The Pivotal Role of Students in International Psychology: A Past, Present, and Future Overview

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In 2022, the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Division 52 (International Psychology) marked the long-anticipated 25th anniversary of its foundation on February 21, 1997. This is an apt time to review the important and often overlooked roles of students within international psychology. This concise, yet panoramic overview explores the roles of students in international psychology, in APA’s Division 52, and in student-led organizations in five parts: (1) prehistory of Division 52 prior to 1997; (2) early years of Division 52; (3) recent years of Division 52; (4) the current rise of a new studentled organization; (5) future directions for international psychology.

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Introduction On February 21, 1997, the American Psychological Association (APA) finally approved the petition for a bold new division, Division 52, “International Psychology.” After the APA Council rejected an earlier petition in 1974 for a “Division of International Cooperation in Psychology,” it took 23 years for some determined petitioners to overcome resistance and reach the required number of 764 signatures (1% of current APA membership) to charter a new division, Division 52 (Takooshian, Bais, 2017). This 25th anniversary of APA’s Division 52 in 2022 is an opportune time to look back at the impressive roles of students within international psychology. Certainly, students have been a valued and important part of Division 52 since its start in 1997, yet students have not always been perceived as such. Across time and place, psychology students have often been seen as “unready” people who “should be seen but not heard” until they complete their training to become credentialed psychologists (Boring, 1929, pp. 10-11). But for 25 years, Division 52 has encouraged students to thrive and actively shape their international arena. Select highlights of student leadership in organized psychology Year Actions 1879 From Leipzig, Wilhelm Wundt’s 70 global students quickly spread psychology worldwide 1889 In Paris, students were inspired by the First International Congress of Psychology 1929 At Yale, students were determined to start a new student psychology society (Psi Chi) 1963 Psi Chi recruited international students to participate in its “International Year” 1988 Two students finally launch the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students 1992-1995 Psi Chi and APA survey 70 national psychology associations about the status of students in international psychology 1997 From the start, Division 52 encouraged student participation in the Division 1998 Psi Chi publishes a call to international students in the International Journal of Psychology 1999 A Psi Chi panel at APA promotes student leadership in international psychology 2000-2003 Students form a bold new IPSO, International Psychology Student Organization 2020 Despite COVID-19, the Division 52 Student Committee dramatically expands its programs 2020 The launch of the Global Student Psychology Committee (GSPC) This article offers a concise, yet panoramic overview of the roles of students in international psychology, APA’s Division 52, and within student-led organizations in five parts: (1) prehistory of Division 52 prior to 1997; (2) early years of Division 52; (3) recent years of Division 52; (4) the current rise of a student-led organization, and (5) future prospects for international psychology (Table). International psychology overview prior to 1997 1879. Once Wilhelm Wundt formed the first “psychology laboratory” in Leipzig in 1879, this new science did not remain a solely German field. Instead, this new science spread like wildfire around the globe. This was due to a flood of adventurous young students from all corners of the planet - from Chile to Russia, who were drawn to study in Leipzig and take this new science back to their homeland (Misiak & Sexton, 1966). Of 184 doctoral theses that Wundt supervised between 1879-1920, 70 were completed by international students from 20 nations (Tinker, 1932). 1889. Just 10 years after Wundt formed his lab, Paris hosted the first International Congress of Psychology. This remarkable gathering that took place between August 6-10, 1889, hosted an estimated 204 delegates from 20 nations (James, 1889). Records are unclear how many of these delegates were students, however, it is clear the lasting impact the Congress must have had on these students to participate in the sessions and receptions with such diverse global luminaries. These included Binet from France, James from the United States (U.S.), Sechenov from Russia, Wundt from Germany, Galton from the United Kingdom (UK), and even young Sigmund Freud from Vienna. 1929. Back in 1927, two students at the University of Kansas - undergraduate Edwin B. Newman and graduate student Frederick Howell Lewis, raised the possibility of a national student fraternity in psychology. They formed a team of students who conducted a national survey, which found mixed feelings - from avid support and indifference to fervent opposition. These students convened from September 1, 1929 - September 7, 1929, at the Ninth International Congress of Psychology at Yale University - a historic gathering of 826 psychologists from 21 nations. Sadly, their strongest opposition came in a famously scathing three-page letter from the esteemed E.G. Boring of Harvard University: “Forgive me if I seem harsh, but I must make myself quite clear… What functions could a psychological fraternity subserve?.. I shall not send your letter to any member of our [Harvard] staff… One does not bother colleagues with things that they would scorn” (Boring, 1929, pp. 10-11). Undaunted, these intrepid students proceeded to form what soon became Psi Chi, the National Honor Society in Psychology. Could these determined students in 1929 have imagined where their vision would lead? As of 2019, Psi Chi was, by far, the world’s largest psychology organization, and largest international honor society, touching the lives of over 700,000 life members across 1,150 campuses in 18 nations (Takooshian, 2019), and starting the careers of many of the most eminent psychologists of the 20th century (Heitner & Denmark, 2000). 1963. In 1963, the 17th International Congress of Psychology in Washington D.C. was the second to meet in the USA. At the time, the 1963 Psi Chi President was Roger W. Russell, who was also the Executive Officer of the APA (1956-1959) and Secretary-General of the International Union of Psychological Science (1960-1966). To mark the occasion, Russell celebrated the “International Year” with a historic 14-page edition of the Psi Chi Newsletter on “Psychology Abroad,” assembling 10 students from seven nations to publish detailed essays on the diverse indigenous psychologies in their nations. This was 13 years before the first classic volume on “Psychology around the world” (Sexton & Misiak, 1976), thus setting the tone for years within Psi Chi to be attentive to psychology students in other nations. 1988. For most of the 20th century, the APA has been emphatic about credentials - that only doctorates can join APA as “members,” while students may join as non-voting “affiliates.” Back in 1987, two students sought some way to increase student voices within the APA. These two graduate students - Scott Mesh at St. John’s University in New York and David Pilon at the University of Waterloo in Canada, petitioned the APA for a bold new student association within the APA (Dittmann, 2003). Though five past attempts had failed, Mesh and Pilon received a unanimous vote of approval by the APA Council in 1988 to form the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS), which has now grown into a major voice within APA - with its own officers, bylaws, and awards. As of 2022, APAGS has reported having 31,181 students, including many international as well as U.S. students (I. King, personal communication, June 2, 2022). 1992-1999. Starting in 1992, Psi Chi became more active by appointing a committee to explore the status of students in international psychology, with Vice President Harold Takooshian as its chair. He collaborated with Joan Buchanan in the APA Office of International Affairs to survey 70 national psychology associations. Findings indicated that barely five of the national psychology associations allowed students even as affiliates. For the great majority, students had no status until completing their degree. In 1994, Takooshian travelled to the International Council of Psychologists (ICP) conference in Lisbon, Portugal, to speak about “Psi Chi: The impact of a student honor society on a nation’s psychology,”[49] and quickly found that colleagues outside the USA had no concept of a student honor society, but were, in fact, open to such a possibility. In 1998, two Psi Chi Presidents, Harold Takooshian and Slater Newman, co-authored a data-based article in the International Journal of Psychology, which familiarized international students and faculty with the Psi Chi concept. At the APA’s annual Convention in 1999, Newman and Takooshian organized a forum on increasing students’ roles in international psychology. Psi Chi Past-President John Davis (2019) later chronicled how these many activities eventually led the 1,050 Psi Chi chapters in the USA to vote to become an “international honor society” in 2009. Looking back over the first 120 years of psychological science from 1879-1999, it is evident that psychology students have played decisive and growing roles at several points to actively shape the field of psychology - something students have continued to do once the APA’s Division 52 started in 1997. Division 52: The early years From its start in 1997, APA’s Division 52 was highly encouraging of students in international psychology. In the inaugural issue of the International Psychology Reporter (IPR), Editor Ivan Kos (1997) noted, “The Division… is particularly interested in nurturing students' engagement with national and international students and psychologists. During the Convention at its yearly social hour, students will be able to communicate with psychologists from other countries… Students interested in the international arena will be able to present their research at symposia as well as at paper and poster sessions. In the future, there will be a students' research award(s). Student members enjoy reduced dues and may obtain a special discount on rooms at the conventions” (p. 4). While annual dues for psychologists at the time were just $12, student affiliate dues were even lower at $5. Why was APA’s Division 52 so remarkably student friendly? It is notable that four of the first six Division 52 Presidents were also prior Psi Chi national officers: Psi Chi Past-Vice-President Ernst G. Beier (1997), and Psi Chi Past-Presidents Florence L. Denmark (1998), Charles D. Spielberger (2002), and Harold Takooshian (2003) - all of whom have been avid supporters of students. In 1998 at the APA Convention in Chicago, Division 52 hosted its first business meeting and established its first Student Committee (McCaslin-Rodrigo, 2002). The Student Committee Co-Chairs, Shannon McCaslin-Rodrigo of the University of South Dakota and Kristen Lang of Loyola University at Chicago oversaw and fostered opportunities for students to engage in meaningful discourse about international related topics in psychology, while also providing space for students to publish their work in the Division’s newsletter (McCaslin, 2003). Not only were students able to seek mentorship from senior members of the Division, but they were also able to contribute to the Division’s website, serve as liaisons to other student organizations across the globe, and foster participation from fellow students within the Division’s newsletter, online discussion forums, and at annual APA Conventions (McCaslin-Rodrigo, 2002; McCaslin, 2003). Like many students over the years, Giulia Landi was moved to tell other students how thrilled she was to “discover” such a friendly home in Division 52, when she attended a session at the Eastern Psychological Association: “Instead of anxious presenters and passive listeners, I saw 30 smiling professionals and attentive students in lively conversation… I joined immediately” (Landi, 2010, p. 9). 2000-2003. In these early years of Division 52, remarkable student initiatives were established. At a July 2000 conference in Stockholm, Sweden, McCaslin-Rodrigo partnered with three other students - Edward Van Rossen of the University of Leuven (Belgium), Nana Opoku Owusu-Banahene of the University of Cape Coast (Ghana), and Malin Gustafson Wiking of the University of Copenhagen (Denmark) to explore the launch of a new global student-run association. From 2000 to 2003, this team worked to develop a bold new independent student organization, with its own bylaws, officers, membership, and website, which is currently inactive (for example, With active support from Division 52 (Van Rossen et al., 2002), Psi Chi (Van Rossen et al., 2003), and other professional associations (McCaslin, 2003), their numbers grew to over 200 students across 65 nations, who voted to name their new group the “International Psychology Student Organization” (IPSO). Sadly, IPSO eventually dissipated around 2004 in the face of a few challenges, but not before many of its student officers went on to complete their graduate degrees and proceed to solidify respective careers in psychology - including McCaslin-Rodrigo and Edward Van Rossen, who took an active role in the European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA) and was later elected Vice-President in 2011. In the time since IPSO’s discontinuation in 2004, increasingly advanced technology became more widely available and accessible. In fact, thanks to new “Internet-based technologies students from different locations are [now] able to collaborate on projects and groups can interact across the globe toward a common goal” (Velayo & Thrush, 2012, pp. 17-18). For example, the rise of social media platforms create new possibilities today that were unthinkable in even the final years of the 20th century. In two appendices at the end of this article, Van Rossen (Appendix 1) and McCaslin-Rodrigo (Appendix 2) look back to share their seasoned perspectives on their work with IPSO. Division 52: Recent years Since 2020, the Division 52 Student Committee has grown increasingly more active - despite the COVID-19 pandemic, which has brought new challenges and opportunities to connect students from across the globe (Balva et al., 2022). Particularly, in 2020, the Division 52 Student Trio placed focus on advocacy for international students within the U.S. by means of surveying international student members about a national federal ruling at the time that had significant and detrimental implications for international students. As such, the Student Trio was able to obtain feedback from the Division’s students about ways in which Division 52 and the APA could better advocate for international student members. Continued student advocacy that year also resulted in the establishment of the Jean Lau Chin Award for Outstanding Graduate Student in International Leadership Contributions, in honor of Dr. Jean Lau Chin, which recognizes student leadership contributions to the field of international psychology. This meaningful award has received numerous applications to date by wonderful student leaders across the globe, and it will continue to recognize outstanding students for years to come, in honor of Dr. Jean Lau Chin. In 2021, the Division 52 Student Trio re-established the Student Committee, which was open to all student members of the Division and resulted in 20 motivated Student Committee members - all of whom were actively engaged in new initiatives aimed at advancing student programming within the Division. Through momentous advocacy, and in collaboration with Student Committees from other APA Divisions and international associations, the Division 52 Student Committee successfully proposed student voting privileges and decreased student membership dues, which resulted in student members being allowed to vote in all elections pertaining to Division affairs at the onset of the Division’s 25th anniversary, effective January 1, 2022. As a result of this advocacy, Division 52 also decreased Student membership dues from $32 to $18 and established needs-based scholarships, including ten annual student membership scholarships for international students (within the U.S. and outside of the U.S.), five Registration Scholarships to the annual APA Convention with priority being given to international students and students located outside of the U.S., and two scholarships for international students who are not members of Division 52 or the APA, but whom are interested in getting more involved within international psychology.[50] In addition to this advocacy, the Student Committee actively collaborated with the Division’s Webinar Committee and hosted a plethora of student-focused webinars to support students in international endeavors within the profession. Such programs included webinars focused on connecting students with cross-cultural exchange and immersion programs, providing important information about funding sources and involvement opportunities for students across the globe, opportunities for psychology students to get involved in the United Nations, ways that training programs and the profession at large could better advocate for, and support international students, and important perspectives from student leaders in international psychology across the globe.[51] Additional programming included “Dine and Discuss” meetings for students to connect with established psychologists from different countries and learn more about meaningful topics within international psychology (e.g., sexual orientation, gender identity and expression legislation, policy, and transnational concerns; transnational activism; cross cultural research; and human rights).[52] The Division 52 Student Committee also hosted meaningful virtual programming at the 2021 APA Convention including presentations from students across 11 countries focused on internationalizing psychology and COVID-19 related topics, a Global Psychology Leadership Panel with leaders of psychological associations from each region of the world, and a Global Student Network Event with 75 students from numerous countries and regions across the globe.[53] To ensure a repository of resources for students interested in international psychology, the Student Committee worked hard to provide an accessible and beneficial webpage to better support students around the world who may be pursuing interests, studies, clinical practice, or research within international psychology.[54] Such resources also included the establishment of an International Research Database with a collection of various online research databases located in different countries across the globe.[55] As a byproduct of the aforementioned pursued initiatives, the Division 52 Student Committee established meaningful collaborations with a number of organizations including the International Section of APA’s Division 17 (Society of Counseling Psychology), the Interamerican Society of Psychology Students Workgroup (SIP), the European Federation of Student Psychology Associations (EFPSA), Division 15 (Students and Early Career Psychologists) of the International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP), the Psychology Coalition at the United Nations (PCUN), the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD), the Global Student Psychology Committee (GSPC), and many more. Through its collaborations, efforts, advocacy, programs, and initiatives, the Division 52 Student Committee has worked hard over the years to support psychology students in international endeavors while also fostering a more supportive space for students to flourish. Given that student involvement and initiatives within Division 52 have fluctuated over the years between inactivity and active student programming, it is the hope of these authors that the historical and recent accomplishments of the Student Committee will provide a warm welcome to the 25th Anniversary of Division 52 and pave the path to continued student support and successes within the Division and international psychology for years to come. The rise of a new student-led international organization As previously described, throughout the end of 1999 and beginning of 2000, several important dialogues were held that resulted in a significant student-led movement within the field of international psychology. This included Dr. Slater Newman’s symposium, An international student group for psychology: Desirable? Feasible? during the annual APA Convention on August 21, 1999, with student leaders from the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS), APA’s Division 52, the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA), and the American Psychological Society Student Caucus (APSSC), in addition to discussions at the International Council of Psychologists’ meeting in Padova, Italy and at the International Congress of Psychology in Stockholm, Sweden (Van Rossen et al., 2002). These invigorating conversations resulted in peaked interest from students to establish a psychology organization for students across the world that would aim to provide information about study abroad and exchange programs, initiate meaningful international discourse by means of mailing lists, and foster participation in research and congresses (Van Rossen et al., 2002). As noted above, under the collaborative leadership of Shannon McCaslin-Rodrigo (Presiding Division 52 Student Committee Co-Chair) from the USA, Nana Opoku Owusu-Banahene from Ghana, Edward Van Rossen from Belgium (Presiding President of the European Federation of Psychology Students’ Associations, EFPSA), and Malin Gustafsson Wiking from Denmark, and with the support of more than 100 students from approximately 25 countries and professional leaders of various psychology associations, the International Psychology Students’ Organization (IPSO) was established (Van Rossen et al., 2002; Van Rossen et al., 2003). Although the International Psychology Students’ Organization ended a few years after its inception, December 2020 saw the founding of another impactful student-led organization, the Global Student Psychology Committee, GSPC[56] (Balva et al., 2022). At the time of this article, the GSPC has student members from more than 30 different countries across Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, North America, and Oceania. The GSPC is dedicated to advancing the field of international psychology through the development of student networks, research collaborations, professional and academic exchanges, congress and conference participation, and resource sharing to better address barriers and gaps between countries (Balva et al., 2022). The opportunity for students to participate in student-led initiatives and within international spaces, especially during challenging global times in the COVID-19 pandemic, have been beneficial - both for personal and professional development, and for the advancement of the future of international psychology (Balva et al., 2022; see also: Atalar, 2020; Bullock, Ober, 2018). Nearly 20 years after the creation of the IPSO, it is apparent that continued efforts to support collective and global student development and initiatives through student-led organizations - such as that of the GSPC, are still warranted and very much desired by the future psychologists of the world. Future directions As delineated in this article, student involvement and support of students within respective international psychology associations have been vital in further advancing international psychology across the globe. While this article has placed focus on select associations - specifically the APA’s Division 52 in honor of the Division’s 25th anniversary, the authors recognize the significant contributions of student involvement within other international psychology organizations not mentioned in this paper, in addition to the wonderful impact students have had across the globe at the university level as well. When looking at psychology associations and organizations in different regions of the world, these authors would be remiss not to comment on the continued need of increased support for students in respective organizations and within the profession at large. Literature has chronicled the impact that students can have in further developing and enhancing the field of psychology, and as history has shown, student-led organizations can also provide a powerful means of offering students meaningful opportunities for discourse, collaboration, and student-driven advocacy and initiatives[57] (Gallegos, 2014; Zhang et al., 2018) that may not always be afforded to students within professional organizations. The profession of psychology is encouraged to further support student efforts, initiatives, and programming - both by means of advancing the rights of students within psychology and by fostering global and collaborative leadership opportunities for students to work together. Along these lines, there is wonderful potential for global and equitable student-led organizations and endeavors that value the perspectives and contributions of students from across the globe (Balva et al., 2022). The history of student contributions to international psychology has been rich, and the future of student advances, leadership, and contributions to international psychology has the potential of being even richer. As such, these authors are eager for the future of international psychology!

About the authors

Daniel Balva

University of Georgia

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7411-7178

Ph.D., LMHC, NCC, CRC, is a Postdoctoral Psychology Resident, VA Pacific Islands Health Care System (Honolulu, Hawai'i); a graduate of the Counseling Psychology Program, University of Georgia (USA); the current Chair of the Global Student Psychology Committee (GSPC) and the Past Student Chair of APA’s Division 52

110 Carlton St, Athens, GA 30602, United States of America

Harold Takooshian

Fordham University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2309-9184

PhD in Psychology, is Professor of Psychology and Organizational Leadership, Fordham University (New York, USA); Editor of the new Psychology Coalition at the United Nations (PCUN) book series on international psychology

113 West 60th St, New York, NY 10023, United States of America


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