Vol 26, No 3 (2022)


Where to go at the end: Polylexicalization and polygrammaticalization of Kaz ‘edge’ in Korean

Rhee S.


Nominal lexemes undergo in history extensive development in the lexical as well as grammatical domains. Their semantic change involves diverse threads of conceptualization which shows significant aspects of language development. Despite the series of intriguing changes in form and meaning that the Late Middle Korean lexeme kaz ‘edge’ has undergone, encompassing polylexicalization and polygrammaticalization that merit an in-depth analysis, it has not yet received earnest attention to date. Thus, this paper aims to fill the research gap by analyzing the lexeme’s development from Late Middle Korean to Modern Korean from the grammaticalization perspective, drawing upon data from a historical corpus and dictionaries. An extensive diachronic data analysis based on concordance and lexical searches shows that new meanings or functions are so diverse that some of them even form an antonymic relation. Such a wide-ranging semantic and functional diversity is attributable in part to the role of the participating forms in word formation processes such as derivation and compounding but, more importantly, to differential conceptualizations of the source meaning ‘edge’ e.g., entity-internal and entity-external conceptualizations; mapping the ‘edge’ onto different continua, e.g., degree, path, likelihood; and involvement of subjectification, e.g., evaluative-epistemic judgment such as counter-expectation. The innovated meanings resulting from such cognitive operations form a conceptual network. The developmental processes of the lexeme kaz ‘edge’, in general, can be explained with reference to grammaticalization mechanisms, such as desemanticization, extension, decategorialization, and erosion, and some mechanisms are also operative in lexicalization as well. However, erosion, or the reduction of phonetic volume, is not prominent in these changes, suggesting that the principles should be interpreted as tendencies rather than deterministic diagnostics. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationship between lexicalization and grammaticalization.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):571-595
pages 571-595 views

Rhetorical structure and persuasive features of advertising: An intercultural analysis of English and Arabic online advertisements

Khedri M., Hasan E., Kritsis K.


Nowadays, the bulk of e-commerce is carried out in English. At the same time, however, the emergence and growth of Arab e-commerce has attracted attention from e-commerce giants, such as AliBaba and Amazon. Acquiring a deeper understanding of culture-specific advertising practices is thus quickly becoming necessary for digital advertisers and marketers seeking to tap into both English- and Arabic-speaking consumer markets. Despite this, little has been written on online advertising discourse within the particular contexts. To address this, the present study reports on a pragmatic two-level rhetorical analysis of the macro-structure of the sub-genre of online advertisements in English and Arabic and focuses on the identification of the persuasive linguistic features employed to signal constituent moves. Drawing upon Swales’ move-step model of rhetorical analysis, the exploration of a comparable corpus of 100 online advertisements of skin care products per language introduced new layers in the rhetorical organisation of [online] advertisements. The results revealed that English and Arabic advertisements consisted of both common and culture-specific rhetorical moves. The persuasive strategies employed common lexico-grammatical features at syntactic, semantic, and discoursal level, albeit to a different extent. Overall, the results of this study illustrate that online advertisements of skin care products could be considered as a particular sub-genre with context-specific macro- and micro-structures. Through the investigation of the specific datasets, this study expands upon the existing analytical frameworks used for the study of advertising discourse and adds to the intercultural exploration of the rhetorical structures and persuasive strategies used in online advertisements.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):596-624
pages 596-624 views

A functional analysis of lexical bundles in the discussion sections of applied linguistics research articles: A cross-paradigm study

Richter K.G., Lotfi Gaskaree B., Mirzai M.


Lexical bundles, as “building blocks of discourse” (Biber & Barbieri 2007: 263), vary across disciplines and genres. Mastery of lexical bundles signals professionalism and helps identify writers and speakers as members of specific discourse communities. Despite the contribution of lexical bundle research to our understanding of disciplinary variation, the constraints placed by the genre conventions of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods approaches to research writing on the use of lexical bundles remain under-researched (Le & Harrington 2015). This study aims to explore the extent to which quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research articles are similar or different with respect to the frequency and functional patterns of their lexical bundles. Towards answering this question, however tentatively, the present exploratory study reports on the extent to which lexical bundles function similarly or differently in the discussion sections of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods research articles in the field of applied linguistics. A corpus-based analysis of discussion sections in 150 research articles culled from ten highly rated international journals in the field of applied linguistics suggest that at the level of discussion sections, different methodological paradigms are characterized by different functional uses of lexical bundles. These lexical bundles are sufficiently formulaic that it can be argued that they constrain writers’ language preferences. These findings may be of interest to applied linguists, second language educators and advanced learners of academic English.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):625-644
pages 625-644 views

Functional categories of hedges: A diachronic study of Russian research article abstracts

Boginskaya O.A.


The interactional nature of academic discourse has been analyzed in linguistics literature from different perspectives. However, these studies have been predominantly conducted on English materials. Little is known of how interactional metadiscourse elements are used in Russian academic prose and what diachronic changes in metadiscourse have occurred in the last decade. Building on previous research that suggests cross-linguistic, cross-cultural and diachronic differences in the use of hedges in academic prose, this paper explores functional categories of hedges used in Russian research article abstracts from a diachronic perspective. The main focus is on quantitative and qualitative variations in the functional realization of hedging, since it may be expected that it could change over time. The study was conducted on a corpus of 112 linguistics research article abstracts published in four Russian journals in two periods (2008-2014 and 2015-2021). To investigate hedging devices and their functional categories, this study employed quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analysis indicated that in the first period (2008-2014) hedging was most frequently realized through modals, reporting verbs, and quantifiers. In the second time span (2015-2021), reporting verbs, epistemic verbs, and adjectives of probability were among the most frequent functional categories of hedging. Overall, the distribution of functional categories of hedging changed in the second period when hedging was realized through a variety of lexical means belonging to different functional categories. In terms of the functions of hedging, the difference was also striking. In the first time span, hedges were employed to diminish an authorial presence in the text, while in the second one authors hedged to point toward possible methodological limitations and to signal inaccuracies of research results. Despite some data limitations, this study could be seen as a starting point for future research of metadiscourse in Russian-language academic prose from cross-disciplinary, cross-cultural or diachronic perspective.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):645-667
pages 645-667 views

Double or half reading, double or full meaning: Amphibological and anacoluthic syntax through the lens of Qur’an translators

Hassanein H.


The Qur’an abounds in multifaceted ambiguous and elliptical structures which sometimes attest its idiosyncratic rhetorical style and challenging formal correspondence and dynamic/functional equivalence between Arabic and English. Although previous translation studies on Qur’anic ambiguity and ellipsis are manifold, there is a paucity of past literature on amphibol(og)y and a dearth of previous research on anacoluthon in the Qur’an in particular. Therefore, the need for this study arises from the necessity to examine these two understudied syntactic phenomena, technically al-labs an-nahwi: (‘amphibology’) and fuqda:n at-tata:buc (‘anacoluthon’), through the lens of Qur’an translators and to assess the translational quality of transposing meaning duplicity and interpretive multiplicity from Qur’anic Arabic (in)to English. The specific objectives are to investigate how Qur’an translators resolved amphibolies while rendering verses superscripted by the interchangeable pause sign (∴ ∴) and to explore how they sequentialised anacolutha when translating anacoluthic verses marked by the elliptical sign (…). The study employs the qualitative contrastive method for a contrastive translational analysis of a typologically limited number of amphibolous and anacoluthic verses retrieved from the Qur’anic Arabic Corpus (QAC). Findings show that amphibology and anacoluthon are so challenging to Qur’an translators that there are remarkable variations in ambiguity resolution and anacoluthon sequentialisation. Qur’an translators act occasionally as explicitators, implicitators and neutralisers of its message and epitomise heterosubjectivity and asymmetricity in interpretative choices. The implications of these findings for Qur’an Translation Studies (QTS) highlight the importance of paratexts and epitexts for amphibological and anacoluthic syntax in translation. According to Genette (1997), paratexts and epitexts are thresholds of interpretation that add haunting subtexts to texts in translation. Subtexts are necessary to provide essential information or commentary on the translation of the original text.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):668-700
pages 668-700 views

A semiotic portrait of a big Chinese city

Leontovich O.A., Kotelnikova N.N.


Urban communication studies is a growing field of research aiming to reveal the regularities of human interaction in an urban context. The goal of the present study is to examine the semiotics of a big Chinese city as a complex communicative system and its effect on the social development of urban community. The material includes over 700 units (toponyms, street signs, advertisements, memorials, local foods and souvenirs, mass media, etc.) mostly collected in Tianjin, China’s fourth biggest city with a population of almost 14 million people. The research methodology is based on critical discourse analysis, ethnographic and semiotic methods, and narrative analysis. The study reveals the structure of communication in a big Chinese city and the integration of language into the city landscape. It indicates that urban historical memories are manifested in the form of memorials, symbols, historic and contemporary narratives. The physical context is associated with names of streets and other topological objects. Verbal and visual semiotic signs are used to ensure people’s psychological and physical safety. Social advertising predominantly deals with the propaganda of Chinese governmental policy, traditional values and ‘civilized behaviour’. Chinese urban subcultures, such as ‘ant tribe, ‘pendulums’, ‘shamate’, etc., reflect new social realities. Food and foodways are defined by cultural values and different aspects of social identity. The image of a big Chinese city is also affected by globalization tendencies and the COVID-19 pandemic. The research framework presented in the study provides an opportunity to show a wide panorama of modern urban life. It can be extrapolated to the investigation of other big cities and their linguistic landscapes.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):701-720
pages 701-720 views

Lingua-artistic technique of writing and its role in portraying an artist

Kozlova L.A., Kremneva A.V.


The theory of intermediality which first emerged within the frame of intertextuality theory has nowadays become a vast field of interdisciplinary research embracing studies in literature, linguistics, art and culture. In spite of the great amount of works discussing various aspects of this complex phenomenon, numerous questions related to the interpretation of its essence, the typology of intermedial interactions and their functions still remain the subject matter of discussions. An important factor determining the topicality of the intermediality issue is a great number of new textual practices which employ various forms of intermediality inviting for description and theoretical interpretation. All these factors account for the necessity of continuing the research of intermedial interactions. The article is devoted to the study of lingua-artistic technique of writing as one of the means of ontological intermediality. The lingua-artistic technique of writing is understood as the use of lingual means and devices activating visual images in the reader’s mind, due to which word and artistic image merge into one whole. The main objective of the article is to present the essence of the lingua-artistic technique of writing, to point out lingual means of its realization and to define their role in character drawing. The research is carried out from the cognitive-semiotic perspective, which is based on the assertion that art is synthetic in its very essence and the interpretation of all culture as Text presupposes the interaction of various semiotic codes participating in the expression of meaning. The empirical material of the study is represented by four novels written by I. Stone, J. Cary, J. Fowles and M. Porter about artists, real or fictional, representing different trends in art. The main methods of the study are the intermedial, inferential and comparative analyses. The research indicates that the lingua-artistic technique of writing is composed by the combination of lingual means and devices which include the nominations of colour and light, form, size, structure of objects, their location in space, composition, a wide use of similes, exfrasis, etc. All these means and their frequency are determined by the author’s cognitive style as well as by the artist’s specific manner of painting. The results of the study prove the considerable explanatory potential of the cognitive semiotic approach aimed at reconstructing the cognitive processes underlying various types of intermedial interactions.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):721-743
pages 721-743 views

Lingua-cultural strata of modern American social media: Precedent phenomena in anti-Trump discourse

Konstantinova A.A.


Modern media discourse abounds in linguistic units with cultural value including precedent phenomena that fulfil different functions and are employed to achieve particular political goals. Multi-modal (creolized) media texts making use of precedent phenomena as efficient tools of encoding meaning are of special interest. The goal of the study is to identify the role of the precedent phenomena of the English lingua-culture in the production and organization of discourse in the politically engaged network segment of modern American media. The focus is on anti-Trump discourse. The material spans the period from June, 2019 to November, 2020 and comprises 250 sampled examples, mostly multi-modal texts, including Facebook and Twitter posts by anti-Trump communities, political cartoons and memes, and random instances of Internet communication. The research methods applied in this study were critical discourse analysis and multi-modal critical analysis complemented by lingua-cultural method, stylistic analysis, and sampling. The author systematizes the repertoire of the precedent phenomena of the “anti-Trump discourse”, singles out their classes and types, identifies the spheres-sources of the precedent phenomena, and describes their cognitive and discursive functions, as well as the conditions and mechanisms for the actualization of the precedent phenomena in media discourse (thematic repertoire, extralinguistic and linguistic discursive strategies). The study argues that precedent phenomena affect the production and organization of discourse and possess significant potential for influencing mass audiences and molding public opinion. The study concludes that the use of precedent phenomena was an effective vehicle of digital activism and helped to achieve the political goals of American opposition organizations in the 2019-2020 pre-election period.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):744-778
pages 744-778 views

Broadening the ontology of threats verbalized in written communication on the Internet

Komalova L.R., Kalyuzhnaya L.V.


The topicality of the research is justified by intensification of distractive communication between Internet users and by lack of understanding how to regulate such speech behavior, as the social function of internet-mediated communicative environment is still undetermined. The paper explores communicative features of threats-punishments and threats-warnings verbalized through written communication mediated by gadgets with access to the Internet. The aim of the research is to define the perlocutionary effect produced by verbalized threats based on written communication. Threats are understood as utterances containing a message about harmful consequences of the action of a threat sender towards a recipient of the threat if he or she will or will not do some action demanded in the threat. Verbalization means that threat is articulated in speech communication and realized in verbal form. The research hypothesis is tested on the basis of 68 threatening messages in the Russian language retrieved from contexts of speech communication in internet-messengers and on social network sites. We prove that the addresser (threatening person) verbalizes treats mostly in the form of punishments describing possible damage to the addressee’s (recipient’s) life and or health. We found out that threatening speech acts verbalized on the Internet are mostly similar in form and content to those realized in face-to-face communication. However, Internet threats are mostly determined as a reflection of emotional-modal state of the addresser in response to the actions of the addressee. Men are more active in the verbalization of threats-punishments, whereas women verbalize more threats-warnings. People tend to protect themselves by ignoring threats addressed to them. The obtained results clarify the idea of Internet-threat as affected speech behavior, the regulation of which is impossible within the framework of the existing legislation; therefore it is necessary to develop a criteria base consistent with public morality, with the participation of expert and academic communities and technological companies.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):779-806
pages 779-806 views

Principles of libretto translation and problems of multimodal text interpretation

Boyarkina А.V.


The multimodal nature of texts to music involves the complex interaction of verbal, auditory, in some cases visual and other components, which determines the functioning of the textual unity. In this regard, the translation of multimodal texts, and in particular the translation of opera librettos, puts forward special requirements for the translator, due to which even the knowledge of the subject area, terminology and style of the source text is not always sufficient to achieve high quality translation. Based on the analysis of the translation principles of one of the most prominent translators of opera librettos Viktor Kolomiitsov (1868-1936) and his translated texts, the article aims to determine the basic requirements to the translation of libretto as a multimodal text, combining the verbal and auditory components in the text unity. It also aims to answer the research question: what exactly is the special feature of multimodal text translation focused on auditory mode, and in case of opera libretto translations - what resources can be used to perform the translation? The material for the study included the texts to L. Beethoven and R. Wagner’s works and their translations. The comparative analysis of V. Kolomiytsov’s translations and several other translators’ approaches allowed us to confirm the assumption about the complexity of auditory multimodal texts translation, identify the main problems of libretto translation, and demonstrate different translation solutions in the transfer of the rhythmic logic of the source text, its syntactic features, alliteration and vocabulary. The procedure of text analysis involved elements of philological and comparative analyses of translations, as well as statistical calculations. It was revealed that the connection of the verbal component with the melodic line, its accents and rhythm predetermines the structure of the text to vocal works. For the translator, this means additional limitations, which are quite difficult to overcome. Equirhythmic translation correlated with music is one of the most difficult types of translation, in which preservation of “form” (rhyme, meter, number of syllables, coincidence of accents, etc.) plays an important role and predetermines the quality of auditory multimodal text translation.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):807-830
pages 807-830 views


Review of Seongha Rhee. 2021. Linguistic Forms at the Border of Lexis and Grammar: Grammaticalizaton of Adpositions across Languages. Seoul, Global Contents Publisher. ISBN 979-11-5852-358-9

Sunhee Y.



Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):831-836
pages 831-836 views

Review of Anna Wierzbicka. 2021. Vo chto veryat khristiane: Istoriya Boga i lyudei [What Christians Believe: The Story of God and People]. Moscow, YaSK Publishers, 2021. ISBN 978-5-907290-71-6

Shmelev A.D.



Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):837-843
pages 837-843 views


Marina Yakovlevna GLOVINSKAYa - izvestnyy aspektolog, leksikograf, issledovatel' razgovornogo yazyka i yazyka emigratsii, spetsialist po grammatike oshibok

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Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):844-846
pages 844-846 views

Mark Yakovlevich BLOKh - osnovopolozhnik shkoly kommunikativno-paradigmaticheskoy lingvistiki

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Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2022;26(3):847-849
pages 847-849 views

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