Vol 25, No 4 (2017)


Hydrothermic conditions of Kaliningrad region

Naumov V.A., Akhmedova N.R.


Despite the different attitude to this issue climate change in many parts of the world is obvious. It is known that all environmental factors interact with each other in a varying degree. It is expected that the change in climatic factors will be particularly noticeable in agriculture, in the field of water management. It is necessary to search for agricultural species that are adapted to the new conditions, for this it is necessary to determine the basic agroclimatic features of the terrain. Many scientists believe that they are the main factor in the location of crops. In this paper, based on hydrometeorological information on Kaliningrad weather station, the following indicators are sum of precipitation (annual and monthly averages), hydrothermal coefficient (mean multi-annual value, intra-annual distribution). The procedure for calculating such an indicator as the amount of precipitation for the period of active vegetation using modern information technologies is represented. The hydrothermal coefficient was determined by the method proposed by G.T. Selyaninov. The results of the reports make it possible to say that the values of the sum of precipitation for the period when the average daily air temperature exceeds 10 degrees Celsius significantly exceed the values that were set earlier and the hydrothermal coefficient remained almost unchanged. Also is detected the dependence between the hydrothermal coefficient and the productivity of cereals in the Kaliningrad region.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(4):465-479
pages 465-479 views

Environmental and geochemical assessment of sealed soils in the Eastern Moscow

Nikiforova E.M., Kosheleva N.E., Khaybrakhmanov T.S.


Sealed with road coverings soils in the Eastern Administrative District (EAD) of Moscow were studied, their morphological and physico-chemical properties have been established in various landuse zones, their ecological and geochemical state and level of readily soluble salts and priority organic pollutants - petroleum products (PP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as compared with background and open urban soils. The article is based on the results of soil-geochemical survey of ekranozems in September 2016 and previously obtained analytical data from an unsealed territory in the southern part of the EAD. A mapping technique was developed and a map of degree of soil sealing in the EAD was compiled. The morphological features and the basic properties of ekranozem’s horizons in different land-use zones of the EAD were determined. They have a low content of organic matter (2,24%), an alkaline pH (8,0), light loamy texture. Despite the use of de-icing salts and mineral fertilizers, the upper part of the profile of the sealed soils is not saline, salts accumulate mainly in the middle and lower parts of the profile, forming maxima in the RAT horizon. Screening of soils with asphalt concrete is not an obstacle to the penetration of technogenic flows of polluting substances - salts, PP, BaP, capable of accumulating in increased concentrations and forming pronounced technogenic anomalies. The average BaP content in the sealed soils exceeds the background level by 56 times, and the MPC - by 9,6 times. The permissible content of PP in ekranozems is exceeded by 9,5 times. However, in comparison with unsealed soils, the content of BaP and PP in ekranozems is 3,5 times less. The vertical distribution of the BaP is, as a rule, uniform, with the exception in the industrial zone, and for the PP it is accumulative with several well-defined maxima in different parts of the profile. As a result of lateral migration, BaP and PP accumulate in the sealed soils of the lower parts of the slopes, where they form accumulations on organomineral and sorption-sedimentative geochemical barriers. High-level man-made accumulations of hydrocarbons are formed mainly in the sealed soils of industrial and transport zones. When opening the asphalt, risks associated with the migration of hydrocarbons to other components of the landscape, including them in the biological cycle and food chains may appear.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(4):480-509
pages 480-509 views

Accumulation of heavy metals by coastal aquatic vegetation of the Sherepok River

Cuong N.T., Zolotokopova S.V.


Characteristics of the accumulation of zinc, copper, iron, lead, cadmium, arsenic in the stems and roots of Phragmites Australis and Eichhornia crassipes, growing in the Sherepok river (Vietnam), were investigated. The effect of level of river pollution on the heavy metal accumulation of the coastal aquatic vegetation was shown. A quantitative assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals by coastal aquatic vegetation in the dry and wet seasons is given. During the period of research, it was found that in the dry season, within the industrial region, zinc, copper, iron and cadmium were accumulated in the roots of common reed greater than in the roots of Eichhornia crassipes. The same metals were accumulated in the stems of Eichhornia crassipes higher than in the stems of Phragmites Australis. Lead and arsenic were accumulated in the stems and roots of the Eichhornia crassipes higher than in the stems and roots of Phragmites Australis. During the wet season, within the industrial region, zinc, copper, iron and cadmium were more accumulated in the stems and roots of Eichhornia crassipes, while lead and arsenic - in the stems and roots of Phragmites Australis.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(4):510-519
pages 510-519 views

Monitoring og the content of ultradispersed aerosols in the air of the mining inditrial region

Radchenko D.N., Gadzhieva L.A., Gavrilenko V.V.


A methodology for monitoring the determination of the content of solid particles with a particle size of 1-10 nm in the air of the mining region has been developed. Appropriate studies have been carried out. The air pollution by nanoparticles in the KMA and the Moscow regions is estimated.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(4):520-528
pages 520-528 views

Metals and metalloids in PM10 Frection of the road dust of Eastern Moscow

Vlasov D.V.


The aim of the study is to reveal the features of the accumulation of metals and metalloids (MM) in the PM10 fraction of road dust at different traffic levels in the eastern part of Moscow. Highlighted by elutriation PM10 particles were studied in the municipal areas of Sokolinaya Gora, Perovo, Ivanovo, Novogireevo, Veshnyaki, Novokosino and Kosino-Ukhtomsky of Eastern Administrative District of Moscow. The concentrations of MM in PM10 were determined by mass-spectral and atomic-emission methods. The geochemical specialization of PM10 fraction relative to the upper continental crust has the form Cd22Ag21Sb21Sn11Se10Cu9Bi9Pb8Zn8Mo7W4Te3S2P2, which indicates the technogenic sources of these MM. For the rest MM natural-technogenic and natural sources predominate. The enrichment of the PM10 with Zn increases with the growth of the transport load, the maximum contents of Cu, Mo, Cr, Fe, V, Mn, Ba, Al, Ti and K are typical for large roads, and Sr, Nb, Ga, S, W, Pb and Te for medium roads. The total enrichment of PM10 with MM is maximized on medium and large roads, where a very dangerous ecological situation is formed, on the Moscow Ring Road and small roads it decreases to a dangerous.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(4):529-539
pages 529-539 views

Leeches (Hirudinea) in aquatic ecosystems of national park “Prielbrusye”

Yakimov A.V., Cherchesova S.K., L’vov V.D., Zalihanov K.K., Kojbaev B.G.


The article provides information about the fauna of leeches living in the various reservoirs on especially protected natural territories of the Federal state budget establishment “The National Park ‘Prielbrusye’”. Only 4 оf the 12 known in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic species of leeches inhabit the waters of the National Park ponds: Protoclepsis tessulata (O.F. Muller, 1774), Helobdella stagnalis (L., 1758), Haemopis sanguisuga (L., 1758) and Herpobdella octoculata (L, 1758). The author shows the location of leeches in the aquatic ecosystems. It is fond that their appearance in waters of the National Park “Prielbrusye” is mainly due to anthropogenic activities, particularly creation of artificial stagnant and partly stagnant reservoirs.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(4):540-547
pages 540-547 views

Investigation of oily wastewater treatment process in a flotation set up with ejection system of aeration with disperser

Antonova E.S.


The problem of oily wastewater treatment is considered. The main advantages and disadvantages of ejection system of aeration used for flotation treatment are presented. The importance of the use of mathematical model for the flotation time definition is pointed out. The use of ejection system of aeration with disperser is offered for the intensification of flotation oily wastewater treatment is offered. The mathematical model considering peculiarities of bubble characteristic is developed and experimentally verified. The experiments on a laboratory set up devoted to the investigation of the particles disperse characteristics and kinetics of the treatment were carried out. The bubble size without disperser was about 500 μm, while the use of disperser allows to generate two groups of bubbles with size 55 μm and 105 μm. The experiments showed that the use of the model is possible for the description of the treatment process. The comparison of flotation water treatment efficiencies with and without disperser is presented. The use of disperser is mostly effective for the separation pf particles with size 15-35 μm and allows to increase treatment efficiency from 75% to 90%.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(4):548-561
pages 548-561 views

Project of environmental monitoring of the Campus of People friendship University of Russia

Khaustov A.P., Redina M.M., Aleynikova A.M., Mamadzhanov R.K., Silaeva P.Y.


The main tasks and the content of the environmental monitoring of the RUDN-University campus is justified. Theuniversitypresents the results of its activity in the annual international ranking - Green Metric World University Ranking. RUDN-University started successful in 2015 and since 2017 is a national coordinator of this program in Russia. The campus is situated in the intensive transport pressure zone, therefore the environmental monitoring program takes this specific into account. Information on the team performing the project and the availability and instrumentation necessary for its implementation is given. The monitoring network covers various functional zones of the campus, as well as the adjoining forest park zone selected as the background. As a result of the processing of data sets on the characteristics of the campus environment, anthropogenic load levels for functional campus zones were calculated.In the future, as information accumulates, the boundaries of functional zones and technogenic loads will be adjusted (as well as monitoring content). Calculations of emissions of various types of vehicles on one of the main roads, as well as measurements of the radiation situation, noise levels, typical pollutants of automobile emissions into the atmosphere in different periods of the year were carried out.A geochemical survey of the snow cover has been performed to assess the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Maps of atmospheric pollution and snow cover have been constructed, the values of exceeding the normative characteristics have been estimated, a survey of the state of vegetation at the beginning and end of the growing season has been carried out. The obtained data indicate a relatively favorable environmental situation on the campus and the need for further monitoring using more accurate analytical methods for analyzing natural environments, and developing models to predict changes in the components of the campus ecosystem.Such models will allow to reveal the trend of the behavior of pollution on the basis of their bioindication (landscapedestructive changes) under the conditions of specific impacts of oil products burned and other types of urban pollution. It is planned to carry out an inventory and certification of the green plantations of the campus, followed by an object-oriented assessment of vegetation, soil conditions under conditions of varying atmospheric pollution flows and emissions of road transport. As an instrument suggested to create the information and analytical system of monitoring.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(4):562-584
pages 562-584 views

Outstanding Rusian ecologist Nikulay Pavlovich

Nikolsky A.A.


The outstanding Russian (Soviet) ecologist Nikolai Pavlovitch Naumov (November 25, 1902 - February 2, 1987) is the initiator of the restoration of teaching ecology in the post-war period. His textbook “Animal Ecology” is published in many countries of the world. Ecology for Naumov was a science about biological systems of the highest level (populations and biocenosis). Ecology, according to Naumov, has great practical importance. The central place in Naumov’ scientific research is occupied by the structure and functioning of biological systems of the highest level. Naumov is the author of the concept of a biological signal field. Fundamental position of this concept is that the structure and functions of ecological systems are controlled not only by materially-energy, but also by communicative processes.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2017;25(4):585-594
pages 585-594 views

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