Contemporary Philosophy of the East: Tradition and Innovations

Al-Janabi M.M., Lukyanov A.E.



RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):197-201
pages 197-201 views

Mansour Fahmy, Pioneer of Islamic Feminism in Modern Egyptian Thought

Mahmoud M.A.


Mansour Fahmy (1886-1959), one of the dramatic figures in modern Arab philosophical and social thought. He was the reformist and enlightenment figure in modern Arab history. He is also the owner of a notable current that was subjected to a violent attack that silenced him for a long time and forced him to "hide" physically. However, this did not eliminate the new opinions and positions that came at the beginning of the twentieth century towards the issue of women. He is the first to write with a scientific methodology - from the point of view of sociology - on Islamic discourse and its dealings with women. he sought to differentiate between religion and the religious establishment, between the personality of the Prophet Muhammad and what later prevailed in the books of jurisprudence and others. When he discussed the headscarf issue, he concluded that it was the product of traditions and customs that the Hijab is not from the Islamic religion. Islamic law has nothing to do with the Hijab. Mansour Fahmy's creativity was at one of the sensitive stages in Egypt's modern history in which the political, social, national, cultural, and revolution clashed in each one. All this, in turn, identified the problem of Mansour Fahmy's intellectual personality in the battles of thought and politics. This research's main task is to redraw the features of his actual personality and the reality of his intellectual, social, and political positions. Besides, this study seeks to uncover the effect of philosophy on crystallizing Mansour Fahmy's critical personality and its role in laying the foundations of the critical vision with its practical, reformist, and enlightening dimensions.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):202-212
pages 202-212 views

Abdalla Al-Nadeem, Pioneer of Patriotism and Civilization in the Modern Egyptian Thought

Hamzawy H.H.


Abdullah Al-Nadim (1842-1896) is one of the most important intellectual and political figures in modern Egyptian history. He played a major role in all significant stages of the Egypt nineteenth century. He was called "the orator of the revolution." He left his mark on various aspects of Arab social, political, and cultural life and awareness. So now it is very important to study and analyze his intellectual legacy, especially in contemporary circumstances, in which we see the rise of the new barbarism of various primitive religious Salafism. Abdullah Al-Nadim was one of the fine examples of the free intellectual. He committed to issues of society, national Idea, freedom, and progress. This study aims to trace the emergence and development of political, social, and literary ideas of Abdullah Al-Nadim. In their outcome, these ideas were the outcome of the Egyptian social, political, and national struggle against Ottoman despotism and its ruined remnants in the historical existence at that time. In his research and positions, critical and satirical ideas, precise clarity, depth, and loyalty to the truth and the nation's supreme interests are united. His creativity was a model for critical vision and mockery of the remnants of a collapsing world. He sought in all his works for alternatives to development and social progress, calling for modern civilization and freedom. His defense of women, their rights, and freedom was among the most dramatic at that time. Abdullah Al-Nadim sacrificed himself for these endeavors and goals. But at the same time, he revealed the possibility of synthesizing the poetic spirit and truth in theoretical and practical creativity. They are the issues and aspects that form the focus of this research.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):213-223
pages 213-223 views

Landmarks from the Heritage of the Moroccan Thinker, Mohamed Abed Al-Jabri

Moustakin M.


Muhammad Abed Al-Jabri (1935-2010) is one of the significant philosophical and scientific figures who left their strong and broad imprint in various fields of contemporary Arab culture. Al-Jabri created his philosophy towards various aspects of Arab history. This included philosophy, theology, politics, ethics, and other aspects. His philosophical works culminated in his famous book on "The Arab Mind," in which he dealt with "The Structure of the Arab Mind" and supplemented it with his famous book - "Critique of the Arab Mind." The article's primary task is limited to addressing the intellectual path of Al-Jabri by tracing what he wrote and the content of these works. Besides, in this article, what Al-Jabri wrote is arranged in chronological order in order to clarify the features of the general and particular course of his philosophical creativity. It is a necessary task for scientific research in his philosophy. It provides the reader and researcher with the complete basic set of his books.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):224-232
pages 224-232 views

Al-Ghazali's Image in Al-Jabri's works

Lachkar M.


Muhammad Abed Al-Jabri (1935-2010) is a famous philosophical and scientific figure in contemporary Arab thought. He is the author of the philosophy of "the Arab mind" and "the criticism of the Arab mind." He tried to establish his theory of looking at the ancient Arab heritage and modern Arab thought. He also tried to view them according to the critical vision criteria, which he laid the methodological foundations for in his essential philosophical writings, especially in the critique of the Arab mind trilogy. In this study, I seek to analyze and study various aspects of his analytical and critical approach towards Al-Ghazali and his theoretical creativity. As well as revealing the specificity of his position on the intellectual path of Al-Ghazali himself, based on the sequence of his books, Al-Jabri considered Al-Ghazali's personality as a large and complex problem, so that It is challenging to define entirely and accurately. However, this does not exclude him from the possibility of defining the criteria of science in general and philosophy in particular. In this research, I tried to reveal that the position of Al-Jabri himself represents in some sense the continuation of the problematic and complexity of Al-Ghazali himself. Al-Jabri raised more problems than the answer to them. And the controversy remains and is getting stronger. The research into the personality and works of Al-Ghazali seems to have been and will remain for a long time due to the problematic character of Al-Ghazali himself, the diversity and differences of his intellectual, creative writing, and his tortuous nature. Hence, this study constitutes a contribution in this field.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):233-249
pages 233-249 views

Bimal K. Matilal's Philosophy: Language, Realism, Dharma, and Ineffability

Bilimoria P.


The article considers the theoretical and practical consequences of the so-called "soft" version of epistemological realism in Bimal K. Matilal's philosophical project. The author offers an analytical view on Matilal's philosophy, which helps to understand it in a broader prospective, comparing his arguments on perception and objectivity with contemporary arguments in Western analytical philosophy; in fact, it is possible to view Matilal not only as the proponent of revised Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika approach, but also as the follower of realistic view on language, following L. Wittgenstein, W. Quine, H. Putnam and M. Dummett. Despite the fact that such interpretation may sound diverse or multivocal, it nevertheless helps to better understand both lineages of argumentation: the critical review of the impossibility of private language can be compared in both Western and Indian philosophical discourses, which leads into the domain of social epistemology. The second part of the article discusses the ethical arguments on the vulnerability of moral virtues, and the place of Dharma as a term in moral philosophy. Poetical and metaphorical language appears to be a fruitful strategy to discover the ineffable - and also via negativa and catuṣkoṭi - which is shown by Matilal on the example of the unacceptability of lying. The ethical ineffability and its interconnection with Matilal's commentaries on practical wisdom play the crucial part in the interpretations of Dharmaśāstra texts.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):250-259
pages 250-259 views

Discussion on the Self in "Milindapañha" on Chariot: New Translation and Comments

Titlin L.I.


Introduction A good example of emergentism - interpreted by M. Siderits [1] as - Buddhist reductionism) is an excerpt from the dialogue between King Milinda[4] and the monk Nāgasena[5] about the self, which is part of the text close to the Abhidhamma tradition entitled "Milindapañha" (or "Questions of King Milinda"). The text was published by V. Trenckner in 1880 in [2] and translated into English by T.W. Rhys Davids [3] in the series "Sacred Books of the East". Furthermore, there is an English translation by I. B. Horner [4] and Bhikkhu Pesala [5] and into Russian by A.V. Paribok [6]. There are also German [7] and French translations [8; 9]. Yet the classical translation by Rhys Davids is currently largely obsolete. Paribok's translation into Russian is not convenient for practical use as it would need to be further translated into English, and this double translation, which is not very good from the point of view of the philological approach to the text. We have therefore decided to make our own, new translation of the passage from "Milindapañha", in which the dialogue about the self is being held.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):260-275
pages 260-275 views

Philosophical Value of the Confucian Treatise "Kong-Zi Jia Yu"

Blazhkina A.Y.


This article reveals the philosophical value of the Confucian treatise "Kong-zi jia yu," it examines issues of the theoretical importance for the history of world sinology. In the historicо-philosophical tradition, this text has long been attributed to the Confucian scientist Van Su (3rd century), however, not so long ago the situation changed significantly. In the modern scientific community, disputes around the authorship and time of writing this treatise continue. The content of "Kong-zi jia yu" is composed of stories from the life of Confucius, his conversations with his closest students, as well as prominent political figures of that time. These conversations are philosophical dialogues, they concern the most important ontological, ethical, aesthetic and epistemological issues, such as: harmonization of the Tianxia on the basis of virtuous management, the philosophical need for ritual practice, cosmological device of the Tianxia, issues traditional for early Confucianism of a pedagogical and educational nature, moral self-improvement. The diverse theme of "Kong-zi jia yu" is a valuable source that reveals the essence of the philosophy of early Confucianism. Individual fragments of "Kong-zi jia yu" coincide with the classic Confucian monuments "Shang shu," "Lun yu," "Xiao jing," etc. Although "Kong-zi jia yu" for a number of reasons, is not considered a classic text of Confucianism, but it carries an enduring philosophical value. The study of "Kong-zi jia yu" seems to the author of this work to be an urgent scientific task, the solution of which can expand the arsenal of world philosophical knowledge, as well as contribute to the dialogue of the philosophical cultures of the East and West.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):276-287
pages 276-287 views

Conception of Harmonious Union: Philosophy History Aspect

Majorow W.M.


The academic and humanitarian conception of harmonious union (hehe) has been proposed by Professor Zhang Liwen in the 1990s. It claims to explain the specifics of Chinese civilization and proposes solution of some global problems by its means. Despite the lack of direct references to the conception, it remains in demand both in the political and ideological discourse of the People's Republic of China. This presentations deals with the historical and philosophical facts available in Chinese written monuments and works of Antiquity and the Middle Ages, which are put forward as a justification for the primordial idea of ‘harmonious union’ in Chinese culture. An attempt is done to show that this concept does not offer any new set of philosophical categories, but appeals to the well-known concepts of two-, three- and five-item classifications. At the same time, the emphasis is laid on the form, the method of combining opposite or dissimilar elements. In general, on the basis of the limited historical and philosophical material, it can be concluded that the concept of harmonious unification is aimed not so much at revising the composition of the philosophical system of Confucianism, but at rethinking its value criteria for interaction and mutual dependence of objects and phenomena.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):288-297
pages 288-297 views

Bodily Contemplation: On the Question of the Truth of the Perception of Physical Objects in Chinese Landscape Painting

Wang Y.


This article analyzes the views of representatives of the scientific community on ancient Chinese landscape painting, emphasis is mainly placed on views that concern the spiritual qualities of landscape painting, as well as rethinking concepts that ignore the significance of sensual perception. Landscape painting is usually considered as a spiritual work of Taoism: landscape painting developed from Taoist thought, Taoist philosophy determined the identity of the artistic style and the inherent spirit of landscape painting. Moreover, some researchers even believe that bodily contemplation of landscape painting means setting the very original nature of mountains and waters, and the "knowledge of the truth" is a spiritual process that is more blocked by the human capacity for sensual perception. Some of the scientists completely deny the possibility and truth of sensual perception of physical objects in landscape painting. The author of this article believes that the spiritual component of landscape painting lurks precisely in the value of sensual perception, and bodily contemplation of mountains and waters is impossible without the participation of the body, clear confirmation of which we find in the ancient Chinese theory of arts. Ancient Chinese works of art traditionally had a close connection with sensual perception through bodily contemplation. This process is not simply about capturing object information, but when the subject takes an active part in the vision of the object, when the subject gives feedback to the object, and through acquiring the object its meaning is transmitted. Only through bodily contemplation, the individual can fully feel the artistic value of landscape painting, and Taoist philosophy thus gains a real existence in landscape painting, becoming a kind of emotional thinking.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):298-310
pages 298-310 views

Confucian Family Education and Ideological Tradition «Tian Di Jun Qin Shi»

Zhao X.


This article will briefly describe the features, methods, goals of family education in ancient China, as well as the relevant educational roles of the father and mother in the family. The article will also analyze one of the most unique characteristics of ancient Chinese family education: in each family fixed a tablet with the words «天地君亲» «Tian Di Jun Qin Shi» (Heaven, land, rulers, ancestors, sages). In ancient China, people believed that teachers and relatives, and heaven, earth, and monarchs, were objects that people should respect and worship. Obviously, this clearly differs from the traditions of most other countries. The idea of «Tian Di Jun Qin Shi» first appeared in «Guo Yu» (国语), and in «Xunzi» (荀子) you can see the initial form of this thought. Over the next 2000 years, these five words penetrate deeply into people's minds, and people often mention them in their daily lives. Their importance and value in Chinese culture and Chinese life are very important and indispensable. The role played by the idea of «Tian Di Jun Qin Shi» in ancient Chinese family education is more effective than any classical legal practice.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):311-319
pages 311-319 views

A Propos the Failed First Publication of the Russian Translation of Shu Jing

Stezhenskaya L.V.


The Book of Historical Documents (Shu jing) is an ancient Chinese written monument, a collection of addresses of the ruler to the subjects and of the subjects to the rulers. The philosophical meaning of Shu jing is that it mentions or refers to the issues of a broad ideological order. These brief references either gave life to philosophical ideas, or later, after appropriate interpretation, were used by the philosophers to authoritatively confirm their thoughts. The first complete Russian translation of Shu jing was done by Archimandrite Daniil (Dmitriy Petrovich Sivillov, 1789-1871) in the early 40s of the 19th century. The translation was undertaken, first and primarily, as a teaching material assigned to students of the Chinese Language Cathedra at the Kazan Imperial University. This cathedra was first one established in Russia and the second one in Europe. Archimandrite Daniel was its first head in 1837-1844. Unfortunately, the translator have never had a chance to publish his work. Sivillov for the first time in Russian and European Sinology used a purely Chinese commented edition of The Book . The canonical text used by Sivillov and later his followers was considered and understood through the prism of modern Neoconfucianism, which, in comparison with ancient and early medieval Confucianism, reinterpreted and significantly enriched the philosophical meaning of the Shu jing . In some points of understanding of the Neoconfucian interpretation of the ancient text, Archimandrite Daniil was not only ahead of, but also more successful than his later colleagues. The text of the previously unpublished Shu jing Chapter III Da Yu mo Russian translation by archimandrite Daniil is attached.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):320-327
pages 320-327 views


From Orthodox Messianism to the Doctrine of the "World Revolution": Continuity or a Radical Break with the Past?

Rumyantseva T.G.


In the 16th century, Moscow proclaimed itself to be the «the third Rome» and discovered the «special way» or Russian Orthodox Messianism doctrine. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the idea of Russia's unique global historical role went beyond exclusively church discussions, and the idea of «Moscow as the Third Rome» acquired an important place in the structure of imperial ideology. Even after a break with the past, after the 1917 October Revolution, the country did not abandon the idea of Messianism, which organically «fitted» into the structure of Soviet ideology. At the same time, reanimation of messianic moods was carried out here in the format of the doctrine of the «World Republic of Soviets» and/or «World Revolution.» Of course, some backbone elements of old Messianism underwent a significant transformation, which can hardly be called secularization. The purpose of this article is to show that the time 1917 mid-1930s may be described with the help of a peculiar dialectic, as the unity of a radical break with the past and the specifically manifested continuity with it. Subsequently, despite large-scale changes, the idea of the «peculiarity» of the Russian way, firstly in Soviet and then in Russian society, including the specific perception of its past, continued to remain an influential political brand. This kind of discourse should be considered highly archaic today; however, it does not become an attribute of the distant past, retaining the attractiveness and even acquiring state ideology.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):328-339
pages 328-339 views

Difficulties and Perspectives of Parametrical Conception of Language

Paribok A.V., Pskhu R.V., Zashchitina G.V., Roman L.G., Danilova N.N.


The article looks into the issues, outlined in M. Baker's The Atoms of Language: The Mind's Hidden Rules of Grammar . This work is notable for the parametric theory of the languages, set out in it, according to which languages are different, nevertheless retaining the ability to be compared. That can be further supported by the assertion that the differences among languages are determined by "a smallish number of discreet elements, called parameters."What is more, the diversity of language reveals a certain regularity, very much resembling that of Mendeleev's periodic table of chemical elements. Our research team of professional linguists and philosophers put this claim to a critical analysis, the results of which are featured in this article. One of the major ones among them is the supposition that Baker, in accordance with the traditions of Chomsky generative linguistics, turns temporal continuums into special relations. He did that without discussing the consequences of such move, which made it impossible to develop the psychological and linguistic aspect of the subject raised by him.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):340-348
pages 340-348 views


S.L. Frank and the Eurasians: New Pages in the History of the Russian Philosophical Emigration

Tsygankov A.S.



RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):349-354
pages 349-354 views

Forgotten Ways of Peacekeeping: A Review of the Book «Peace and War: Historical, Philosophical, and Anthropological Perspectives»

Kumankov A.D., Chaganova D.N.



RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):355-363
pages 355-363 views

In memory of A.E. Lukyanov

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RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2021;25(2):364
pages 364 views

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