Vol 28, No 1 (2020)

Industrial Ecology

Ecological consequences in forest stands subject to anthropogenic impact during logging and transport operations

Abuzov A.V., Kazakov N.V.


The article presents the results of experimental studies reflecting the ecological reality of the consequences of the standard logging process, in which the destruction of the remaining forest stands takes place. The main environmental factors of anthropogenic impact on forest plantations, passed through selective felling using forestry equipment, are disclosed. The main regularities have been identified and formalized, allowing to quantify the damage caused to trees left on the cutting area. Statistical data of experimental observations of damage to forest stands are given, depending on the conditions of their growth. The obtained patterns are implemented in the Predic applic 1.0 software package, officially registered with Rospatent.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(1):7-18
pages 7-18 views

Safety of human activity

Noise level at workplaces of motor transport enterprises in the cities of Irkutsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye (Irkutsk agglomeration)

Novikova S.A., Martynov D.N.


Noise is a form of environmental damage. An increase in the background noise leads to negative consequences for the mental and physical health of people. Noise is the greatest threat to those who by virtue of their profession are forced to constantly be exposed to it. The problem of increased noise levels in the workplaces of drivers of vehicles (buses and trams) in the cities of the Irkutsk agglomeration, as well as in sections of streets with installed noise screens (areas adjacent to linear sources of noise pollution and areas of sound shadow) is considered in the article. The legal framework for noise regulation in the Russian Federation is studied. With the help of a sound level meters, instrumental measurements of the noise level at workplaces and territories equipped with protective shields were made. The calculation of statistical characteristics and standard deviations of measuring instruments was carried out in the work. An analysis of the results obtained and their comparison with established sanitary standards for their excess were conducted.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(1):19-34
pages 19-34 views

Assessment of compliance with fire safety requirements of the poultry house for 200,000 heads of “Avangard LLC” in Republic of Mordovia based on fire risk calculation

Savelyev A.P., Glotov S.V., Chugunov M.N., Salikhov R.R.


This article presents the results of the assessment of compliance with fire safety requirements of the building of the poultry house for 200,000 heads of “Avangard LLC” of the Republic of Mordovia, made on the basis of fire risk calculations. The analysis of factors affecting the quality and reliability of the results of calculations is carried out. During the research and evaluation of the object’s compliance with fire safety requirements were guided by the provisions of the Technical regulations on fire safety requirements. A list of technical regulations applicable to the object under study was defined. The article gives the fire-technical characteristics of the object under study, the class of functional fire hazard (agricultural buildings). The conducted research has established that the object of research meets the requirements of fire safety. Calculations on fire risk assessment were fulfilled by comparing the calculated values of fire risk with the normative value. For the considered object of protection the fire hazard analysis including the analysis of building characteristics (space-planning, design and technical solutions), fire protection systems, and features of functioning taking into account contingent and distribution of fire load in rooms was completed. The calculation of the risk of the gas supply system was considered the impact of the flame during the combustion of gas released in case of emergency depressurization of the pipeline. The potential risk in a poultry house near a gas pipeline with a diameter of 50 mm will be 1.78·10-5, near a gas pipeline with a diameter of 70 mm - 4.4·10-7, and in total - 1.824·10-5. The individual fire risk for employees of the poultry house building is 8.31·10-7 year-1. Calculations of the spread of fire hazards and the time of evacuation of people are made using software that allows to create graphical models of space-planning solutions of buildings. With the introduction of the fire risk assessment system at the legislative level, the owners of objects have the opportunity to optimize the cost of fire safety with the required level of safety of people.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(1):35-46
pages 35-46 views

Accumulation of mercury in the body and her influence on biochemical blood indices of women of childbearing age (example of Vologda region)

Ivanova E.S., Kornilova A.I., Rumyantseva O.Y.


The research was conducted in 2018 and 1323 women of childbearing age from the city of Cherepovets in the Vologda region took part in it. The Hg content in the hair of women was determined on a RA-915M mercury analyzer. The average concentration of metal in the hair of residents was 0,427 ± 0,015 mg/kg. A positive correlation was found between mercury accumulation and age ( r = 0,288), fish consumption, and blood biochemical parameters - erythrocytes (RBC) ( r = 0,097), hemoglobin (HYB) ( r = 0,172) and hematocrit (HCT) ( r = 0,158) with p < 0,05.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(1):47-56
pages 47-56 views


Determination of environmental problems of agricultural nature management based on modular geochemical indicators

Falak A., Mezhova L.A.


Central Chernozem is one of the largest agricultural regions in Russia. As a result of the long period of natural resources use the anthropogenic load on agricultural lands is increasing. The result of agricultural nature management is the increase of land degradation processes. Voronezh Region has a high agro-climatic potential, most of the territory is occupied by agricultural land, arable land prevails among them. Soil degradation is the most acute problem. There is a need to assess the impact of agricultural natural resources use on land resources of the region. Modular coefficients for assessment of geochemical impact of agriculture and animal husbandry on agricultural systems are proposed. The developed factor is a tool for identification of negative land use processes and environmental problems. The article deals with the issues of ecologically oriented, scientifically grounded strategy of agricultural nature management. Ecological approach to assessment of soil quality in the future will develop a strategy for balanced land use. The article has a scientific and practical character and is aimed at the development of methods of ecological assessment of soil quality. The proposed methodological approach identifies destructive processes in soils. For ecologically oriented strategy of development of regions it is important to define maximum allowable agricultural loads for preservation of sustainable environment.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(1):57-64
pages 57-64 views

The role of unpaved roads in the formation of landslide processes (on the example of Voronezh region)

Timofeev A.N.


The article gives a brief description of the Voronezh region, provides data on the cause of landslides in its territory. The cyclical nature of landslide processes is noted, which in the region is on average 6-8 years. Attention is focused on anthropogenic activity, leading to the occurrence of creeping layers of the earth. The main causes of erosion processes are: significant plowing of the area (80%), which is not subject to the rules of anti-erosion agrotechnology; the irrational use of pastures and hayfields; an extensive gully-beam network. The role of temporary reservoirs formed in the ruts of unpaved roads, passing along the slopes and ravines, as a source of overmoistening of the soil layers and initiation of landslide processes is considered. The analysis of the landslide distribution over the territory of the Voronezh region and their dependence on the network of dirt roads is given. The areas of the Voronezh region were ranked by the number of landslide processes associated with the impact of a number of unpaved highways. Of the 32 districts of the region, according to this ranking, 12 are “extremely dangerous”, “very dangerous” and “dangerous”, and the same areas have a very extensive network of unpaved roads running near ravines, steep banks of rivers and ponds, where potentially flow of landslide processes. Dirt roads often have relatively deep ruts where melted or rainwater accumulates, forming local micro-ponds. Flowing to the waterproof layer, water saturates the soil layer, which can slide down the slope, forming a landslide process. It is necessary to predict the possibility of the occurrence of dangerous natural phenomena when laying automobile dirt roads.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(1):65-74
pages 65-74 views


Philosophy of ecology of Justus von Liebig: different Liebig

Nikolskii A.A., Vanisova E.A.


German chemist Justus von Liebig is known in the ecological literature as the author of “Liebig’s law of the minimum”. But the law of the minimum is absent in his publications, which ecologists cite. The “law” is nothing more than an interpretation of some of Liebig’s statements. However, irrespective of the law of the minimum, Liebig’s outstanding contribution to the theory of ecology is obvious: Liebig was one of the first who drew attention to the sustainability of the phenomenon of life organized into supraorganismal systems. Liebig showed that as a result of the interaction of plants and animals and as a result of their life processes, such as nutrition and respiration, there is a continuous transformation of a substance consisting of the same elements. On the example of the constancy of the gas composition of the atmosphere, Liebig comes to a generalization that is crucial for ecology: the interaction of plants and animals is a factor of sustainability of their own environment, which they create themselves and support for an unlimited time in a stable state.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(1):75-81
pages 75-81 views

The general characteristics of the plowing lands birds’ population during the breeding period in Upper part of Angara region

Yuancheng B., Kuznetsova D.V., Salovarov V.O., Glyzina A.Y.


The results of bird’s investigations on the most disturbed agricultural territories (plowing lands) are represented for breeding period. General indicators characterized different birds’ populations of plowing lands are given (density of birds’ populations, number of species and list of species, leaded in population of each variant of plowing lands). It is determined, that birds’ populations of examined lands are differ significantly. The leaders in population for many birds’ populations are Passer montanus (Linnaeus, 1758), Alauda arvensis (Linnaeus, 1758), Corvus corone (Linnaeus, 1758), Anthus richardi (Vieillot, 1818). The birds’ populations are formed for a not long period, theirs structure is defined by plowing lands sizes and degree of mosaic and the character of neighboring territories.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(1):82-94
pages 82-94 views

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