Vol 22, No 2 (2018)

Language, culture and cognition
LANGUAGE AND COGNITION: REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE
BALYASNIKOVA O.V., UFIMTSEVA N.V., CHERKASOVA G.A., CHULKINA N.L.
Abstract

The psycholinguistic study is aimed at investigating the impact of culture and language on the images of socially important concepts in linguistic consciousness. The study is based on the data obtained in the massive associative research implemented in Tatarstan and Sakha (Yakutia), which involved sample groups of Russians, bilingual Yakutians and bilingual Tatarians. It employs the conceptual framework of linguistic consciousness developed by Russian psycholinguists and associated with the notions of speech act, consciousness and culture. Linguistic consciousness reflects speech acts in relation to cognitive processes and the transformation of these acts into communication. The sample was obtained by a free associative experiment which registered the first reply. The study presents the obtained results as Karaulov’s model of “associated gestalt“, modified to meet the requirements of the study. The model is divided into semantic zones and subzones which are further compared in different samples. The paper demonstrates that the associative meanings of lexemes-stimuli contain components clearly dependent on the differences between not only the ethnic language structures, but also between the Russian, Yakutian and Tatarian cultures and their mutual influences in the course of intercultural communication and interaction in vitally important areas.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):232-250
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NEW WORLD BASQUE TOPONYMY IN THE DIALOGUE OF LANGUAGES AND CULTURES
CHESNOKOVA O.S., TALAVERA-IBARRA P.L., BOLOTINA K.E.
Abstract
This paper investigates the Basque toponymy in Canada, the USA, and Spanish speaking Latin America and determines various aspects of its static and dynamic. The authors examine and systematise the Basque toponymical heritages present on maps of the United States, Canada, and Spanish speaking Latin America, and propose a broader conception of Basque toponymy taking into account its dissemination beyond the original Basque residences. Approximately seventy place names cited in this article were selected due to their lingua-cultural, geographical, associative, and commemorative significance. Historical, linguistic, semiotic analysis and dialogic approach (introduced by M. Bakhtin), proposed in this research reveal Basque history and the Basque (Euskara) language’s interactions with other languages and cultures reflected in New World place names. As modern studies (e.g., Loewen, Bakker, Igartua, Zabaltza) typically concern the Basque language’s history, it is crucial to analyse the Basque influence on other languages and cultures and Basque toponymy based on the Euskara’s linguistic contacts with the English, French and Spanish languages and corresponding cultures. For instance, calque toponyms, toponymical allusions, and anthropotoponyms that commemorate the Basques can be found in the toponymical heritages of the New World. Moreover, Basque place names in the New World feature a plane of expression that coincides with the lexical units underlying them, in addition to another plane that has been transformed through linguistic contact with dominant languages. Basque toponymical allusions can be explicit or implicit; in most cases, however, they are anthropotoponyms that can often be identified through Basque onomastic models of family names. Hence, the systematisation of Basque toponymy in the New World is an exciting and creative transdisciplinary undertaking for modern onomastics, general/applied linguistics, foreign languages teaching, as well as a stepping stone toward the creation of a typology that reflects diverse types of Basque onomastic heritages. The authors conclude that the New World Basque toponymy is a singular phenomenon in time and space.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):251-264
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THE VERTICAL TYPE OF RELATIONSHIP IN THE LEXICAL AND SEMANTIC FIELD «FAMILY» IN THE RUSSIAN, ENGLISH AND KUMYK LANGUAGES
SAKAYEVA L.R., BAGAUTDINOVA G.G.
Abstract

The worldview of any ethnic group includes the concept of “family” as one of the key cultural constants. Lexical means of its expression possess both universal value and cultural specifics, which account for the importance of the study undertaken in this paper. The research deals with phraseological units belonging to the thematic field “kinship relations” in languages of different origin: Russian, English and Kumyk. The difference in their properties is explained by the fact that Russian is one of the inflectional synthetic East Slavic languages; English is an analytical language belonging to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family; and Kumyk is an agglutinative language, which belongs to the Kipchak group of Turkic languages. The multifaceted comparative study of lexico-semantic components expressing the vertical type of kinship, their structure and means of expression is aimed at the discovery of cultural specifics in the perception and understanding of the concept “family” in Russian, English and Kumyk. The paper contains a structured analysis of lexical characteristics of the lexeme “family” (“line”, “clan”, “tribe”, “nation”) arranged on the linguistic, conceptual and mental levels. The research is done from the perspective of cultural studies, cognitive linguistics and semantics. It employs the methods of descriptive, analytical and semantic analyses (with elements of componental and definitional analyses). The study contributes to a broader discussion of the correlation of language and mind and is significant for revealing the culture-specific linguistic and cognitive features of Russian, English and Kumyk cultures. The comparative study of phraseological units belonging to the thematic field “kinship relations” is instrumental in revealing communalities and differences in the worldviews of the three cultures.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):265-277
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POLITICAL AND MEDIA DISCOURSE
PERSUASION IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE: BARAK OBAMA’S PRESIDENTIAL SPEECHES AGAINST ISIS
ALEMI M., LATIFI A., NEMATZADEH A.
Abstract
The current study was concerned with the use of persuasion by President Obama, the former US president, as a discursive strategy in his two speeches delivered on 7/Aug/2014 and 10/Sep/2014 regarding ISIS. Analysis of these speeches was done by the application of Searle’s typology theory (1978), and pronoun analysis. That is, assertive, directive, commissive, expressive, and declarative speech acts, first person singular and plural pronouns (inclusiveness and exclusiveness), and agency. The findings of the study revealed that assertives were the most frequent speech act utilized in both speeches. Considering the function of assertives, this study showed that President Obama’s major intention was to justify the airstrikes launched by the US army on ISIS’s zones in Iraq. Besides, first person plural pronoun analysis in terms of inclusiveness/exclusiveness showed that President Obama’s stance was a conservative one according to which American people’s justification of his assertions concerning ISIS could be the cornerstone of any further military action that would be undertaken by the US army against ISIS. These analyses held the same result regarding the importance of persuasion as a pivotal axis in his aforementioned speeches. As to the issue of agency, the results held that President Obama took a conservative stance relying upon the will of American civilians and submitting his agency to Americans’ ideals and power as shown by his total 34 commissives undertaken in these two speeches.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):278-291
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CONSTRUCTION OF СATEGORIES ‘STRENGTH’ AND ‘WEAKNESS’ IN RUSSIAN AND POLISH FOREIGN POLICY DISCOURSE
DUBROVSKAYA T.V., SOWIŃSKA A.
Abstract

The study is part of the project aimed at revealing the mechanisms of discursive construction of international relations (IR). It examines the functions of the categories ‘strength’ and ‘weakness’ in discursive representations of states as political actors. The research draws on assumptions of social constructionism and CDA. The data include recent speeches by Russian and Polish Ministers of Foreign Affairs. The paper argues that the opposition ‘strength vs. weakness’ is essential in the construction of IR in discourse. We focus on how nation states and their qualities are represented in foreign policy discourse, and which of these qualities conceptualise the categories of strength and weakness. We demonstrate that the two categories constitute a relational pair; however, the category of strength is expressed more explicitly than that of ‘weakness’, and the axiological charge of ‘strength’ changes depending on the actor that it represents. An array of linguistic tools is employed in constructing the opposition, and, consequentially, the IR between the political actors. The paper suggests that social actors and their qualities can be viewed as social categories that are perpetually constructed and re-constructed in discourse. The research develops the theory of discourse and demonstrates how discourse analysis contributes to the study of social practices and helps interpret current social phenomena.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):292-312
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DIACHRONIC ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL METAPHORS IN THE BRITISH CORPUS: FROM VICTORY BELLS TO RUSSIA’S V-DAY
SOLOPOVA O.A., CHUDINOV A.P.
Abstract

The framework for the present research is diachronic political metaphor studies that deal with the historical development and historiographical potential of political metaphors. The relevance of diachronic analysis of political metaphors in British political discourse (1945-2000) is determined by both linguistic and extralinguistic factors. The paper analyzes the evolution of conceptual images associated with World War II. The study utilizes the principle of uniform fragmentation with a 5-year fragmentation step (9 May 1945; 9 May 1950; 9 May 1955 ... 9 May, 2000) interconnected with the principle of focus fragmentation. A digitized sample from the British Newspaper Archive corpus is investigated through corpus analysis, cognitive and discourse analysis and metaphorical modeling. The statistical outcomes demonstrate that the frequency of references to “Russia’s V-Day” in the issues dated by 9 May in each fragmentation step correlates with the general decrease of interest in Russia. The conceptual analysis shows that the military-political discourse is mythologized and tends to present the image of the world as a black-and-white value model. The paper evaluates the pragmatic potential of the dominant metaphorical models, elicits the discursive factors that shape the usage and meanings of metaphors, demonstrates the interdependence between metaphors and the images they generate and emphasizes the role of the historical context in this process. The results of the work are of interest to a wide range of Russian and foreign specialists in cognitive linguistics, political linguistics, political science, history, sociology.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):313-337
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DISCURSIVE MECHANISMS OF NEWS MEDIA - INVESTIGATING ATTRIBUTION AND ATTITUDINAL POSITIONING
CAVALIERE F.
Abstract
The case of 17-year-old Afro-American Trayvon Martin shot dead in 2012 by white neighborhood watch George Zimmerman is generally reported as the first killing of what over the last few years seemed an epidemic of lethal violence committed on mostly unarmed afro-American civilians which ignited other waves of protests and rioting across the whole country. Immediately after Martin’s fatal shooting the initial absence of charges against Mr. Zimmerman’s conduct, owing to a controversial self-defense law, prompted nationwide protest and unrest. An online petition calling for a prosecution of Zimmerman garnered over two million signatures; a process against Zimmerman was then started, though in 2013 his acquittal gave birth to the international activist movement #BlackLivesMatter on social media. All these events have since then resonated in the sensationalized reports of the media which «employ textual strategies which foreground the speech act of offering values and beliefs» (Fowler 2013: 209). Within Martin & White’s Appraisal Framework (2008) qualitative samples from the US print media coverage (The New York Times and Orlando Sentinel) of Trayvon Martin’s story are investigated. More specifically, our focus is mainly on attribution and evidentiality, i.e. on the interplay of directly-quoted or indirectly-reported speech that journalistic writers use to attribute viewpoints and versions of events to a variety of external sources, especially potentially controversial meanings largely confined to material attributed to quoted sources. We aim at providing a socio-critical interpretation of how the supposedly unbiased media narratives of ethnic affairs contributed to inflame racial passions, and, by funneling audience attention toward certain topics, influenced public perceptions of important issues.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):338-356
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RHETORIC, GRAMMAR AND WORD-FORMATION
RHETORIC, GRAMMAR, DISCOURSE AND HOMEOSTASIS
KHAZAGEROV G.G.
Abstract

The paper compares the rhetorical, grammatical and discourse approaches to the study of language by focusing on issues of systematization and the contrast between controlled and adaptive systems. The key category of the analysis is homeostasis, a system to maintain its functions within certain limits. First, the study interprets the social meaning of rhetorical systemizations, traditionally interpreted as pre-scientific and terminologically laden, and identifies the reasons why the ancient systematization was successful but cannot be applied to o grammar. Then the idea of rhetoric as a secondary grammar is challenged by contrasting grammar as a controlled system and rhetoric as an adaptive system; while grammar selects discrete variants, rhetoric constructs continual metaplasms. Similarities between rhetoric and grammar concerning unmarked forms are also considered irrelevant because neutral forms cannot be produced for each trope and figure, which is proven by rhetorical period. Finally, the paper states the proximity of the discourse and rhetorical approaches. Different interpretations of discourse demonstrate different relations with rhetoric. The discursive approach is productive beyond the speech act, which means that the discursive community can be considered in terms of homeostasis. This idea is illustrated by the problems faced by individuals in joining the academic discourse community, communicating within it, and the viability of the community itself. The difference between the rhetorical and grammatical approaches determines the strategies of language teaching and language study. The paper concludes that the rhetorical approach can contribute to the concept and framework of discourse if this framework is constructed with reference to homeostasis.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):357-372
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RUSSIAN GRAMMAR FOR RECEPTION AND PRODUCTION: MAIN DIFFERENCES
MILOSLAVSKY I.G.
Abstract

Considering a linguistic basis of receptive and productive language skills in Russian the author states that both reception and production are primarily influenced by the correlation of language and objective reality. At reception this objective reality is hidden as a part of innate structure behind words (vocabulary) and word forms (grammar) in a sentence and/or an utterance, and at production it needs to be ‘embodied’ in linguistic forms. Affirming the fundamental difference between compatibility-oriented (gender, case of nouns, adjectives) and reality-oriented (number of nouns, mood and tense of verbs) grammatical characteristics the author claims that in the process of reception all of them must be analysed for their correlation/non-correlation to objective reality, and in the process of production they never act as speech objectives, remaining either a means of expressing the speaker’s thoughts or a regulator of language rules.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):373-388
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CLASSICAL ELEMENTS AND WORD-FORMATION IN ACADEMIC DISCOURSE
KOROTKINA I.B.
Abstract
Despite the variety of disciplinary discourses, the global academic discourse in English preserves the uniform language of study and research, the lexical corpus of which contains structures composed of classical elements, morphemes of Latin and Greek origin. Understanding and mastering this international academic corpus is essential for all members of the academy, especially neophytes and international researchers. However, the information concerning classical combining forms and word-formation in dictionaries, reference books and academic English teaching materials is often insufficient, inaccurate or unsystematic. The paper analyses the state of affairs in the study of classical elements in academic discourse in English and offers an interdisciplinary approach to more effective comprehension of academic vocabulary. The approach draws from linguistics, discourse analysis, contrastive rhetoric (viewed as intercultural rhetoric) and the theory of common underlying proficiency of language acquisition, aimed at developing academic vocabularies simultaneously in both the native language and English. The approach has been tested in a variety of academic contexts and provides an efficient model for developing academic vocabulary by activating the prior, tacit knowledge of classical elements shared by participants of academic discourse across cultures.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):389-403
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Theory and Practice of Translation
STANCE BUNDLES IN ENGLISH-TO-POLISH TRANSLATION: A CORPUS-INFORMED STUDY
GRABOWSKI Ł.
Abstract
In this paper, we make an attempt to improve the textual fit of English-to-Polish translation of a peculiar type of multi-word units known in corpus linguistic literature as lexical bundles (Biber et al. 1999). Inspired by a study conducted by Grabar and Lefer (2015), we used the English-Polish parallel corpus Paralela (Pęzik 2016) and the National Corpus of Polish (NKJP) to extract and explore the use - in terms of frequency distributions - of the Polish equivalents of selected English lexical bundles expressing attitudinal and epistemic stance. More precisely, we used the NKJP corpus to check whether the Polish equivalents are typical of contemporary Polish as found in native texts. The results of this corpus-informed study revealed a high number of Polish equivalents, both single- and multi-word units, expressing stance. Also, the results showed that the majority of Polish equivalents are frequently used in native Polish texts and therefore they can potentially help enhance the textual fit of translations. Finally, we discussed limitations of the methods and corpora used in this preliminary study and presented suggestions on how it can be pursued further in the future to better explore the usefulness of lexical bundles for translation teaching and translation practice. To that end, we also presented proposals of in-class translation activities.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):404-422
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TERMINOLOGICAL EQUIVALENCE IN TRANSLATION OF PHILOSOPHICAL TEXTS
BEDNÁROVÁ-GIBOVÁ K., ZÁKUTNÁ S.
Abstract
The paper zeroes in on the problem of equivalence with regard to translating philosophical texts which have so far been marginalized in translation theory in comparison to other sorts of (non-)literary translation. The paper primarily aims to describe the current translator practice in the field of philosophy and disclose why philosophical discourse is rendered in the unique way it is. The goal of the paper is also to recommend good practice in the ambit of philosophical translation. Drawing on Nida’s equivalence theory, the authors of this paper prioritize formal equivalence over dynamic one, which is connected with the specific nature of philosophical discourse. To this end, pertinent extracts from David Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature with a special focus on philosophical terminology have been compared with their published Slovak, German and Czech translations. The present paper draws first and foremost on the methods of comparative textual analysis and utilizes elements of translation quality assessment models by House (1997; 2015). The terminological research is conducted from the position of induction as it involves the elaboration of theory from the analysed terms. The comparative analysis suggests that the form and function of philosophical discourse is interconnected to such a degree that the form even constitutes a part of the text’s function. The results of our analytical probe may be used as a springboard for deeper, quantitatively-oriented terminological-translational research.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):423-435
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ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN TERMS “NATIVE SPEAKER”: ILLUSORY EQUIVALENTS
LOVTSEVICH G.N., GICH O.N.
Abstract

The interest in this issue is caused by the global spread of English, the diversity of regional English language teaching (ELT) communities and the different interpretations of key ELT terms. Under the current political, economic and sociocultural conditions of a world where English is an International Language, many previously neutral ELT terms acquire particular relevance and significance. Thus, the term “native speaker” gains special importance in the discussion of goals (English language variants), the norm (standard) and the model, teachers and their qualifications, methods and techniques appropriate to societal needs in a certain socio-cultural context. This paper explores the differences in usage of the term “native speaker” used in English and Russian ELT discourses. The case study employs comparative definitional analysis of the corresponding Russian and English terms and reveals both the common meaning and significant differences. As the study shows, in Russian professional discourse, the term nositel’ yazyka (native speaker) is used in the traditionally established meaning, while in British-American ELT discourse it acquires new meanings and leads to a change in the ELT paradigm. The authors conclude that the Russian and English terms are not identical; on the contrary, their equivalence is illusory.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):436-447
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TRANSLATION OF RELIGIOUS AND EXTREMIST TEXTS: FORENSIC-LINGUISTIC EXPERT EXAMINATION
BORISSOVA A.S., KURGUZENKOVA Z.V., NIKISHIN V.D.
Abstract

Extremism is one of the most dangerous threats to humanity in the 21st century. The spread of this phenomenon in the world is characterized not only by the increase in the number of extremist crimes, but also by the variety of their forms. Currently, translated texts and texts including foreign speech are often come on judicial proceedings of the Russian Federation concerning cases against verbal religious extremism. The article highlights theoretical basis of forensic-linguistic expertology, the tasks for translators acting as experts; the limits of competence are outlined. The authors reveal a complex of problems which appears in the process of translating religious extremist texts; determine the strategies and tactics that allow to create a product equivalent to the original text in a different language. Equivalence of translation is considered within the framework of “neutralization” concept, which should be complied with the established translation norms along with the transfer of communicative purposes in the utterance, context and linguistic peculiarities. Heterogeneous texts of Internet communication in English and French, containing religious extremist information (posts, reposts, memes, slogans, messages in social networks) were the material for the research. These types of texts have both general (multimedia, creole, hypertextuality) and distinctive features (regulation, focus on the addressee, language features). The methods of contextual, structural - semantic, comparative and linguocultural analysis were applied in the study. In general, the article is focused on specialists in the field of legal linguistics, theory and practice of translation, discourse analysis.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):448-473
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Chronicle: Book Reviews
REVIEW of V.V. Feshhenko (ed.), 2016. Linguistics and Semiotics of Cultural Transfer: Methods, Principles, Technology. Moscow: Kul’turnaja revoljucija Publ, 500 pp. (In Russ.)
MASLOVA V.A.
Abstract

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Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):474-479
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REVIEW of T.V. Dubrovskaya, E.K. Reva, E.A. Kozhemyakin, Ya.F. Yaroslavtseva, D.V. Arekhina (2017). Political, legal and mass media discourse in terms of discursive construction of Russia’s international and interethnic relations. Moscow: Flinta: Nauka Publ, 248 pp. (In Russ.)
KHARLAMOVA T.V.
Abstract

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Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):480-488
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Chronicle: Conferences
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE “INDIA AND RUSSIA: CROSS-CULTURAL SYNERGY”, DELHI, INDIA, 22-23 FEBRUARY 2018
SURYANARAYAN N.
Abstract

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Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2018;22(2):489-492
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