No 3 (2014)

Articles
Editorial
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Abstract
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):5-6
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Immigrants’ Bilingual Humor: Language Play and Social Adaptation (The Case of Russian-Speaking Israelis)
Yelenevskaya M.
Abstract
This essay explores immigrants’ bilingual humor viewed as part of secondary language socialization. Adult acquisition of a new language involves reflections about languages and language play which juxtaposes and compares the mother tongue with the language of the receiving society. Acquiring a new language, émigrés do experiments with the form and create new meanings. In the early stages the bulk of bilingual humor is based on simplest interlingual puns exploiting minimal pairs, malapropisms and discovery of obscene words in foreign lexis. As immigrants’ proficiency in the language of the host society increases, their humor becomes more sophisticated focusing on social criticism and in-group solidarity rather than on mere juggling of phonetically similar words. Texts analyzed in the article testify that the Russian language has preserved its symbolic value among new Israelis and they use bilingual humor as a warning against the first-language attrition.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):7-27
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Bell Discourse in Russian Culture
Lassan E.R.
Abstract
The article focuses on the symbolic meaning of Russian ringing of bell in the Russian discourse. According to Lotman’s definition of symbol, it has dual nature: an invariant essence and its modification in relation to the cultural context. The article introduces informative and linguistic modifications of the bell topic in the Russian poetic discourse of the 19th, the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The author of the article provides the detailed analysis of such discursive descriptions of bell ringing as the ringing of church bells and alarm . The author arrives at the conlusion that the alarm topic prevails in contemporary poetry and this indicates the state of public dissatisfaction. In the 19th and the 20th centuries lexemes the ringing of church bells and alarm were used literally, but in the 21st century lexeme alarm acquires metaphorical meaning of call for blood.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):28-42
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The Category of Personality in the Semantics of Latest English Borrowings in the Russian Idiomatics
Dementyev V.V.
Abstract
The article examines some of the latest Russian idioms by English origin. The semantics of these idioms has been seen on the material of the informal (including informal political) discourse, in terms of opposition personality - impersonality, in connection with some of the new trends in public life.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):43-53
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Systemacy and Dynamism of Business English Discourse: Functional-Synergetic Aspect
Khramchenko D.S.
Abstract
The aim of this article is a brief review of the synergetic theory of Business English discourse as both systemic and dynamic phenomenon. It focuses on the ability of discourse to evolve at the level of a separate utterance as well as at the level of business communication in general. Using the conception, suggested by E.V. Ponomarenko, the author describes Business English discourse as a self-optimizing system of speech properties, which is influenced by the external environment (the communicative situation and interlocutors’ mind). The mechanism of functional non-linearity of discourse, or the ability of the functional field of discourse to synergistically form structures which surpass the mere sum of semantic components, is of paramount importance for effective verbal communication. Linguosynergetic methodology gives an opportunity to reveal trajectories of system evolution towards the communicative purpose (attractor) and find out the role of certain speech units and their correlation in this process. The author comes to a conclusion that successful business communication depends on how effective the interaction between the discourse and its external environment is. All the theoretical points are illustrated with the help of examples, taken from authentic English sources
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):54-63
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Irony in Political Discourse: Aggression or Entertainment?
Gornostaeva A.A.
Abstract
The paper deals with the functions of irony in the English and Russian political discourse. Such functions of irony as aggression and entertainment are analyzed. Modern tendencies in political speech, such as the loss of official style and wide usage of obscene lexis are regarded. An attempt to reveal similarities and differences in the two cultures is made. It is based on the results of empirical study. Speeches of English and Russian political leaders, taken from TV programmes and news broadcast served as the material for the research, as well as literature and the internet resources. Special attention is paid to the successfully developing genre of political parody. The author concludes that irony in political speeches is a key to success of a political leader and ensures the most powerful effect on the audience.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):64-74
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Modern Spanish Joke "Chiste" in Terms of Genre
Tarasenkova Y.V.
Abstract
Joke has a significant place in the Spanish-language system of speech genres and Spanish linguistic culture, and therefore represents a vast field for research. In the article on the material of the modern Spanish joke "chiste" we discuss genre features of this variety of humorous discourse and justify the conclusion that the joke "chiste" is characterized by heterogeneity and incorporates elements of all functional styles: colloquial, publicistic and newspaper, official and scientific. The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the Spanish jokes from the point of view of genre. Material for the study are Spanish jokes taken from collections of anecdotes, periodicals, websites, and we also study this speech genre using samples obtained from Spanish-speaking informants (Iberian version). The main methods of research are descriptive method, traditional linguistic analysis, method of classification and systematization, as well as practical method of comparison of translations.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):75-84
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Modeling of the Case Grammatical Meaning
Novikov A.L., Rybakov M.A.
Abstract
The article raises the problem of constructing a semantic model to describe the meaning of the grammatical category of case in the languages of different types. The main objective of this publication - to provide an overview of different points of view on the semantic structure of the category of case and to compare different models of case semantics. Initial impulse to the development of problems of case semantics became the grammar and typological ideas of A.A. Potebnya and R. Jakobson. The basis of these models, which differ from each other in the number and nature of the allocation of features is the idea of the possibility of representing grammatical meaning as a structured set of semantic features. The analysis shows that the construction of formal models of grammatical categories is impossible without referring to the content of the dominant semantic features in the structure of grammatical meaning. Despite all the difficulties of modeling grammatical semantics, to construct a semantic model of case is an interesting and promising task of general morphology and typological linguistics.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):85-96
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Allusions and quotations as a means of representing emotions in the Russian and English financial discourse
Chugunov A.(.
Abstract
The article investigates the functions of allusions and quotations in the Russian and English public speeches relating to financial discourse. In both languages allusions and quotations are used by speakers in order to reach a number of pragmatic goals. However, within financial discourse these emotive tools differ across the two languages in terms of the thematic groups they belong to.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):97-105
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Objectification of the Concept ‘Iskusstvo’/‘Art’ in Fictional Discourse in Russian and English Languages
Ban’kova N.V.
Abstract
The article deals with the study of comparative analysis of actualisation peculiarities of the concept ‘iskusstvo’/‘art’ in fictional discourse in the Russian and English languages of XIX-XX centuries. The examples given are taken from Russian National Corpus, British National Corpus and texts of fiction of XIX-XX centuries. There are statistical comparative, descriptive methods and methods of discourse analysis, continuous sample from dictionaries in the analysis. The analysis shows that verbalization of this concept by use of noun prevails in fictional discourse in the Russian and English languages. An additional point is that four groups of meaning characterizing ‘iskusstvo’ and nine groups that characterize ‘art’ have been revealed.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):106-119
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The Influence of Zoo- And Phytocomponents in the Phraseology of the Pyrenean Variety of Spanish on Shaping Mexican Phraseological Units
Gishkaeva L.N.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the analysis of one of the most fascinating and entertaining spheres of phraseology - the sphere of set phrases with “natural” components: faunistic and floristic. The analysis of the phraseological units containing zoo- and phytocomponents, is directed on comprehensive investigation of properties of set phrases, identification of essence and specificity of a national and cultural view of the Spanish and Mexican people’s world. In this research it is used complex comparative studying of phraseological units with the point of linguoculturological positions that corresponds to the modern, actual and perspective directions of communicative linguistics.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):120-127
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Translation: Parallel Texts and “Translation Memory”
Evteev S.V., Semenov A.L.
Abstract
Comparative textual analysis of the information exchange flows during the communication process allows identifying the relationship of a variety of texts conveying one meaning. Identification of parallel relations between the original text and the text of the translation in the communication process can only be of conditional nature. The text can serve as an instrument in identifying the dependence of the meaning on the pragmatic purpose of the communication process. In the terms of practice we are concerned only with the lexico-grammatical features of texts for translation and represent eight duads, which make up the functional paradigm of our research. In modern times text corpora tend to have clichéd texts due to common sources of the original information as well as coinciding propositions and presuppositions of the addressers and the addressees. Basically, we see these clichéd texts as semantically and quite often formally parallel. Parallel texts can be used for comparison in an intralingual environment at all levels of the language system. Our research shows that there are three main types of parallel texts which correlate with the three components: pragmatics, semantics and syntagmatics. Our theoretical frameworks have been applied in teaching foreign languages as well as translation skills to senior students with SDL TRADOS translation software used as a teaching tool on the point “This is how I do it, now you do it better”.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):128-139
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Addressing the Problem of Translatability when Translating the Russian Fiction Text into English (“Vanka” by A. Chekov)
Dudik N.A.
Abstract
The most fundamental problem involved in the theory and practice of translation from one language into another consists in achieving adequacy between the source language (SL) and the target language (TL). Adequacy can be reached by means of employing the communication strategy, i.e. by discussing the dialogue nature of the text in particular; by analyzing realia in translation in terms of the text as a whole, rather than as isolated units in the system of language; and by looking at how the semantic category of intensity influences the translatability of the Russian fiction text into English. The research has shown that the aspects examined are typical of Russian-English translation in general rather than of a single text.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):140-155
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Diary
Visson L.
Abstract
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):156-159
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Our contributors
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Abstract
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):160-161
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Information for contributors
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Abstract
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2014;(3):162-163
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