Vol 28, No 2 (2023)


Parable in Nikolai Gogol’s works: specifics of the author's presentation

Demidov N.M., Kling O.A.


The parable of the works of N.V. Gogol as one of the most important elements of the writer's strategy is analyzed. Emphasis is placed both on its formal and content embodiment in the author's works. The formal part shows the important connection between the parable and the artistic detail of the literary work and the composition on the whole. The content part deals with the writer, who builds a complex system of conflicts and their role in the plot scheme. For the study, researchers consider it necessary to warn against a shallow analysis of Gogol's parable as a kind of vulgar form of reasonableness or teaching. Reading the author's texts shows that the parable departs from the classical model and resembles “die Parabel”, a form of parable in the literature of European modernism, which complicates and makes the edifying aspect less obvious. The parable element considered in this work should be studied not in general terms, but as an integral part of the poetics and artistic system of the author, which allows us to consider this phenomenon in more detail, as an individually mastered part of the composition of the work of a single author. Using this approach, it is possible to show Gogol as a phenomenon of world literature, and the reason for that is a complex system of parables, implemented in different ways in his literary works. This system absorbs particular elements of poetics using a variety of functions that form a single system of artistic originality of Gogol's texts. Moreover, it emphasizes the originality of texts and their dissimilarity from each other even within the author's collection.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):199-209
pages 199-209 views

The source of tragedy: love problems and the concept of eros in the story of L.D. Zinovieva-Annibal's “Thirty-Three Freaks”

Wang L., Mikhailova M.V.


The theme of love is reflected in a variety of ways in all the works of L.D. Zinovieva-Annibal. As one of the most representative works of the writer, the story “The Thirty-Three Freaks” is an important and particularly revealing link in proving the process of change in the creative method and worldview of the author. The aim of the study is to show the complex relationship between love and eros, not only in the story “The Thirty-Three Freaks”, but also in the real married life of Vyacheslav Ivanov and L.D. Zinovieva-Annibal. The writer's artistic embodiment of the ideas of her husband, the symbolist poet V. Ivanov, on the creation of a new religion, where Eros is “entrenched” and becomes a bearer of “solidarity”, is traced. V. Ivanov's utopian ideal project of organizing a new social form, although it ultimately failed, originally meant the intention to overcome individualism among the initiates, among the participants of the love action, which proves the influence of V. Solovyov's philosophy on the symbolists and, in particular, on the circle of visitors of “The Tower”. The study uses biographical, intertextual, and comparative-historical methods. The conclusion is made that in the ideal form of society, in which there is no place for individualism and egoism, the concept of inseparability of spirit and body should have prevailed. However, analysis of the novel “The Thirty-Three Freaks” shows that the heroine had not overcome individualism, that the path to comprehending of eros was theoretically declared, but was not realized in practice. Hence the tragic sound of the work and its disastrous finale.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):210-218
pages 210-218 views

Komponenty neoromanticheskoy syuzhetnoy skhemy v proizvedeniyakh A. Grina i L. Perutsa

Klimenko I.V.


The functioning of the components of the neoromantic plot scheme “an ordinary person in unusual circumstances” in the works by A. Grin, who is traditionally recognized as a neoromantic, and in the works by a representative of another artistic movement L. Perutz, is compared. This kind of comparison seems to be productive as it allows defining the differential features of a neoromantic plot. The thesis is expressed about the rethinking of the plot scheme in the novel by the Austrian writer. In the works by A. Grin the main character reveals his best qualities by dealing with unusual circumstances and coping with himself, however in the novel by L. Perutz, circumstances make the character to overcome himself to no avail, because he is deprived of the necessary spiritual qualities. Changing of points of view functions both in stories by A. Grin and in the Perutz’s novel as a plot-forming and compositional device and it is also used in creating images of characters. A. Grin focuses on the opposition between the character’s inner point of view and the point of view which is external to him. In the novel by L. Perutz the main character tries to find himself coping with external points of view. The interaction between the neoromantic and modernistic features of the novel is analyzed. L. Perutz solves the issue of the human existence reality/unreality, the fragility of the human self-boundaries by modifying neoromantic plot scheme. Integrity of A. Grin’s characters helps them to cope with circumstances and with themselves in circumstances whereas the L. Perutz’s character acquires integrity only on the verge of death.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):219-227
pages 219-227 views

The History of the Russian State by Boris Akunin is Grigori Chkhartishvili’s game of conspiracy?

Elfimova M.G.


The author deals with the question of Chkhartishvili’s pen names and their role in his work. The characteristics of literary masks, history of their appearance are presented. A general analysis of Chkhartishvili's literary activity and the evolution of his style is also given. The features of the use of various images “tried on” by the writer when creating the main works are analyzed, the necessity of referring to pseudonyms is justified. The main part of the work is devoted to the problem of authorship in the project History of the Russian State, as well as an explanation of the motives that guide G. Chkhartishvili, publishing a historical work under the pseudonym of Boris Akunin. An assessment of Akunin's writing style, his ability to transform familiar genres to the needs of the audience, time, author's tasks, etc., is presented, and the project's fiction texts are overall analyzed. Conclusions are made about the literary image of Chkhartishvili-Akunin as an alternative hero involved in the creation of a historical project. This fact suggests that the writer once again demonstrates his ability to reincarnate, change plot and style and, of course, transform the manner of writing, when working on a particular work of fiction.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):228-236
pages 228-236 views

Translation and criticism of the works of Leo Tolstoy in Shanghai at the beginning of the 20th century

Yang M.


The translation, dissemination, and criticism of Leo Tolstoy's works by Shanghai intellectuals in the early 20th century are discussed. The author restores the unique social and historical context in China in the first two decades of the 20th century, combs Tolstoy's works published in Shanghai and critical articles about the writer published by various newspapers and periodicals, revealing the psychological dynamics and reality of these translators and critics, and summarizes Shanghai's outstanding contributions to the dissemination of Tolstoy and the promotion of Tolstoy's research in China.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):237-246
pages 237-246 views

The study on Grossman’s Life and Fate in China: history and present advance

Wang Q.


The author attempts to systematize and summarize the review works of Chinese philologists devoted to Grossman’s Life and Fate . Different Chinese translation versions of the novel are listed and two stages and three aspects of the study on this novel in China are elaborated. The author describes how the study on Life and Fate has developed in China, how scholars in Chinese academic circles view this novel, and what place this novel occupies in Chinese literary criticism. It is concluded that the study of Life and Fate began early enough in China and nowadays is experiencing a new rise. However, Chinese scholars should hold their own point of view on Grossman’s works instead of following Russian or Western scholars’ viewpoint.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):247-255
pages 247-255 views

The evolution of Arabic historical literature and its current trends: canons and invariants

Zarytovskaya V.N., Al-Rahbi A.M.


The study is devoted to the peculiarities of the development of the Arabic historical novel, the consistent transformation and “erosion” of its canons within the framework of the literary trends of the 20th and 21st centuries. The relevance of the topic, on the one hand, is due to the fact that the historical novel has not lost its significance in Arabic national literature. The share of works of this genre is still high, they occupy the first lines in the distribution of literary prizes. On the other hand, against the background of the general process of globalization, it is interesting to trace the trajectory of the development of the genre in the so-called “lagging” literature, to which many researchers rank Arabic literature. Some works of the genre fell into the focus of both Arabic, Western, as well as domestic orientalist-literary critics and were subjected to deep comprehensive consideration. Today, however, the novels of recent decades also require analysis. The purpose of the study was not just to identify the works of Arab authors that have received wide recognition in recent years, but to fit them into the paradigm of the development of the historical genre and thereby determine its direction in the near future. To do this, the authors tried to compare classical historical novels with modern ones, characterizing their heroes, describing the periods in the history of the Arab world that Arab authors addressed and continue to address within the genre, determining the degree of epic, historical authenticity, etc., in modern examples of the genre. It was found out, that classical heroes with a standard set of heroic qualities that influence the course of history are replaced by thinkers, scientists, dervishes, ordinary observers, and critical epochs and specific historical events are replaced by troubles periods - before or after a catastrophe, major transformations. Conclusions were drawn about the historicity of Arabic literature back in the pre-Islamic era, the long-term preservation of the canons of the Early Middle Ages in the genre, the sharp transformation of the genre and the refusal from the canons under the influence of postmodernism that penetration into Arabic soil in the mid 1960s coincided with the military and social upheavals of the history of Arabs. The direction of the genre, which is pronounced today towards ethnoliterature, is emphasized.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):256-270
pages 256-270 views

Challenging Eurocentric narratives: a postcolonial feminist analysis of the lives and experiences of Third World women

Rather N.A.


The ideas of Chandra Talpade Mohanty, a leading postcolonial feminist scholar, are explored. Attention is drawn to the criticism of Western feminist scholarship by postmodern and postcolonial feminists for its tendency to assume that the experiences of Third World women are universally and essentially same, ignoring the diversity and complexity of their lives. In an effort to better understand and give voice to the variety of experiences among Third World women, these feminists have sought to challenge misleading stereotypes that depict them as helpless, submissive, and oppressed. The importance of recognizing that the lives and experiences of Third World women are shaped by a multitude of factors, including cultural customs, language, history, education, family dynamics, societal values, religion, racial identity, social class, politics and economic status is emphasized. The novel Women at Point Zero is analyzed to illustrate how all these factors in combination play a role in defining the lives and experiences of Third World women. Through this analysis, Eurocentric narratives are challenged and their limitations are exposed. It is also shown how Firdaus, a character in the novel, opposes and subverts essentialist and stereotypical views of women from the global South as passive and oppressed.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):271-283
pages 271-283 views

Socially-engaged narrative in contemporary Hindi poetry

Strelkova G.V., Lesik K.A.


The influence of Marxist ideology has played a peculiar role in the formation of Hindi literature. Many writers believed that a literary word, illuminating the problems of inequality and oppression, could awake effective political, social and economic actions that could change an ordinary person’s life. In contemporary Hindi poetry there is the rise of young poets’ interest in socially-engaged narrative, which they clarify with the concept of “socialist”. It is aimed at criticizing the world order surrounding them and the desire to point out the problems of social peace. The authors discuss and translate for the first time the poems of the 21st century - Hindi poets of the left wing Alokadhanva and Avinash Mishra. They, drawing the reader's attention to the fact that the art of the word is given to them from above, raise acute social issues with realistic poems and simple language, hiding their powerlessness behind rhetorical appeals calling for an active struggle. Special attention is paid to the artistic techniques, which are practically not used in this poetry. It is concluded that poets create their own metapoetics focused on revising literature’s mission as a way of exposing the modern society’s vices.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):284-292
pages 284-292 views


European TV in the 2020s: challenges and development trends

Ershov Y.M.


The author examines the institutional originality of television in the countries of the European Union. The purpose of the study is to explain the nature of the institution of European broadcasting, which better than anything else reflects the idea of a common European home. A brief historical overview of the establishment of the European Broadcasting Union and cooperation between national broadcasters in Europe is given. The task is to identify the dynamics and trends in the development of the community of European broadcasters in the context of political, economic and technological changes in recent years. European TV is a testing ground for global TV, in which international (primarily American) and pan-European cross-border TV channels play an increasingly important role. Domestication of such channels occurs both through the localization of the content of programs, and through the titration of audio content in regional languages. The institutionalization of European television broadcasting takes place through various competitions and the activities of EU decentralized bodies, which are called upon to support joint projects in the field of TV, cinema, and the professional education of journalists (European Executive Agency for Education and Culture). At the same time, European television is not concerned about unification, keeping in mind the motto of the European Union - “In varietate сoncordia”. The diversity of the information space of the European continent is associated with the presence of several stable models for the functioning of television production, as well as with regional cultures that influence both media consumption patterns and television viewing volumes.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):293-305
pages 293-305 views

Czech Republic television: genre and thematic features of TV news in 1989-2021

Lapuk E.V.


The author applies the content analysis to study 1608 video news of the Czech TV in 1989, 2005 and 2021. The studies of two categories “Genre” and “Thematic” were conducted. The hypotheses about the increase of negative information in TV news and the rise of entertainment content is tested. Much attention is given to seeking changes in the genres of TV news, which occur as a result of media convergence and the expansion of user-generated content. The greatest genre diversity was found in the modern period (2021), the lowest genre diversity was noted in 1989, when seven out of ten media texts were prepared in the “short note” genre. User-generated content brought only minor changes to the TV news genres. Over time, the role of PR-texts in TV news increases: the number of announcements increases more than tenfold between 1989 and 2021. Previous research indicate that mass media have a tendency to focus on violent and negative content. In the context of the TV news topics, it is demonstrated that nowadays there is an increase to some extent in news on crime and incidents and a slight decrease of the political agenda compared to 1989. Besides, it is reported that the number of sports TV news has significantly decreased, that confirms the trend of differentiation of the audience by TV programs focused on a single subject and specialty (or cable) channels.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):306-317
pages 306-317 views

Television of the Republic of Tatarstan as an instrument of national identity

Dautova R.V., Tikhonova O.V.


The study of the role of regional television in national identification has gained particular relevance in the context of contemporary processes of mediatisation and globalisation. The theoretical significance of the results is related to the identification of the techniques of media identification in a historical perspective, as well as to the discovery of the factors influencing the identification process. The authors present the results of a study of both the historical experience of the development of state television in the territory of Tatarstan and the modern practice of the TV channel “Tatarstan - New Century”, which is currently considered the main national channel in the republic. The degree to which the topic of regional television development in Russia and around the world has been studied in terms of the specifics of national broadcasting, and studies which address the problem of ethnic identification through the media have been taken into account. A large body of empirical material was used to identify traditions and innovations in the activities of regional television, whose mission is to preserve and develop the native language, cultural and historical heritage. Through the analysis of empirical data the continuity of regional television traditions in relation to the national component is shown for the first time.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):318-332
pages 318-332 views

Russia and Ukraine in the mirror of each other’s TV channels

Dolgova Y.I.


TV channels of each country usually report international news differently according to the citizen’s interests and foreign policy priorities of said country. Thus, foreign policy conflicts can be covered in multiple ways, this fact obviously does not contribute to their resolution. Research focuses on the coverage of the Russian-Ukrainian confrontation by the state-owned channels of these countries in 2014-2016. The samples include all news related to Ukraine on the Russian TV channel (Russia 1) and Russia on the Ukrainian channel (UA First) during seven weeks when the selected key events occurred. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used. All news items were classified into four categories: political news, military news, economic news, social news. The considerable influence of national interest on media frames were shown. Russian and Ukrainian journalists were similarly interested in each other's events, even if the news of the moment was not directly related to the conflict. Both TV channels covered important global news, however they often selected different events which would be interesting for their national audience or related to their country's foreign policy. The both channels had been gradually losing interest in Russian-Ukrainian crisis up to 2015.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):333-343
pages 333-343 views

Classical theories of media systems: relevance for the contemporary research

Yakova T.S., Volkova I.I.


The results of a comparative analysis of classifications of media systems developed by foreign researchers in the 20th-21st centuries are presented. Particular attention is paid to the criteria, determinants and comparison parameters that were used in different classifications to identify common characteristics of media systems in different countries. The empirical base of the study includes both popular and little-known authors in the Russian scientific literature, but widely cited in foreign studies, who have formed original classification structures. The basis for the choice of concepts and classifications were the results of the analysis of research and educational programs of Russian and foreign universities, the historical sequence of scientific papers, logical connection with predecessors and followers, contribution to the scientific literature on the theory of journalism and high citation in modern media studies. The main criterion for the selection of the most popular classifications became a citation analysis of foreign researchers’ scientific publications on this topic in the scientometric system Google Scholar that accumulates scientific works from different countries, as well as statistics of Yandex. It is concluded that the main characteristics of media systems, as well as the criteria and parameters used in the most famous classifications (the second half of the 20th - beginning of the 21st century), remain relevant and can be adapted to the analysis of the modern media sphere.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):344-354
pages 344-354 views

Transforming the future: a review of artificial intelligence models

Pugachev A.A., Kharchenko A.V., Sleptsov N.A.


A comprehensive review of existing artificial intelligence models, focusing on fourteen prominent language and multimodal generative models from four rapidly evolving categories: Marketing, Copywriting, Image Improvement, and Social Media, is made. As of May 2023, 1,523 AI models are available to end users, with notable Russian services such as Balaboba, GigaChat, and Kandinskiy 2.0 emerging as counterparts to popular foreign neural networks. The potential applications of these tools in various media production domains, including journalism, marketing, and copywriting, are explored. It was necessary to talk about language models, since these are the ones, most connected not only to the media sphere, but to academic writing as well. Moreover, the authors delve into the ethical considerations associated with the use of AI models in professional settings, addressing potential challenges and concerns. The importance of responsible development, use, and regulation of AI technology, as well as the need for collaboration among researchers, governments, and private organizations to ensure ethical AI practices, is highlighted. The authors also outline the prospects for further development of AI models and related research, emphasizing the need to foster an environment of continuous learning for innovation that is inclusive and accessible. This approach will help maximize the benefits of AI while minimizing potential harm, paving the way for a more prosperous, equitable, and sustainable future. The presented materials can serve as an introduction to the emerging branch of AI models development.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):355-367
pages 355-367 views

The role of university project-based learning technology in shaping a holistic media personality

Gavrilov V.V.


The project method in training journalism students is effective and in demand. The author's experience proves it. The main thematic works of domestic and foreign scientists, methodologists, journalists-practitioners were analyzed. The experiment conducted in two groups of future journalists showed that projecting allows the successful development of professional competencies outlined in the Federal State Educational Standard. In doing so, motivation for learning and future activities increases, skills in using digital tools improve, and oratorical abilities improve. The material for the study was the author's teaching work with journalism students of the Faculty of Philology at Surgut State Pedagogical University. The modeling and questioning methods were used. The analysis of the results of the experiment allows to conclude about the effectiveness of the project method of teaching as a means of forming a holistic media personality of a journalism student at university (within the framework of the activity-based approach).

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):368-380
pages 368-380 views

Exposure of fake news to the Indian social media users

Pandey B., Kumar G., Algavi L.O., Kumar M., Sharma V.


In the modern world, people are too techno-friendly and dependent on technology using the Internet for every work. The same goes for the news. People are shifting from traditional mass media to digital news platforms and getting news through websites, news portals, social media, etc. If you are dependent on the Internet for every kind of information, then you will face false information on the Internet. False or fake news is defined as any information that does not have any credible and reliable source behind it or any misleading information that is likely to mislead the public. The aim behind fake news transmission is to damage a person's or entity's reputation or advertising revenue. If you want not to fall into the fake news you should know about fake news detection and media literacy. The main purpose of the study is to check the exposure of fake news awareness and fake news detection methods among social media users. In the current scenario, this is much necessary to know that social media users have the advisable knowledge of fake news detection and media literacy because people easily fall into the rumors. Mob lynching is one of the biggest rumors on the Indian Internet. In this research, the survey method and questionnaire for data collection were used. The questionnaire was distributed randomly over different social media platforms and emails to the intended respondents. The findings obtained reveal that most fake or false news in India is transmitted through WhatsApp, but social media users have adequate knowledge of fake news and media literacy.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):381-396
pages 381-396 views

Media strategies with lobbyists: government support for the IT industry

Kotov A.A., Nigmatullina K.R., Polyakov M.L.


The communication component of lobbying activity and the role of media communications in achieving lobbying goals are considered on the example of the formation of the legal field of the information technology (IT) industry in the conditions of 2022. As an empirical material, public content initiated by large associations defending the interests of the industry in the media field was chosen. The consistent communicative coupling of the IT industry with the activities of the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation is shown. To analyze the lobbying process, the reputation management, media monitoring and social media system “SCAN-Interfax” was used. In relation to the topic of lobbying for IT interests, a gap in communication activity between the Ministry of Finance and industry associations in absolute terms was revealed. At the same time, in relative terms to the total number of mentions in the media, the efforts were comparable. The actualization of the media strategy of IT associations on the transfer of public merits to the regulator - the Ministry of Finance was found, while the conclusion was made about the effectiveness of lobbying efforts. Semantic analysis of the communication activity of a particular association demonstrated an algorithm for implementing the goals of mediatized lobbying.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2023;28(2):397-414
pages 397-414 views

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