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This article discusses aspects of the development of advertising in Russia and the place of international advertising in particular. The main features are the volume of international advertising and the audience motives in the consumption of such information in close connection with the general economic situation in the country, as well as the attitude towards the “other” countries.

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Since the inception of market relations in modern Russia in the total volume of advertising in the media international advertising dominated. This predominance during long time had a very stable character, but after the appearance on the market of domestic goods and domestic advertising designated.Especially clearly (in the truest sense of the word) television advertising indicates the validity of such conclusion. In June 1995, all of the first ten largest advertisers on TV (6 channels) were foreign producers (for the cost of advertising time amounted). They were Procter & Gamble, Stimorol, Hershiz and others. Practically they also dominated the TV shows the frequency (number of advertising was aired). In June 1996, foreign companies accounted for 81% of all advertising spending among the fifty largest advertisers spend on advertising, and costs the most powerful trio - Procter & Gamble, Master Foods and Nestle - provided among these fifty 29% (1).More recent data are as follows [1]:TOP - 10 advertisers in Russia (as of 2002)Table 1Position in the worldPosition in RussiaAdvertiserBudget $ million11Procter & Gamble6192Nestle55233Mars5034Uniliver46205PepsiCo43516Wm. Wrigley38347Danone36No data8Wimm-Bill-Dann31329Henkel241310Соса-Со1а16This podium has not changed significantly in the whole world (2) and in our country, although the overall advertising market in Russia has decreased in 2015 compared with 2014 by 10% [2. P. 150].What attitude was toward advertising in our country at that time? Just say that, firstly, on the basis of the above, we can say that it was the attitude to international advertising; secondly, we take only the level of emotions, so to speak, the tone evaluation, attitude characteristics related to advertising.From the beginning of market relations in Russia socio-psychological background was extremely unfavorable for advertising. Advertising in our minds for a long time was teasing (and so annoying) the label of “not-our” society. But she began to annoy us even more when infiltrated in a boss-like way into our daily life.In fairness it should be noted that advertising is not easily perceived elsewhere. And if we specifically set out to build all the countries in the order of the “degree of irritation” of citizens by advertising, all countries would be lined up in order, just as they are built according to life expectancy, infant mortality, the level of cleanliness of drinking water coming of household tap, etc. Whenever it may be a different sequence, but the fluctuations are not very significant: as a rule, a society concerned about the purity of drinking water, is far ahead of other countries in dealing with child mortality: generally speaking, the purer the water the less irritation advertising…I would say more definitely: countries with large social and material comfort, where the Western models of consumption function - as they are known, are characterized by the fact that consumption several times higher than spending on necessary physiological level of life support - is much more forgiving to this our century phenomenon - to advertising. Apparently, tolerance connects here with a formula familiar to us from the texts on the philosophical and social criticism of the human existence: the recognition of necessity radically change our outlook on life.It was possible to find empirical confirmation this thesis. I have already given this information in my textbook [3. P. 170-171], but it’s very revealing information. If this does not seem very strong statement, we, in these cases, have the cut of the society condition in different countries at that time.According to an international survey of “Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.” company, figures for 1995 are as follows: With the judgement “Advertisement contains the elements of creativity, it entertains” agree respondents in different countries:North America75%Latin America68%Middle East66%Asia63%Western Europe60%Central Europe40%Countries of the former USSR23%With the judgement “Producers of products provide reliable information” agree respondents in different countries:Latin America49%Asia46%North America43%Middle East35%Western Europe30%Central Europe23%Countries of the former USSR9%In practice, it turns out that the population of the countries that the same producers are running, and therefore advertisers, display different attitude to the presentation of these products, to the information substitute of these products, to duplicate information of products - advertising.The explanation of this phenomenon, which can be attributed to the macro factors for our country, we have already given. In short, the explanation lies in the duration of the existence of society in the information field, where advertising takes a stable place. But that is not all.Next pretty strong factor - a generational characteristics of the population, which is largely influenced its attitude towards advertising. Sociologists and culture scientists have long been noted that in general, the younger generation is largely more loyal - and I would even say more pragmatic - relates to advertising.For example, a newspaper article about the situation in the German families from this angle is called verysymptomatic in this sense: «What and where to buy in German families the children decide to» [4].German child chooses what TV advertises, TV forms needs of the younger generation in Germany. And adults, if they want to prevent it, constantly lose the battle; children are better prepared theoretically: they watch regularly television advertising and well take their bearings in enormous flow of goods, essentially being the main buyer in many German families. As magazine “Der Spiegel” emphasized, which the author of the newspaper article refers to, small buyers are becoming an increasingly important factor in the German economy.According to the Munich Institute of Youth Survey in the middle of 1990 years annual spending of German families under the influence of children or even under their pressure put together about 23 billion marks. In most families, the children actively participate in the discussion vacation plans, and their opinion is often crucial. The highest authority in their parents children have at choosing technical goods: computers, etc.Technical knowledge of young generation in Germany (and not only in Germany) is significantly higher than the current level of an adult.. In this process, a special role belongs to advertising. According to Holger Jung from Hamburg agency, half of fond advertising children already at ten years have stable market landmarks. And it is not only the German situation.US companies purposefully work with children, seeing them as a powerful consumer group that spends a year in excess of $ 82 billion. According to the study “Marketing with children”, 17% of all US families spending somehow connected with children, and 63% of children have their favorite brand of goods.For 17 years the average teenager is earning $ 93 a week. Teenagers aged 14 to 17 years have a total income of $ 23.9 billion per year, of which 93% go into action immediately.These economic calculations add culturological considerations: as a rule, Western advertising has a profound charge of social optimism, the problems of life actually abut only in their technology solutions (as stated in one advertisement: “ate - and order!”). There is no social difficulties, there is no place for personal reflection, decision-making mechanism is simplified to a minimum ... and it facilitates the selection of the younger generation. And it responds the Russian audience too - here the younger generation is more loyal to advertising in general (read - to the international advertising). We also note that it was during the period when advertising goods were foreign manufacturer: if you wanted the TV - this was a foreign television; you wanted a mobile phone - it will be a foreigner phone; you wanted a remedy for teenage acne - this was a foreign agent of acne. That was time when a large mass of goods at the Russian market, including consumer goods, was imported ... And it gradually affected the attitude toward advertising.It is no accident that the research by the Levada-Center (3) of the last decade (2008, 2010, 2013), devoted to a number of problems with advertising, show that answers the question “What most attracts you in advertising?” are very weighty:Table 2Answers the question “What most attracts you in advertising?” (in % of respondents)Possible answersOctober 2008October 2010August 2013Useful information about the consumer properties of a product / service312631information about the new products333135defining fashion trends7610plots commercials202016other232318Note: The requested could give several answers, so the sum exceeds 100 percent.International advertising has always been of interest to researchers, not only by the fact of its presence in the information space of another country, but by those models to follow which its content contains, by those values that it transmits.I would use here the concept of «soft power», introduced at the time by J. Nye [5.P. 8], firmly entered today in the scientific discourse. J. Nye developed the concept of the impact on other countries in using system preferences, which is formed with culture, ideology, and various institutions. Nye said about the «hard power» (economic and military power), serving as a means of coercion, and «soft power» or «flexible force», showingthat effect of a state to the outside world It can be just as much, if not more, than the effect achieved by military or economic means. Under the «soft power» J. Nye understands«the ability to convince others to desire the same things you want.»From this postulate, we can deduce the role of another factor affecting people’s attitudes to international advertising - the extent to which the same values of indigenous peoples and of the advertising that delivers advertisers with the goods on the territory of this country.At the time, social scientists, analyzing the ratio of the population in developing countries, particularly Latin America, to advertising, stated that there is in this respect a kind of spiral: the population believes that modern technologies contribute to the production of many fine goods, possession of which leads to a good life, way of life; social and political management in the countries that produce these commodities is «the best available» (this is my allusion to Churchill’s expression).Although here we can reconcile the fact of the relationship to the goods, and through them to their advertising, and related to the producing country, we must bear in mind that this dependence is not direct: international brands obviously win, sometimes there is exaggeration of the merits of the national product…Of course, there is a special demand with mass media (though mythology, literature, art, folklore, education system, cinematography, tourism did not disappear). In the quantitative increase in the number of people with individual «regional geographic» story is still much of the world’s population has one source of its information about other countries - media communications as privileged.But even this set of system has different possibilities. In national news channels significantly increases the volume of materials by foreign news agencies, foreign agencies footage on television; foreign films on television and in film distribution, and that we are now particularly interested in - from international advertising agency network.It means that mass communication rapidly create value world configuration in the national information flows as, in their opinion, the most advantageous for the public opinion of the country, including with the help of promotional streams, which today make up in informational channels vast amounts (under Russian law - in newspapers advertising can be 40% of the total, on radio and television 15-20%).Concerning the information situation in our country, media impact on its audience in terms of building the relationship to the «other» country has throbbing character: it is to a great extent due to changes in government policy in relation to a particular country; on the consumer pole it depends on the number of information sources for each individual and on the possibility of visiting these alternative sources viewpoints by him.When bilateral relations become more strained, it often finds a way out in a single- color light of a number of countries by state media communication, the most consumed by the population.Of course, we need special opinion polls focusing on our subject of conversation. Now we can only say that one component of the process - that is warming the state policy towards the countries of the West - already is present, which affected the change of opinion of the population of our country, mainly TV-dependent, and mainly on state television.Here are the most recent data by the Levada-Center. Under the symptomatic title “Power changes its course towards the West” [6], we find the assumption that “Russian citizens still outlined the first signs of growth in the positive relation to the US and Europe. For example, respondents are now more willing to acknowledge again that the West is a place with a better quality of life”. Although there is still a poor perception of the United States and the European Union: about America as “mostly bad” and “very bad” the 64% talked about; “mainly good” and “very good” - 25%, one in ten (11%) found it difficult to answer to this question. Similar figures and Europe has. It seems to be, as before, 60% overall say something bad about her, 28% - a rather good, 12% found it difficult to answer.This tendency, however, is slowly but surely starting to go down. In fact disapproval indicators handled some years ago about 80%. Over the past year increased from 19 to 24% rate considering that in the West people live well and quietly. And decreased from 25 to 18% of respondents calling Western countries force that will always be hostile to our country. Total rose to 20% the number of those who points the fact that the West - this is the greatest achievement of science and art (10%) and legal state as an ideal model of development (10%). A year earlier, there were answers as 8 and 6%, respectively.The perception of the US and the EU by our population came back to the level of spring 2014; the peak of the negative attitude towards them, which was recorded in the first half of 2015, passed.There’s also the site quotes the head of the Center of political and economic reforms, Nikolai Mironov (from material in “Nezavisimaya Gazeta”) who said: “The fact that people began to better relate to the West, is pure propaganda result. Most of the our population, except the intelligentsia and the middle class, are TV-dependent, TV- spherical, their opinion following the TV”. He noted that the year before on television there was more tough rhetoric against the West, it is now softened, negotiations and visits of Western politicians to us have place. The expert explained that the trend is likely to continue to be soft.As for the attitude of the population to the imported goods and their advertising, it can be affected by presence of such goods in the trade network. Here, of course, will be in demand and the availability of this with the level of solvency of the population, which, judging by the comments of analysts, it begins to fall.Even when new imported goods will be available advertising of these products will meet with inevitable criticism increased - because there will be a huge gap between the financial possibilities for consumption and objective proposals of goods and services of different price categories; because patterns of behavior, image and lifestyle that advertisement shows coincides with goods increased price range...In short, a deep analysis of the process is ahead.Objective reality: we are at the point of human civilization, which is considered to be a promising trend of modernizing societies; such a society as a whole is aware of the value and importance of social and cultural diversity in the samples of life and realized the willingness of integration to universal socio-cultural space.Some of the functions necessary to achieve these objectives advertising realizes. Although it manifests itself strongly socio-political science issues associated with the feeling of the population in global coordinates. There is a section of the analysis associatedwith the identification of the population, with self-reflection about its place in the civilized world map... But in the same time we find here the place of the process, which was called glocalization. Which trend will win - that is also a question.In any case, cross-cultural interaction does not stop: the interpersonal and business contacts; global newspaper, TV and radio, the Internet; theatrical performances. The depth of the structure of personality, which is affected by “foreign” codes of conduct vary: it can be quite superficial effects or interactions have been given the deep layers of cultural patterns of national identity. Mass impact and high probability of contacts with the groups of media, where the advertising has place (publicity disseminated by the mass media, which is very tight interlock with our vital functions), make it a promising in terms of cross-cultural interaction, changes in the regulatory matrix of personality influenced by the “other”, “different “culture. But what will be the perception of the “other”, “otherness” by the masses - the big question. It operates the sum of many factors. And all of this - a base for long-term studies of advertising from this point of view.In the short term, we are dealing with a crucial period: advertising expenses reduced basically due to the global economic crisis; in a situation of social and political changes in our country the number of imported goods sharply reduced; there have place changes in the structure of the media due to restrictions on the possession of imported capital holders.In this situation, a positive trend in the development of advertising should be considered potency of small and medium-sized businesses, declared by our country’s leadership. But traditionally, these business entities have programs on promotion mainly via merchandising, as activities at the point of sale (and then their opportunities are tremendous - the game with the price tags, discounts, location of the goods on the shelves, on the trading floor, samples, tasting and so on.), bypassing the media channels. To international advertising it will not have a relationship.NOTESThese statistics are published in the “Moscow Advertising Review”, the monthly newsletter for the advertising business professionals. See the issues of the magazine for 1995-98. The data presented in the text, are calculated in absolute values, appears in the magazine table.As of 2014, the world’s TOP-10 advertisers: Procter & Gamble, Unilever, L’oreal, Coca-Cola, Toyota, Volkswagen, Nestle, General Motors, Mars, McDonald’s. Source - Annual 2016. Advertising Age. December, 2015.The information provided to the Centre’s website. The survey was conducted on a representative sample of 1,600 Russians aged 18 years and older in 127 settlements of 44 regions of the country. The statistical error of these studies did not exceed 3.4%.

About the authors

L N Fedotova

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Miklukho-Maklaya str., 10/2, Moscow, Russia, 117198


Copyright (c) 2016 Федотова Л.Н.

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