International migration in border regions of Russia: Structural modeling of public attitudes

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Abstract


Changes in migration patterns and structure of international migration in Russia, its shift towards more transit forms in the interests of labor market and local conditions, together with serious economic and demographic losses, determine the need to change the migration policies. Such policies, if they focus on migrants without taking into account the public opinion of the host population, cannot ensure the balance of interests and stability in the region or realization of benefits of international migration. It is the choice of the host population that determines acculturation strategies and success of adaptation and integration of migrants. Based on the data of the sociological research conducted in 2018 in the border regions of Russia, the authors claim the existence of general evaluative factor of public attitudes and present the structural model of its determination consisting of institutional characteristics of regional society and social-structural and identification characteristics of respondents. According to the results of the research, the population of border regions believe that migration does not have any positive impact on the Russian economy and cannot compensate demographic losses, and underestimate risks of discrimination and social exclusion of labor migrants. In the majority of regions studied, the general perception of migration is affected by diasporal identities and comparison of the region with ‘the rest of Russia’. The subjective assessment of personal security, financial situation, migration experience and cultural factors are important for variability of indicators or regions. The study highlights the importance of fight against ethnic prejudices and migrantophobia and of positive public opinion for the effective migration policy reflecting national interests in terms of attracting foreign human and cultural capital.


About the authors

S G Maximova

Altai State University

Author for correspondence.
Email: svet-maximova@yandex.ru
Lenina Prosp., 61, Barnaul, Russia, 656049

D A Omelchenko

Altai State University

Email: daria.omelchenko@mail.ru
Lenina Prosp., 61, Barnaul, Russia, 656049

O E Noyanzina

Altai State University

Email: noe@list.ru
Lenina Prosp., 61, Barnaul, Russia, 656049

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