Theoretical Bases for Designing a Methodology of Training Teachers for Intercultural Interaction

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The intensification of the processes of globalization and integration of cultures has set before many multi-ethnic countries the task of building a multicultural society that develops according to the laws of tolerance, cooperation and mutual respect. This problem is particularly acute in the regions due to the differences in ethno-cultural and migration processes in any of them, different degree of dynamics and constant changeability of these processes. These factors determine the specific nature of training teachers for intercultural interaction in each particular region. Currently there is a situation when it is impossible to use a unified experience in training teachers for intercultural interaction equally in a single region: it is obvious that each region needs its own methodology. This determines the relevance of the research due to the existing trend of dynamic regional development under the influence of migration and ethno-cultural processes as well as the necessity to find mechanisms for training teachers for intercultural interaction in the dynamic ethno-cultural environment of the region through the analysis of various precedents. Thus, the purpose of this study is to design a methodology for training teachers for intercultural interaction in the context of dynamic ethno-cultural processes. Research objectives: to analyze the current state of knowledge of the problem of training teachers for intercultural interaction in the system of higher pedagogical education in Russia, as well as the current state of international studies on the problem of multicultural education based on the ideas of inter-ethnic dialogue; and to develop an algorithm for designing a methodology for training teachers for intercultural interaction in the context of dynamic migratory and ethno-cultural processes in the regions. The results of the study make it possible to propose a systematic algorithm for designing a methodology for training teachers for intercultural interaction based on the generalized regional experience; and to characterize the content of each stage of this algorithm. The study expands the ideas about the training of teachers for intercultural interaction in an ethno-cultural region, the specifics of implementing the principle of regionalization and comparative studies. The proposed methodology will make it possible to identify general, particular and single changes in the training of teachers for intercultural interaction, taking into account the regional specificity and dynamism of ethno-cultural processes in each region.

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Introduction To date, there is a situation when some scholars use the ideas of a pluralistic multicultural society to oppose the requirements to assimilate into the host culture. Others seek to justify the rights and obligations of preserving national identity. However, for both sides, the key words are ‘fear of mixing’ and ‘loss of national features’ (Berry, 1999; Klimova et al., 2021; Bogoslovskiy, Zhukova, 2021; Bogoslovskiy at al., 2022; Zhukova et al., 2022). Consideration of the multicultural society as a ‘melting pot’ (Longley, 2020) has led to a breakdown of the unity and homogeneity of national cultures (Popov, 2013; Andreev, 2014; Martin-Ioganson, 2021), absorption of different cultural traditions, localization and fragmentation of cultural space, strengthened ethnocentrism and weakened integration relations in the prevailing conditions of confrontation and xenophobia. The growth of interethnic tensions in the ‘melting pot’ countries meant that the usual forms of interethnic interaction between host and infiltrated cultures needed to be transformed (Catron, 2019). This served as the basis for the development of a multicultural integration model. The model of multicultural integration implies consideration of multiculturalism “as not an unconditional recognition of cultural differences, but a kind of compromise agreement between the state representing the majority culture and minorities - only if the latter meet certain conditions, first of all, recognition of the nation-state structure of the country” (Shchedrina, 2004, p. 9). There are two basic assumptions underlying this model. Firstly, it is the realization that integration is a very long process, sometimes lasting for generations. This means that in the transition period from one identity structure to another special conditions may be required for migrants (Berry, 2006; Berry, Grigoryev, 2022; Penninx, 2007; Grimovskaya, 2017). Secondly, it is the need for certain changes in the institutions of the host society to ensure the same treatment of ethnic migrants and the recognition of their identities, social and cultural practices, as in the case of the dominant majority population (Kymlicka, 1995; George, 2006; Garcés-Mascareñas, Penninx, 2016). This puts forward a key requirement for modern education for a systemic study of the changing and dynamic social institutions of the inflow and host societies, which largely determines the specifics of training teachers for intercultural interaction in a particular region taken for analysis, considering its migratory and ethno-cultural processes (Kaikkonen, 2001). The lack of consistency and fragmented research in this direction has necessitated the present study to substantiate the methodology proposed by the authors of this article to investigate changes in the training of teachers for intercultural interaction. For this reason, the authors have set the following tasks in the study: - to analyze the current state of knowledge of the problem of training teachers for intercultural interaction in the system of higher pedagogical education in Russia; - to analyze the current state of international studies on the problem of multicultural education based on the ideas of inter-ethnic dialogue; and - to develop an algorithm for designing a methodology for training teachers for intercultural interaction in the context of dynamic migratory and ethno-cultural processes in the regions. The subject matter of the study The study is carried out within the framework of the systemic approach in which any system is considered as a set of interconnected elements (Donnadieu et al., 2003). The ability to see the task from different sides (the process of training teachers for intercultural interaction), to analyze possible solutions, to single out the components from the whole and, on the contrary, to assemble a new vision from disparate facts (analysis of different practices allows us to speak about the importance of denying the universality of certain experience and finding the most successful precedents in each particular case). Among the general scientific methods of research we should note concretization, systematization, analysis and synthesis which allowed us to generalize the experience of training teachers for intercultural interaction in Russian and international practice (by describing precedents) and make an attempt to design a methodology of studying changes in the training teachers for intercultural interaction in the dynamic conditions, variability of migration and ethno-cultural processes. For these purposes, the authors considered it appropriate to use the following presentation logic: - firstly, to show Russian and international experience in developing the ideas of training teachers for intercultural interaction in the conditions of dynamic ethno-cultural processes; - secondly, to determine the importance of designing methods of training teachers for intercultural interaction, which would make it possible to highlight the general, private and singular, taking into account the distinctive nature of ethno-cultural processes in each region; and - thirdly, to substantiate the stage-by-stage algorithm for designing the methods of training teachers for intercultural interaction based on the generalized regional experience, characterizing the content of each stage. Current state of knowledge of the problem of training teachers for intercultural interaction in the system of higher pedagogical education in Russia The problems caused by cultural and ethnic differences are becoming one of the major priorities for higher education. Their relevance is determined by the necessity of teaching the bases of intercultural cooperation to students representing different national subcultures (Taylor, 1992; Holzbrecher, 2008; Alexiadou et al., 2010; Aniskin et al., 2015). A factor in the actualization of inter-ethnic dialogue in teacher training is the ethno-cultural diversification of students, primarily due to migration (Brazhnik, 2002; Lugovskaya, 2004; Laptev et al., 2005; Hoehmann, Zhukova, 2011; Salavatova, 2019; Greenwald, 2020). There is a growing understanding of the need for large-scale training in the spirit of intercultural dialogue and a corresponding revision of curricula and teaching methods in the Russian higher pedagogical education. Among the priorities is the desire to teach future tutors to be balanced, tolerant and mutually respectful, pragmatic, rational, able to find compromise, not accepting forceful decisions. Higher pedagogical education should take into account national differences and include pedagogical guidelines that are adequate to the worldview and needs of different ethno-cultural groups (Cemalcilar, Falbo et al., 2005). The emphasis is made on the most equal dialogue of cultures (Ose, 2016). The activity of higher school in the direction of intercultural dialogue is based on a number of principles: education for the coexistence of different nationalities, religions (Clyne, Jupp, 2011; Solntsev, 2018); development of readiness for cooperation; recognition of mutual responsibility for the positive nature of interethnic and intercultural communication (Weaver, 1998; Banks, 2008; Greenwald, Sergeychik, 2019). The leading goal in this case is to eliminate contradiction between the systems and norms of upbringing and education of ‘dominant’ and ‘small’ nations in the minds of students. The goal and main tasks of higher pedagogical education based on inter-ethnic dialogue are achieved in the following stages: (1) education of non-resistance to cultural diversity; (2) recognition of other cultures’ uniqueness; (3) understanding and acceptance of cultural diversity; (4) acceptance of a multi-ethnic and multicultural society; (5) raise of attention to other cultures; (6) sustainable interest in ethno-cultures; and (7) intercultural interaction. In Russia, the Program for Modernization of Pedagogical Education (2003) prioritized the development and testing of the high school course “Pedagogical Activity in a Multi-ethnic and Multicultural Environment”. Relevant methodological materials are offered by some universities. They are available, for example, in the courses on comparative pedagogy at Moscow Pedagogical State University, Arctic State University, Pyatigorsk State Linguistic University, Sakhalin State University, and the Department of Ethnology at Lomonosov Moscow State University. In recent years, a number of Russian higher education institutions have practiced courses devoted to multicultural education. For example, Moscow State Pedagogical University has implemented master’s degree programs that include courses on the Theory and Practice of Multicultural Education and Education in a Multicultural Classroom. In Adygei State University the program called Intercultural dialogue as a resource for the formation of civic consciousness and tolerance in higher education institution was offered in the courses of professional teacher development. The International Center of the Professional Development of Educators Institute of Yakutia acquainted teachers with the problems of multicultural identity of an individual, concepts and notions of the multicultural environment, the specific features of multicultural education in the leading countries and regions. Khabarovsk Institute of retraining and improvement for pedagogical staff organized a discussion of the multicultural education problems in the border regions of the Russian Federation.[33] The content of this kind of higher pedagogical education consists of three the main blocks: (1) mastering knowledge; (2) forming a worldview position in a culturally diverse world; and (3) mastering procedures for inter-ethnic communication. The first block is disclosed in the concepts reflecting the values of sub-, macro-, and world cultures. The second block implies personality-centered education. The third block involves mastering of verbal and nonverbal ways of intercultural communication. Many methods of higher pedagogical education focused on interethnic dialogue are quite traditional. New perspectives are opened by modern technical ways of communication. Methods are worked out in relation to specific subjects, taking into account the specifics of the tasks, content, and situation of education. It has become evident that special courses are pedagogically insufficient. It is more preferable to include relevant material in curricula and programs of predominantly humanities. When introducing into curricula and programs the positions that provide for the study of achievements of small cultures, it is essential to offer the materials consonant with the values of the dominant culture. Moreover, it is important to highlight and unequivocally condemn the discrimination of small subcultures. It is necessary to demonstrate the negative meaning of such concepts as ‘cultural prejudices’, to overcome stereotypes of negative attitudes toward other ethnic groups, etc. Current state of international studies on the problem of multicultural education based on the ideas of inter-ethnic dialogue The concept of multicultural education based on the ideas of interethnic dialogue was formulated in Russia at the turn of the 21st century[34] (Dzhurinsky, 2004; Suprunova, Sviridchenko, 2013; Shirina, 2014; Aniskin et al., 2015; Gukalenko, 2017, and others). Universal principles of such education can be defined as exposure to small, Russian, national (Russian) and world cultures. Education thus appears as an integrative social process, where an individual is in the center, being immersed in the ocean of ethnic and cultural diversity. In Western European higher schools the theoretical basis for intercultural dialogue is the idea of cross-cultural or intercultural education (K. Jones, K. Kimberley (Great Britain), R. Holtz, S. Luchtenberg (Germany), Ch. Bernard, J. Berque, F. Lorcerie, O. Meunier (France), and others). Supporters of such ideas propose to support and respect cultural and ethnic diversity and not to consider it as an object of elimination. All cultures of a multinational society are seen as a public wealth and asset (Dzhurinsky, 2018). In the U.S. universities, the preparation of future teachers’ multicultural education is proclaimed as a strategic platform (L. Buck, R. Barnhardt, J. Banks, D. Gollnick, C. Grant, and others). Three types of multicultural programs have been proposed. The first type includes programs that provide specifically revised content (Content Oriented Programs). The second type implies teaching through compensatory, individual, and bilingual education (Oriented Programs). The third type involves the development of cultural and ethnic tolerance (Socially Oriented Programs). The Harvard course entitled At the Crossroads of Cultures has become famous in university circles. A number of universities have introduced modular courses Cultural Diversity (Western Oregon University), Multicultural Education (University of Alaska), Diversity of Cultures and Global Consciousness (Lynn-Benton College), etc. Modules consist of many micro courses: comparative cultural studies, Aboriginal North America, Asian, African, Latin American literatures, etc. A number of colleges and universities are engaged in training current teachers for activities in a multicultural environment. For example, at the Center for Multicultural Education at Washington State University, teachers study psychological mechanisms for overcoming ethnic intolerance and ways to promote multicultural education. Yale University has partnered with New Haven Schools to organize an institute to train teachers for multicultural classes. The institute has developed several common teaching modules: Immigration and Life in America, Race and Ethnicity in Contemporary Art and Literature, and The Nature and History of Ethnicity and Gender Discrimination. Trainees at the Institute are invited to prepare individual modules based on these didactic materials that can be used in the educational process. The Internet is used in creating a multicultural educational environment. The contents of the relevant websites immerse future teachers in the virtual atmosphere of the multicultural classroom. This analysis evidently shows that, today, both in domestic and foreign practices of higher pedagogical education, the progress in solving the issues of teacher training for intercultural interaction has certain limits. Meanwhile, it is hardly possible to make radical changes in the conditions of unstable and dynamic migration and ethno-cultural processes. The worldview and value differences between the representatives of dominant and minor cultures, the lack of appropriate analysis of these types of cultures, and, in this regard, the lack of consideration of the specificity of a particular region are too significant. Teacher training methodology for intercultural interaction: a step-by-step development algorithm based on the generalized regional experience The importance of selecting change research methods for developing a methodology of transformation techniques lies in the methodology for developing intercultural interaction, which is considered in sufficient detail in the studies of Russian and foreign scientists. Recently, there have been a number of works aimed at comparing and borrowing the experience of other countries in the context of modernizing domestic education and developing the educational system. It is believed that “the primary goal of this kind of research should be to identify the main trends in the development of education of foreign countries in order to establish not only what is happening there, but also to better understand our own past, determine its place in the present, more clearly predict the future of the education”.[35] An analysis of special literature allows us to state that the significant methodological task in such studies is to determine the logic (structure) of research. The problem of logic was addressed by many of the world famous foreign comparative educators (G. Bereday, I.L. Kandel, H.J. Noah, B. Holmes, M.A. Eckstein, and others). “The logic of comparative-pedagogical research is considered by researchers as a set of interrelated stages, the number of which varies from two to five”.[36] The analysis of the above-mentioned researchers’ positions on the essence of the stages shows that the inductive approach, which implies building inferences and formulating conclusions “from the particular to the general”, underlies the organization of comparative-pedagogical research. It is our use of the inductive approach that can serve as the basis for selecting the precedent method as the key one in designing the methodology for studying changes in training teachers for intercultural interaction presented below. A ‘precedent’ (from the Latin praecedens ‘preceding’) is an incident or event that occurred in the past and serves as an example or basis for subsequent actions in the present. The precedent is a feature of a modeled system (a part of its functionality), due to which an individual can obtain a specific, measurable and necessary result. The precedent corresponds to a separate component of the system, defining one of variants of its use and describing a typical way of interaction of the individual with this system. The precedent is a decision in a particular case, the implementation of which is possible within the framework of certain stages. Regarding the bases of this classification, we can make the following assumption: they can be subsumed under the criterion of ‘sequence of state transformation’; changes of preparation are considered by us as precedents. Let us dwell on their analysis in more detail within the framework of our proposed topic. Practical aspects of training teachers for intercultural interaction based on the prior experience analysis Step 1. Identifying the value foundations of the precedent of training teachers for intercultural interaction in a multicultural society. The study of the value bases of the precedent of training, obviously, should be conducted in terms of the changed goals of education, which are set by the requirements of modern society to the person and, consequently, to the system of education. In the context of both increasing globalization and deglobalization, for several years now, many countries have begun the gradual introduction of new educational training programs (aimed at developing teachers’ readiness for intercultural interaction). To date, the teaching community has expressed concern about the ineffectiveness of multicultural programs. This circumstance undoubtedly emphasizes the similarity of emerging educational situations in different states and regions in particular. The practical implementation of the ideas of multiculturalism ideas is contradictory and characterized by the weakening of assimilationist and the strengthening of integrationist tendencies in education, which determines the need to rethink the goals, results, content, and technologies, i.e., components of the educational training program. At the same time, the implementation of higher teacher training reforms in different states is contradictory and characterized by global and local changes in education. Specific phenomena in this connection include fundamental studies of educational priorities and values, manifested in the activation of regional ethno-cultural and ethno-political movements, stimulated by the processes of globalization and integration in the states. The increased interest in local differences, the importance of developing cultural identity, the growing interest in the traditions of deep antiquity have determined the need to form a unified but diverse regional-continental network, which requires the maximum consideration of ethno-cultural features in representatives of different ethno-cultural groups within a particular region. It is important to emphasize that this will make it possible to set changes in the process of training teachers in higher education institutions based on the best global and regional educational practices, as well as to expand the ideas about integration as a leading principle for further changes in training, taking into account the analysis of specific cases and identifying precedents. At the same time, it is obvious that the best practice is not an absolute and final solution, the implementation of which provides improvement of a higher education institution; rather, ‘best practice’ means the search for the best approach in this situation, because institutions or individual educational programs differ greatly in their structure and scope of activities despite the competence-based approach adopted in two countries as the basis for modernization of education, its focus on freedom of choice for students, open education, on a new quality of education. Further adaptation of the results of the comparative study is a rather difficult step, since the comparison is not a copy of someone else's experience. It is very important to correctly assess how applicable the ‘borrowed’ ideas and technologies are in the new conditions. No two countries (or regions) or educational institutions can be absolutely identical; therefore, ideas for improving processes that work well will somehow produce different results for the other. Therefore, it is obvious that one should always be thoughtful in using someone else’s experience, try to adjust the solutions and directions of development found, and justify new precedents (changes in training). Step 2. Justifying the choice of the country (region) as a precedent, the experience of which is adapted to the conditions of the country (region) taken for comparison. Here is an example, possible for further comparison of regions - Samara region and the state of Baden-Württemberg - which have been twinned since 1992 and linked for many years of cooperation in the field of culture and education. As B.L. Wolfson notes, the question of to what extent and in what forms it is possible to use foreign experience is the main issue of modern comparative studies. The expediency of resorting to foreign experience is beyond doubt, since today no civilized country can be isolated from the world community (Wolfson, 2002). We also agree with E.V. Piskunova, who emphasizes the fact that “education is a reflection of socio-cultural conditions, in this connection, based on the analysis of socio-cultural changes on a global scale, the study of foreign experience and the features of the current stage of the country’s development can determine the main directions of the updating of educational systems” (Piskunova, 2008). The task of comparativism, according to A.P. Tryapitsyna, is “the comparative analysis of social processes and social institutions in different countries and geopolitical regions. International comparisons in the field of education, which has become one of the most extensive spheres of human activity in our time, are also ‘woven’ into this context. The object of comparative analysis is the education systems of different countries, the subject is the identification of common and special in the systems under study” (Laptev et al., 2005). This is also pointed out by I.R. Lugovskaya in her monograph “Comparative and pedagogical analysis of school education systems: a parametric approach”. In her opinion, “comparative-pedagogical analysis allows you to establish what educational systems and pedagogical phenomena occurring in them are different and what are similar. Its use involves the analysis of the phenomena and processes being compared, the description of the features and properties being compared, which allows us to establish similarities and differences. For the methodology of educational comparativism it is important not to compare per se, but to compare correctly, identifying the uniqueness of the factors and conditions that will allow you to make different decisions in the management of education. This type of comparative research is used when researchers’ attention is focused on solving one issue that is central to understanding a more general problem” (Lugovskaya, 2004). Agreeing with the positions of the aforementioned researchers, we give examples of similarities between the two universities. Firstly, the modern German system of university education has significantly influenced the formation of university education in different regions of the world; at the same time, it itself has united many traditions, accumulating the most significant achievements and adapting these achievements to its own goals and objectives. For more than two centuries the Humboldtian model of the university has served as the benchmark for universities in Europe and the world. The model of the ideal university in Germany, developed by W. Humboldt in practice, supplemented the ideas about the university with the following provisions: - universities became both workshops for scholarly research and institutions of higher scholarly teaching; - systematic lectures supplanted the old form of interpretation of canonical texts, seminaries were introduced; - serious attention was paid to the fundamental study of languages; personal education became a social phenomenon and was linked to notions of the quality of human life; and - the democratic structure of the educational and scientific process created the preconditions, the environment for the maturation of scientific talent. Significant features of this model, for example, the relationship of learning with science in the educational institution were borrowed at one time by Russia. Pedagogical Institute Ludwigsburg in its structure, organization of the educational process and traditions represents a classical model of German university education (Humboldtian model) and, therefore, its experience can be interesting in terms of theory and practice. Secondly, no less important for comparison is the fact that, in 1998, in Germany a tiered training structure was legislatively introduced, providing for new Bachelor’s and Master’s qualifications. As a consequence, universities in Russia and Germany are facing a number of common tasks related to the integration of the Bologna reforms into the intra-university ones. These provisions make the problems faced by Russian and German universities comparable today. The modern stage in the development of education systems in European countries is characterized by the fact that significant changes are taking place in the understanding of the quality of higher professional education and, in this regard, special attention is paid to the design of educational programs for training teachers in mastering qualitatively new professional competences. Thirdly, for the comparative study it is also important to justify the choice of universities. In the context of this work, it was necessary to investigate those universities that have many years of positive experience in training teachers for intercultural interaction in a multicultural society. Ludwigsburg Pedagogical Institute, as well as Samara State Social and Pedagogical University with a similar profile of activities (training bachelors and masters of education), should be referred to as ‘provincial’, regional higher educational institutions. Unfortunately, today there is an opinion that universities of the capital cities will be more actively involved in the process of internationalization than those of the provinces. At the same time, the partnership between State Social and Pedagogical University (Samara, Russia) and Pedagogical Institute (Ludwigsburg, Germany) create conditions to study changes in the training of teachers for intercultural interaction, to identify the most successful precedents. From this cooperation emerged the idea of sharing knowledge and experience between the two countries, through which the university, on the one hand, can actively maintain contacts in Russia and, on the other hand, strengthen its position in the region as one of the most important educational institutions. Another reason for choosing this German university was the opportunity to access information on educational development. Step 3. Summarizing the main areas of precedents for training teachers for intercultural interaction in the region. Numerous studies of different teacher training models are based on S.L. Rubinstein’s position about two ways of development and functioning and can be combined into two groups: (1) the model of adaptive behavior and (2) the model of professional development. “The main goal of the adaptive behavior model is to form a person’s ability to fit into the surrounding reality, while in the professional development model the main emphasis is shifted to becoming able to go beyond the continuous flow of everyday practice; to see, realize and evaluate various problems, to solve them constructively in accordance with their value orientations, to consider any difficulty as an incentive to further development. The adaptive model is focused on the immediate response to external changes; the professional development model is focused on the prediction and consideration of future changes” (Laptev et al., 2005). In our study, we consider the professional development model. Let us agree with the position of L.M. Mitina who says that “we can talk about professional development only when teachers are aware of their participation and responsibility for everything that happens to them, their students (and school in general), and try to actively contribute or counteract external circumstances, to plan and set goals for professional activity, to change themselves to achieve them... Among the contradictions that determine the development of a teacher, it is important to talk about intra-personal contradiction” (Mitina, 2014). In the context of this study, the above step is concretized as follows: summarizing the strategic directions of change in the preparation of teachers for intercultural interaction. From the point of view of philosophy, “in any object the singular, as a unique individuality, and the general, as the law governing it, are united. The connection of the common and the singular is the particular. The singular is a form of existence of the universal in reality; the particular is the universal realized in the singular. These categories are formed in the process of the world cognition. Each object initially appears to man as something singular. In the course of cognitive activity recurring features of a number of objects are discovered, which allows you to combine them into classes, thus defining the features” (Brazhnik, 2002). Our study highlights the following changes in the training of teachers for intercultural interaction: - general: reflecting national trends in the development of higher pedagogical education, affecting the process of training teachers for intercultural interaction in the context of increasing ethno-cultural processes in the region (orientation to the rapidly changing ethno-cultural processes; implementation of sustainable development goals in education; ensuring close cooperation with the regions, etc.); - particular: having a regional character in the studied particular pedagogical university (ensuring cooperation with various educational and social organizations, identifying development initiatives in the field of ideas to improve the training of intercultural interaction, readiness of universities in the regions for network cooperation, etc.); - singular: reflecting the individual characteristics of students (designing an ‘individual educational route’ through the choice of educational programs, the implementation of humanitarian learning technologies; providing research, organizational, managerial and informational activities, etc.). Step 4. Designing a model of change in training teachers for intercultural interaction. The intensification of globalization and cultural integration processes has posed the problem of designing models of teacher training for intercultural interaction before pedagogical science. Today, there is a lot of pedagogical research aimed at finding ways of designing models of teacher training for intercultural interaction, ways of developing professional competence without taking into account ethno-cultural features of the region, which results in the situation of accumulation and reproduction of old knowledge rather than generation of new ideas in pedagogy. One possible way out of this situation is to choose a predictive teacher training model. “A predictive model is a model of the object of prediction, the study of which provides information about the possible states of the object in the future and (or) the ways to achieve these states. When building and evaluating a predictive model, it is impossible to carry out a direct check of the model and the original, since this check must refer to the future states of the object. At the moment, the object itself either does not exist (projected object), or it exists, but it is unknown what changes may occur in it by a given time.”[37] Let us agree with the opinion of researchers who note the fact that “the predictive model must meet the following requirements: (1) be complete, adaptable and dynamic, providing the ability to include a wide enough range of changes, additions, so that a consistent approximation to the model will be possible; (2) be abstract enough to allow for variation in a large number of variables; (3) meet the conditions limiting the time to solve the problem; and (4) provide useful information about the object in terms of the problem set.[38] Conclusion Summarizing the abovementioned points, we emphasize that the traditionally non-comparable experience within the framework of the problem under study actualizes the problem of searching for new facts and their interpretation. Of course, it is impossible to establish for all studies a single proportion between the reproduction of facts and their analysis, since there may be more factual material taken for analysis on foreign issues than in works on the domestic education system, which we know better. That is why, when the scope of general vision of the problem of training teachers for intercultural interaction in a multicultural society begins to expand, the interest in regional and foreign experience of its solution begins to grow and in the logic of implementation of the methodology presented above, a step-by-step, consistent analysis of the considered precedents and borrowing the best practices are possible. The study expands the ideas about the training of teachers for intercultural interaction in an ethno-cultural region, the specifics of implementing the principle of regionalization and comparative studies. The main results of the study are as follows: - the step-by-step algorithm of designing the methodology of preparing teachers for intercultural interaction based on the generalized regional experience is proposed; the content of each stage is characterized; - the implementation of the proposed methodology will make it possible to reveal the general, particular and singular changes in the training of teachers for intercultural interaction, taking into account the regional specifics.

About the authors

Alexander N. Dzhurinsky

Moscow State Pedagogical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5672-3812
SPIN-code: 4303-1441

Academician of the Russian Academy of Education, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Theory and Practice of Primary Education, Institute of Childhood

1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St, bldg. 1, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

Tatiana A. Zhukova

Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation; National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2184-4814
SPIN-code: 5864-9496

Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Foreign Languages and Intercultural Communication, Faculty of International Economic Relations, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (Moscow, Russia); Associate Professor of the Department of Foreign Languages and Communication Technologies, National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”.

49 Leningradskii Prospekt, Moscow, 125167, Russian Federation; 4 Leninskii Prospekt, bldg 1, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation

Vladimir I. Bogoslovskiy

Herzen State Pedagogical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7071-244X
SPIN-code: 5063-6734

Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Digital Technologies

48 Naberezhnaya Reki Moiki, St. Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation

Ekaterina Yu. Andreeva

Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9953-4958
SPIN-code: 6669-4487

Candidate of Sciences in Philology, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Foreign Languages and Intercultural Communication, Faculty of International Economic Relations

49 Leningradskii Prospekt, Moscow, 125167, Russian Federation


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