as in Puerto Rico. WVS-3 was conducted mainly in 1995 and 1996 with several countries surveyed in 1997 (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Colombia, Germany, Lithuania, Pakistan, Poland) and 1998 (Slovakia, Romania, New Zealand, Macedonia, Hungary, Great Britain, Albania). The WVS-3 questionnaire contained those items from WVS-1 and WVS-2 which gave the most significant results and interesting findings (work, personal finances, the economy, politics, allocation of resources, contemporary social issues, technology and its impact on society, and traditional values) as well as a number of new topics on technology development, social relationships, and parent-child relationships. With the third wave, WVS began its expansion outside Europe (the original Eurocentric character of the project was caused by its European origin). In order to expand geographically, the WVS approved a decentralised structure of the project management system where social scientists and survey researchers from countries from all over the world participated in the study design, survey implementation and data analysis as well as in the publication of findings. In exchange for providing the data for their country, every national team obtained free access to all the data collected by other research groups participating in the current wave of the WVS. This allowed to every national team involved into the WVS project to analyse their own country in comparative cross-national, cross-regional and cross-cultural perspective. All the leaders of national teams became also part of the global network of social scientists that maintains regular communication both electronically and in person, at international conferences, exchanging interpretations and explanation of the discovered cross-national and over-time changes [3]. In WVS-3 the first management structure for the global WVS project was established. The following Steering Committee was elected to guide the design and execution of the third wave of values study in the world: ¨ Ronald Inglehart, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA (Chair); ¨ Juan Diez-Nicolas, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); ¨ Yilmaz Esmer, Bogazici University, Istanbul (Turkey); ¨ Hans-Dieter Klingemann, Free University of Berlin and Berlin Science Centre (Germany); ¨ Thorleif Petterson, Uppsala University (Sweden); ¨ Elena Bashkirova, Russian Public Opinion and Market Research Institute, Moscow (Russia); ¨ Miguel Basanez, Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); ¨ Hei-yuan Chiu, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); ¨ Loek Halman, University of Tilburg (Netherlands); ¨ Renata Siemienska, University of Warsaw (Poland); ¨ Seiko Yamazaki, Dentsu Institute for Human Studies, Tokyo (Japan); ¨ Elone Nwabuzor, University of Benin, Benin (Nigeria); ¨ Alan Webster, Massey University, North Palmerston (New Zealand). First three waves of the WVS contributed to the extension of existing data-bases of numerous public opinion polls conducted in the USA and countries of Western Europe since already some time. However, in other parts of the world, like Sub-Saharan Africa or Middle East, WVS became one of the first or the very first national population survey ever conducted in the country. This explained certain variations in the quality of national samples. Surveys in the EU states and the USA were carried out by professional survey organizations. While in other parts of the world survey research was in the developing stage, which caused certain sample limitations in first WVS waves. For instance, in Nigeria, China and India nation-wide fieldwork covered mainly urban, literate population with the illiterate rural part being essentially underrepresented. A similar methodological problem was observed in Chile and Argentina where the first samples applied covered the central part of the country which contains 60-70% of the total population and is characterized by essentially higher level of income than the other remote regions [3]. Due to quite high costs associated with the application of a full probability sample, in most countries stratified multi-stage random samples was used. In Japan respondents’ names were drawn from records maintained by local government agencies. In Slovenia the central registry of citizens was used to select the respondents. In Great Britain, Italy and Ireland respondents were selected from electoral rolls. In most other countries, samples were built using quota sampling method with quotas assigned on the basis of sex, age, occupation and region, using census data as a guide to the distribution of each group in the population [4]. The next, fourth wave of the WVS was conducted in 1999-2000. In terms of geographical coverage, WVS-4 aimed at extending its scope and covering more of African and Middle Eastern societies, which had been under-represented in previous waves. The wave included 41 countries, among them: Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Macedonia, Turkey, Spain, Sweden, USA, Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Peru, Argentina, Chile, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Nigeria, Uganda, Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Iraq, Iran, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam, South Korea, Japan and China. The topics studied in the WVS-4 included traditional batteries measuring importance of work, family, and religion; questions on personal finances and national economy; politics and allocation of resources; technology and its impact on society, and traditional values. Respondents were also asked about the groups and associations they belonged to; which ones they worked for voluntarily. The questionnaire measured social distance and tolerance by asking the respondents about the groups of people they would not want to have as neighbours. Ethical norms of the respondents were measured by asking them whether such acts as suicide, cheating on taxes, lying, euthanasia, and divorce were ever justifiable for them. The core part of the questionnaire included also questions on the state of health, free choice and control over life; the meaning and purpose of life; the notions of good and evil; religious behaviour and beliefs. All these items have been included also into the questionnaires from previous WVS waves which provided a good time series. Respondents were also questioned about their attitudes towards morality, marriage, single parenting, and child-rearing [10]. WVS-5 was carried out in years 2005-2008, jointly with the 4th wave of the European Values Study. The fifth wave included questions on human rights and democratic governance; market competition, re-distributional preferences and social justice; religion, moral taboos and authority orientations; health, security, feelings of agency and subjective well-being; interpersonal trust, empathy and human tolerance; gender roles, women’s empowerment and the treatment of girls; voluntary activity, social movements and civil society; cultural identities, migration, peace and conflict; science, technology, and environmental protection; media usage, information habits and political interest. We can therefore note that if the first three WVS waves were mainly focused on the issues of social psychology (respondent’s social and religious values, satisfaction with the job, expectations from life etc.), most recent WVS waves have moved their thematic core to the problematic field of sociology, political sociology and political science social and were primarily covering items characterizing economic and political development of societies and respondents’ opinion about the vectors and nature of this development [11]. In WVS-5, the survey covered 54 countries and societies, including: Russian Federation, Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, Serbia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Poland, Germany, Switzerland, France, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Spain, Andorra, Netherlands, Italy, Cyprus, Turkey, Great Britain, USA, Canada, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Peru, Guatemala, Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Ethiopia, Mali, Morocco, Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Thailand, Vietnam, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Mainland China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In 2014 WVS wave number 6 has been completed. This, most recent WVS wave, covers 60 countries and is the biggest wave in the history of the WVS. The WVS-6 data-set was released at the WVSA Global Conference which took place at Qatar University (Doha, Qatar) in April, 2014. Additionally, a welcome reception devoted to the launch of the WVS-6 data-set was organized in July, 2014 at the World Congress of the International Political Science Association in Montreal, Canada. WVS-6 questionnaire except for measuring standard set of issues on support for democracy, tolerance to foreigners and ethnic minorities, support for gender equality, the role of religion and changing levels of religiosity, the impact of globalization, attitudes toward the environment, work, family, politics, national identity, culture, diversity, insecurity, subjective well-being, included also innovative batteries of items on such topics as human security, electoral integrity, and aging [12]. Countries included into WVS-6 were: Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Cyprus, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, USA, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay, Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, South Africa, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Ghana, Morocco, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Yemen, Iraq, Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Mainland China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In wave 6 the coverage of the Middle East and Northern Africa Region was expanded essentially; the survey project covered Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, Turkey, Iraq, Yemen, Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain, altogether 14 MENA countries, which is a record in the history of the WVS (Fig. 1). Figure 1. Countries and societies covered by the WVS (1981-2016) World Values Survey in New Independent States Involvement of countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia into the WVS goes back to the very beginning of the project. Russian Federation (at that time Russian SSR) was the country who pioneered in joining the global WVS survey. Due to a number of reasons of financial, organizational and administrative nature, it was decided to test the WVS-1 questionnaire only in one region of the country which - according to the opinion and expertise of local experts - in terms of opinion of its inhabitants, more or less reflected average opinion and attitudes of the population of Russia as a whole and therefore could serve as a “barometrical” territory for Russia. This hypothesis regarding Tambov region was proved in WVS-3 when the survey was repeated there. Noteworthy that the sample size applied in Tambov region in WVS-1 was quite extensive and equal to a standard national representative sample for most of world countries (N = 1262) which allowed analysis not only of main frequency distributions, but also cross-tabs, different social groups and building regression models. National representative sample of N = 1961 was applied in Russia in WVS-2 in 1990 when the second wave of WVS was conducted, with the actual fieldwork taking place in October-November, 1990. The survey was organized and conducted by the Institute for Social and Political Research at the Soviet Academy of Science in Moscow under the leadership of Dr Elena Bashkirova, the head of the Department of international comparative surveys of the Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences. In the second wave of the WVS Russia was joined by another country from Eastern Europe - Belarus. WVS-2 in Belarus was completed in the same time period like in Russia - in October-November, 1990 and was implemented by the Institute of Sociology of the Belarussian Academy of Sciences in Minsk. Applied sample though being much smaller (N = 1015) was developed in strict correspondence with the existing requirements (representative national sample for the total population in the age of 18 years old and older). Noteworthy to point out that Russia and Belarus became not only the first ones out of all Soviet republics who joined WVS in 1990, but also were among the very few states from Eastern Europe in WVS-2 (which were Belarus, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, and Slovakia) (Table 2). Table 2 World Values Survey in NIS countries Wave WVS-1 WVS-2 WVS-3 WVS-4 WVS-5 WVS-6 Country/Year 1981-1982 1990-1994 1995-1998 2000-2004 2005-2008 2010-2014 Armenia * * N = 2000 * * N = 1100 Azerbaijan * * N = 2002 * * N = 1002 Belarus * N = 1015 N = 2092 N = 1000 N = 1500 N = 1535 Estonia * * N = 1021 * * N = 1533 Georgia * * N = 2008 * N = 1500 N = 1202 Kazakhstan * * * * * N = 1502 Kyrgyzstan * * * N = 1043 * N = 1500 Latvia * * N = 1200 * * * Lithuania * * N = 1009 * * * Moldova * * N = 984 N = 1008 N = 1046 * Russia N = 1262 N = 1961 N = 2040 N = 2500 N = 2033 N = 2500 Uzbekistan * * * * * N = 1500 Ukraine * * N = 2811 * N = 1000 N = 1500 Total N = 1262 N = 2976 N = 17167 N = 5551 N = 7079 N = 14874 In wave 3 while Russia and Belarus continued their participation in the project, WVS was joined by a big number of Eastern European (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Ukraine, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia), Balkan (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia) and Southern Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan) states. Changes in the political situation and further development of social survey institutions and practice of international comparative surveys allowed participation many new to WVS countries in capacity of independent individual members. Existing public and scientific interest to the politically new and scientifically not-studied yet process of post-Soviet and post-Communist transformations in all these states, allowed WVS group raising essential funds which covered survey fieldwork expenses in 23 Eastern European states. To a large extent, the survey funds were obtained via a research grant of Volkswagen Stiftung in Germany who is 1990s has an extensive program on transitional states of Eastern Europe. From the side of the WVS group, the application and grant were coordinated by Professor Hans-Dieter Klingemann (Wissenschaftszentrum-Berlin, Germany). A distinguishing feature was the organization of national research teams in Eastern Europe and the rest of the world. While in the USA, Latin America, Western Europe the WVS national teams usually consisted of the Principal Investigator and group of experts Social and Political Scientists and included additionally a survey agency (usually Gallup) who was actually implementing the survey fieldwork, in Eastern Europe and post-Soviet countries existing tradition of having academies of sciences combined with research and survey unites, allowed involvement of one organization - national academy of sciences, university, research institute etc. - who was implementing both design of the study, its implementation and analysis. In WVS-3 the survey in Russian Federation was conducted by the Russian Public Opinion and Market Research company “ROMIR” under the leadership of its Founding Director Elena Bashkirova. Actual fieldwork took place in November, 1995-January, 1996. A national representative sample of the total population of the Russian Federation of 18 years and older was interviewed. Groups omitted were citizens residing in the Far North and in inaccessible regions of Siberia. Fife-stage probability sample was applied. Surveys in three South Caucasus states were coordinated and supervised by Merab Pachulia from Georgian Institute of Public Opinion (GIPO), Tbilisi, Georgia. Actual fieldwork in Georgia was conducted by the same institution while in Azerbaijan survey was implemented by SIAR Social & Marketing Research Centre under the leadership of Ali Aliyev and in Armenia by the Sociological Research Centre of the Armenian Academy of Sciences in Yerevan under the leadership of Gevork Poghosyan. The survey in Georgia was conducted in December, 1996 while in Armenia and Azerbaijan in February, 1997. In all these countries an extensive national representative sample of around 2000 respondents was applied. In all three countries questionnaires in national languages as well as in Russian were used. WVS-3 in Belarus was carried out by NOVAK-Laboratory in Minsk under the leadership of Andrei Vardomatskii. Similar to other post-Soviet states in WVS-3, five-step stratified random sample was applied in Belarus. The total sample size in Belarus constituted 2092 respondents. Should be noted that actual response rate in Belarus when doing the survey was much lower (48% of approached potential respondents responded) than, for instance, in Russian Federation (75% of approached potential respondents responded). WVS-3 in Ukraine was conducted in September-October, 1996 by the Social Monitoring Centre at the National Institute for Strategic Studies in Kiev under the leadership of Olga Balakireva. The sample size for Ukraine in wave 3 constituted 2811 respondents; response rate in that study in Ukraine was around 85%. Questionnaire both in Russian and Ukraine was applied to conduct survey fieldwork. WVS-3 in Moldova was organized by the Institute of Sociology of the Moldovan Academy of Sciences in Chisinau under the leadership of Ljubov Ishimova from the Department of Sociology of the Institute of Sociology, Philosophy and Law of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova in Chisinau. Sample size for Moldova was essentially smaller than for other Eastern European countries due to country’s smaller population size and constituted 984 respondents; response rate constituted 85%. WVS-3 covered also three Baltic states. The survey in Estonia was conducted by the Centre for Social Research in Eastern Europe in Tallinn, Estonia under the leadership of Mikk Titma. Actual fieldwork took place in October-November, 1996; national representative sample included 1021 successful interviews. The survey in Latvia was completed by the Foundation for the Advancement of Sociological Studies in Riga under the leadership of Ilze Koroleva with the sample size of N = 1200. Finally, WVS-3 in Lithuania was carried out by Baltic Surveys Ltd. in Vilnius, Lithuania under the leadership of Rasa Alisauskiene. Sample size constituted 1009 successfully completed interviews; one of the lowest response rates has been observed in Estonia: only 40% of approached potential respondents responded to the questionnaire. The survey in the Baltics as well as in all the other Eastern European states was supervised and coordinated by Hans-Dieter Klingemann from the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB) in Germany. WVS-3 in other Eastern European and Balkan states was organized and coordinated by scholars who later became members of the WVS core team. For instance, WVS-3 survey in Hungary which took place in December, 1998 - January, 1999 and was organized under the scientific guidance and supervision of Christian Haerpfer, who later became the third President of the WVS Association. At that time he was Director of the Paul-Lazarsfeld Society of Social Research in Vienna (Austria). The survey in the Tambov region of the Russian Federation, which was repeated in WVS-3, was not the only WVS sub-national study conducted in Eastern Europe. Thus, in 2011, at the request of the State Service of Youth and Sports of Ukraine (now the Ministry of Youth and Sports) of randomly selected 1000 young people aged 14-34 years (according to the young people definition accepted in Ukraine) using the WVS questionnaire was conducted. This survey provided data for publication of the brochure on “Value orientations of modern youth in Ukraine” published in 2011. Sub-study on values of young people in Ukraine was repeated upon the request of the Ministry of Youth and Sports of Ukraine also in 2016. WVS-4, which was conducted in 1999-2004 - soon after the previous wave was completed - featured a much smaller involvement of Eastern European states. For instance, WVS-4 was conducted only in Russia, Belarus, Moldova (same teams and same PIs as in WVS-3) and in Kyrgyzstan - which was the first of Central Asian states included into the WVS project. WVS-4 in Kyrgyzstan was conducted in summer (June-September) of 2003 by the East-West Centre for Research at American University - Central Asia in Bishkek under the leadership of Temirlan Moldogaziev. The five-stage probability sample was developed basing on the available statistical information on the total population of the Kyrgyz Republic, 18 years old and older. The sample size constituted 1043 successful interviews. WVS-5, similarly to WVS-4, featured a much smaller number of Eastern European countries comparing to WVS-3. Fifth wave of values study was completed in Georgia and Belarus, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. The survey in Georgia and Belarus was completed by same teams as the previous waves of survey: Merab Pachulia, the Founding Director of GORBI, led WVS-5 in Georgia while in Belarus the survey was coordinated by the Novak Laboratory and Andrei Vardomatskii. WVS-5 in Russia was conducted by GfK research company together with the similar fieldwork on WVS-5 in France, Great Britain, Italy, Netherlands, and the USA. Sample size for Russian Federation constituted 2033 successfully completed interviews. WVS-5 in Ukraine was implemented with the support of ROMIR Monitoring and YNS BBSS Gallup-Bulgaria, who organized the survey fieldwork in Ukraine in November of 2006. Finally, the WVS-5 survey in Moldova was conducted by Independent Sociological and Information Service “OPINIA” under the scientific guidance of the current WVSA President Christian Haerpfer, who was at that time Residential Wilson Fellow at the George Kennan of Advanced Ukrainian and Russian Studies in the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC. (USA). Coverage in Eastern Europe was partly restored in WVS-6, which was completed in 2014 and included already 13 states from Eastern Europe, Balkans, Central Asia and Southern Caucasus. In the most recent wave the WVSA got a new strong national partner in Russian Federation represented by the Laboratory of Comparative Survey Research of Higher School of Economics in Moscow and Saint Petersburg under the leadership of its head Eduard Ponarin, who is Professor of Sociology at the Higher School of Economics as well as Professor of Political Science at the European University in Saint Petersburg. LCSR-HSE conducted the WVS-6 survey in the Russian Federation as well as organized the value surveys in a number of other states: Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine and Estonia. The survey fieldwork in these states was implemented by the Eurasia Monitor Network and was funded by the major research grant obtained by HSE within one of the governmental programs. WVS-6 survey fieldwork in Russia was conducted by the Levada Centre in September-October, 2011. A sample of 2500 adults in the age of 18 years old and older representative by sex, age, region and urban/rural residence of the adult population of Russia was constructed for this survey. The following categories of citizens and residents were omitted when developing the sample: persons doing their military service at the conscription or by contract; persons under imprisonment, before trial and convicted; persons living in old people’s home, psycho-neurological hospitals and other closed institutions; persons living in remote or difficult for access regions of Far North and Far East; persons living in Chechnya and Ingushetia; persons residing in rural settlements with less than 50 inhabitants; homeless peoples. In WVS-6, the values survey in Kazakhstan was conducted for the first time. The study was implemented by business information, sociological and marketing research centre «Bisam Central Asia» under the scientific supervision of “Bashkirova & Partners, Ltd” in November-December, 2011 under the leadership of Elena Bashkirova and Maria Bashkirova. The total population of Kazakhstan aged 18 years old and older was considered as the universe of that study. The sample reflects social and demographic characteristics of each region surveyed in the country. The sample size in Kazakhstan was 1500 interviews. The survey was completed under scientific supervision of Principal Investigator Alisher Aldashev. WVS-6 in Kyrgyzstan was conducted in November-December 201 by EL-PIKIR Center of Public Opinion Study and Forecasting in Bishkek under the leadership of Temirlan Moldogaziev from American University - Central Asia and Tatiana Karabchuk, then Deputy Head of the LSCR-HSE. Similarily to Kazakhstan, a national representative sample of N = 1500 was developed for the study in Kyrgyzstan. WVS-6 in Uzbekistan was completed in November-December, 2011 by the “Ekspert fikri” Centre for Social and Marketing Research. It was the first WVS survey ever conducted in Uzbekistan and represented hence a regional innovation; the sample size constituted 1500 respondents. Similarly to other post-Soviet states, response rate in Uzbekistan differed in urban (56%) and rural regions (74%) of the country. WVS-6 survey in Belarus was conducted by the same team from the NOVAK Laboratory in Minsk who is the member of Eurasia Barometer Monitor - the organization who won the tender to conduct WVS-6 in five post-Soviet states. The survey was completed at the end of 2011 with the sample size of 1535. The survey in Estonia was conducted by Saar Poll LLC under the leadership of Andruus Saar and Anu Realo. Similiarly to other countries where the survey was funded by Russian Federation, the fieldwork was conducted in November-December of 2011. The sample size constituted 1533 respondents. The multi-stage stratified random-route sample model with the random selection of respondents was applied. The purpose of stratifying was to allow conducting separate sampling in each stratum and by this reach the best possible representative sample of the universe to be covered. The WVS-6 in Southern Caucasus was conducted by three different WVS partners. In Armenia, the study was carried out by the Caucasus Research Resource Centre (CRRC)-Armenia under the leadership of Heghine Manasyan in September-October of 2011; the national sample size was 1100 successful interviews. In Azerbaijan the study was completed by the International Centre for Social Research (ICSR) in Baku under the leadership of Tair Faradov. Sample size for Azerbaijan constituted 1002 respondents and covered all territories, except for Nagorno-Karabakh region. The WVS-6 in Georgia - similarly to all the previous waves - has been completed under the scientific supervision of Merab Pachulia by GORBI research company. All the WVS surveys so far completed in all of post-Soviet and post-Communist states were conducted using the method of face-to-face interview. Among the problems occurred while implementing WVS-6 in NIS-countries could be mentioned several cases of WVS-conducting interviewers being arrested in Uzbekistan and Belarus. Due to the security situation in Kabardino-Balkaria (North Caucasus), the sample ended up biased toward urban and better educated segments of the population. In WVS-6 Russia implemented also a number of regional sub-studies on values in about a dozen of Russian provinces using the WVS questionnaire. Obtained findings on comparison of values in Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan were delivered by the LCSR-HSE in an analytical report to the Eurasian Bank of Development. Except for being WVS-6 national partner for Russia, LCSR-HSE became one of the WVSA capacity building hubs. In close consultation with the Founding President Ronald Inglehart and WVSA Vice-President Christian Welzel, the LCSR coaches several dozens of young researchers from Russia and other ex-communist states and beyond in analysing WVS data. For this purpose, the LCSR conducts annual workshops in spring and fall as well as summer schools. Over the years, the WVS became one of the most important surveys for all national teams in NIS states. WVS is considered as a principal contribution to their image and academic prestige due to the widely accepted scientific importance and global coverage of the WVS project. Additionally, involvement into WVS project gives all the national teams opportunities for experience exchange with partners both inside and outside the NIS-region and possibility to get acquainted with the development of new research methodologies in the social sciences throughout the world. WVS data is frequently presented to journalists during press conferences, as well as during interviews for the TV, usually obtaining a significant interest in all NIS states. Materials and findings from WVS are used to prepare analytical materials for local authorities and locally based UN offices and other international organizations. Faculties and departments of social sciences of the leading universities in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine as well as the other NIS states, show great interest to the results of the study and frequently use WVS data-sets for the education purposes. Due to the availability of open access to its data, the WVS materials are often used in candidate and doctoral dissertations (PhD theses). Following the popularity of WVS survey, several separate questions from the WVS questionnaires have been included into other household surveys conducted in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and other NIS states. Values study conducted in NIS states in 1990-2014 has discovered many interesting facts on the value systems of post-Communist societies. In particular, the following facts were revealed: high level of uncertainty in the choice of respondents ideological preferences; rapid growth of declared religiosity; observed gap between the declared values and actual facts of social life (high value of family and divorce; the value of education and low participation in continuing education, lack of correlation between education and income, high value of democracy and low level of democratic behavior and practices, etc.); high request to ensure that the country was ruled by experts; low level of correlation between some variables (which though can be explained by the transition period). Data from Central Asia has showed that people there were much happier than one would expect basing on GDP/ca and other similar indicators. The same was relevant for the Muslim provinces of Russian Federation. One of the possible explanations could be these territories are similar to Latin America where dense social networks and high levels of religiosity contribute to higher levels of population happiness. In addition to active involvement into the survey activities, NIS countries, in particular Russian Federation, since 1995 has also been actively involved into the WVSA organization management: WVS PI for Russia Elena Bashkirova has been the member of the WVS Steering Committee and later WVS PI for Russia Eduard Ponarin became member of the WVSA Executive Committee. Therefore, representative of the WVS national team for Russia since the last twenty years has been actively involved into decision-making and defining the future vector of development of the WVSA. Publications and findings Numerous sociologists, political scientists, economic sociologists, sociologists of religion, social psychologists, anthropologists and economists use the WVS data to analyse economic development, political development, religion, gender equality, social capital, subjective well-being and many other issues of social development and values change in the world. WVS data has been also extensively used by government officials, journalists and students. For instance, research groups at the World Bank have analysed the linkages between cultural factors and economic development. The WVS data has been downloaded by over 150,000 researchers, policy-makers, journalists. The WVS network has produced over 2,000 publications in 22 languages and secondary data users became authors of other several thousand publications. Some of the best known WVS findings and outputs are a series of books by Ronald Inglehart and his collaborators. The first and most influential book, which served as theoretical basis for the further WVS study, was “The Silent Revolution” (Princeton University Press, 1977) by the Founding President of the WVSA, Ronald Inglehart (University of Michigan, USA). This core theory of the World Values Survey was further developed by Ronald Inglehart in the “Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society” (Princeton University Press, 1989) and later in the next monograph “Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic and Political Change in 43 Societies” (Princeton University Press, 1997). Ronald Inglehart from the University of Michigan published together with Pippa Norris from Harvard University (USA) and University of Sydney (Australia) two core books, which are forming the conceptual and theoretical basis of the World Values Survey. One book by Inglehart and Norris - “Rising Tide” (Cambridge University Press: New York, 2003) - has examined how value change has affected the roles of men and women in different societies. The other book by Inglehart and Norris analysed the stability and change of religious values across the world and has the title “Sacred and Secular” (Cambridge University Press: New York, 2011). Pippa Norris who is the member of the Executive Committee of the WVS, has recently published a series of monographs on the issues of electoral integrity which were included as a module into the WVS-6 survey. The series includes three books: “Why Electoral Integrity Matters”, “Why Elections Fail”, and “Strengthening Electoral Integrity: What Works?” (Cambridge University Press: New York 2014, 2015, 2017). The Founding President of the WVS, Ronald Inglehart published together with the Vice-President of the WVS Christian Welzel from Leuphania University (Germany) a monograph on the interactions between Modernization, Culture Change and Democracy in a co-authored book on “Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy” (Cambridge University Press: New York, 2005). Using the WVS surveys, the Vice-President of the WVS Christian Welzel has published a monograph on “Freedom Rising: Human Empowerment and the Quest for Emancipation” (Cambridge University Press: New York, 2013). This book has received several prestigious prizes of the international scientific community. The work and life of the Founding President of the WVS, Ronald Inglehart, has been celebrated in a Festschrift for him, which has been edited by the Vice-President of the WVS, Christian Welzel and the Principal Investigator of WVS in the USA, Russel J. Dalton from the University of California in Irvine. The Festschrift for Ronald Inglehart has the title “The Civic Culture Transformed. From Allegiant to Assertive Citizens” (Cambridge University Press: New York, 2014) and many scholars from the WVSA have written chapters in this WVS Festschrift for its Founding President. In addition to development of the general theory of postmodernization and population values shift, the last several waves of WVS gave birth to a number of theoretical works and monographs presenting empirical findings on particular aspects of social, economic or political development of societies. This collection includes a monograph by WVS PI for Kuwait Samir Rudwan Abu Rumman, Executive Director of the Gulf Opinions Center for Polls in Kuwait, and visiting scholar in University of Delaware/USA. The book entitled “How do They Look at Us? ... Islam and Muslims in World Opinion Polls” (published by Al-Bayan Center for Research and Studies in 2015) presents WVS findings from the survey in Kuwait which was conducted there for the first time in the last 6th wave in year 2012 as well as analyses hundreds of questions from Western opinion polls related to Islam and Muslims. Another book produced by WVS PIs includes a monograph on “Liberal Democracy and Peace in South Africa” (Palgrave Macmillan US, 2011) by WVS PI for South Africa, Professor of Politics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts at Stellenbosch University Hennie Kotze. In Latin America WVS PIs have produced a number of publications based on WVS findings in this part of the world which include monographs on “Value Change in Latin America: Evidence from the World Values Survey” (CSOP/ITAM, 2013), co-edited by Marita Carballo, WVS PI for Argentina and Alejandro Moreno, WVS PI for Mexico. Later in 2015 Marita Carballo has published a book studying levels and factors of population happiness in the world (“La felicidad de las naciones”, 2015). Other important books produced by the WVS community include “Religion, democratic values and political conflict” (2009) edited by WVS PI for Turkey and Vice-Chair of SAC Yilmaz Esmer, WVS PI for Balkans in the 1990s Hans-Dieter Klingemann and WVS Secretary General Dr Bi Puranen; “Changing Values, Persisting Cultures” (2007) edited by Yilmaz Esmer and WVS PI for Sweden Thorleif Pettersson; “Measuring and Mapping Culture: 25 Years of Comparative Values Surveys” (2007) edited by Yilmaz Esmer and Thorleif Pettersson; “Values and Perceptions of the Islamic and Middle Eastern Publics” (2007) edited by former WVS PI for Iraq and supporter of WVS survey in the Middle East Mansoor Moaddell and many others. The intergenerational value shift discovered by Inglehart when analysing the first WVS wave, was proved to be a part of much broader process of intergenerational cultural change linked with modernization. Materialist-postmaterialist values were just one aspect of the cross-cultural variation which was later called “survival-self-expression values”. Survival values place emphasis on economic and physical security which is linked with a relatively ethnocentric outlook and low levels of trust and tolerance. Self-expression values give priority to environmental protection, growing tolerance of different social groups, including foreigners, gays and lesbians and gender equality, and rising demands for participation in decision-making process in political life. The other dimension of value shift was represented by dichotomy “traditional-secular-rational values”. Traditional values emphasize the importance of religion, parent-child links, deference to authority and traditional family values. Individuals who share these values also do not accept divorce, abortion, suicide and euthanasia. Societies where these values are prevailing usually have high level of national pride. Secular-rational values have the opposite attitudes and preferences with less emphasis on religion, traditional family values and authority. The cultural map of the world, which has been designed and developed by Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel and has been used in many publications worldwide. Societies can move from Traditional values to Secular-Rational values (upward on map) and from Survival Values to Self-Expression Values (to the right on the map) (Fig. 2). Figure 2. Global cultural map WVS-6 (2015) Due to its extensive geographical coverage and availability in free access, WVS data is frequently used by social scientists and economists who are studying levels of population happiness and well-being in the world and factors which are affecting them. Coverage of different types of societies - from the richest in the world (Qatar) to the poorest in the world (Burkina Faso) allows analysists to test their theories on the importance of economic well-being, GDP and other economy-related and finances-related factors on population happiness. Extensive time-series allows also to track dynamics of the levels of population happiness and well-being in those countries which participated in 4-6 waves of WVS. Particularly interesting is such dynamics for NIS-countries, first of all Russia - the only NIS country where data is available for all 6 waves which therefore cover the last years of USSR rule, the period of Perestroika as well as the whole period of post-Soviet transitions until nowadays (Fig. 3). WVS data has been used to analyse also such other topics like aspirations for democracy, empowerment of citizens, globalization and converging values, gender values, religion, and many other which can be found at the WVSA web-site. * General Life Satisfaction Index varies from 0 to 1 Figure 3. Dynamics of life satisfaction in the world Conclusion Thus, the World Values Survey is the largest academic social survey infrastructure i

About the authors

C Haerpfer

University of Vienna

Author for correspondence.

K Aleksandrovna Kizilova

V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University

Kharkiv, Ukraine


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Copyright (c) 2016 C Haerpfer, K A Kizilova

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