INDIVIDUAL PROFESSIONALIZATION IN INFORMATION SOCIETY: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

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The article considers individual professionalization in information society, reveals the essence of professionalization, identifies its stages, analyzes its features under the informatization of education process and professional activities. Professionalization is defined as a process of professional growth and professional training, i.e. professional self-realization is a form of self-actualization. Under the computerization of social-cultural reality, which is typical for information society, we witness informatization of all forms of professional development and a wide introduction of information technologies into individual professionalization. Globalization of informatization processes determined changes not only in the content of our knowledge about the world, but also in the ways we acquire, reproduce and transfer knowledge, which eventually had a significant impact on the structures of personality. New information technologies changed our ways of thinking and communication, perception of others and self-concept. Computer technologies reveal unprecedented opportunities for education and professional development. However, like any other technical achievement, computer technologies have negative consequences including those in the field of vocational education - the most important stage of professionalization. In the cognitive-mental aspect, these are non-linear, associative, mosaic thinking, an overabundance of information, and weakening of creativity. In the humanitarian aspect, information technologies mechanize and standardize educational activities, impersonate learning process, and weaken the humanitarian aspects of education in general. Thus, global and thoughtless introduction of information technologies into professional development can lead to many problems and eventually to a serious impoverishment of professionalism turning it from a complex creative process of professional development into a primitive, though high-speed, transfer of wealth of information, into ‘operationalism’ instead of professionalism.

In recent decades, social development is characterized by the rapid penetration of new information and communication technologies into all spheres of life. These changes determined the formation of a new type of society - information society, in which computerization significantly affects learning processes, formulation and solution of scientific problems, research in the field of thinking and cognition processes. Information technologies have become a powerful transformer of economic, social and other activities. Computerization and informatization vary by countries and regions, but generally develop in the way that allows to summarize some results and make some forecasts. Thus, computerization of all spheres of human activities is both the most important social task and an imperative of social development that determines humanistic transformations and economic development, which can guarantee a dignified life for all people. In the contemporary society, informatization becomes global. Many features of the global information society are increasingly evident in Russia for informatization in our country reached a qualitatively new level. Strategy for the Development of Information Society in the Russian Federation (2008) was implemented as one of the priority national projects for the further development of the country [17. P. 265]. The State Program “Information Society for 2011-2020” is now implemented [9. P. 91], i.e. informatization of society is considered by the state as a necessary and vital condition for the development of economy, science, education, culture, and national security. In its transformative effect, the combined impact of information technologies, the Internet and e-commerce is comparable to the changes under the industrial revolution. ‘Digital revolution changes the global economic, social and educational landscape, creates a new economic sector, transforms organizational structures, changes values of labor and everyday life, makes intellectual capital the main factor of the further scientific-technological progress. Informatics, computers, and automated systems determine key directions of development and efficiency of production and technologies, design and research. Computers significantly transform the content and nature of work and learning, reformulate the issues of development of our intellect and personality, significantly change our worldview [19. P. 125]. Analysis of social, intellectual and cultural consequences of mass introduction of information technologies into our life if the most important task for science [16. P. 232-234]. Under the overall computerization of social-cultural reality, informatization of all forms of professionalization and personal development become closely interrelated. Individual professionalization: concept, essence, main stages The term ‘professionalization’ is often used in research publications on professions and professional activities. In sociology, there two interpretations of the term: professionalization of social groups and individual professionalization. Professionalization of social groups means development of ‘classic’ and ‘secondary’ professions (including formation of professional associations, allocation of specific areas of knowledge, creation of organizational structures within which professional activities take place), a group ascending mobility, features of professional groups [6]. There are differing international and Russian traditions of studying professionalization of social groups. In the Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-American and continental) [1] tradition, there are many approaches, such as functionalist, neo-Marxist and neo-Weberian approaches [12. P. 37-42]. Within the neo-Weberian approach, which many Russian authors consider ‘the orthodoxy of the western sociology of professions’, traditional professions are defined as groups of interests that managed to take a monopoly position in the market of health services, legal services, education and science [12. P. 41]. Thus, professionalization of traditional occupations allowed their representatives to largely escape from the control of the developing nation state, organized capital and managers. “Professionalization is an attempt to translate the rare resources of professional groups of the same order - specialized knowledge and skills - into resources of a different order - socio-economic rewards. Preservation of rare resources implies the desire for a monopoly: the monopoly of expert knowledge in the labor market and the monopoly of status in the stratification system” [10. P. 66]. Professionalization as formation and development of professional groups is considered in the western sociology of professions as a historical process. D. McClelland introduced terms that reveal the historical features of professionalization: (1) “professionalization from within” - refers to the success of the group in terms of active self-use of market opportunities for upward mobility; and (2) “professionalization from above” - when external factors determine the group status [13]. In both cases, the groups rely on professional ideology aimed at acquiring social authority and control [4]. When a professional group rely on the ideology ‘from within’ it usually can self-regulate its activities. “Professionalization from above’ is different: the result is usually not the control of work situations, but managerial power. Within both types of professionalization, the group can seek political goals such as redefining the relationship between professionals, consumers, and the state. Western theories of professions and professionalization of social groups have been studied by the Russian sociologists [2; 6; 11; 12; 15] focusing on a wide range of professional groups, such as doctors, lawyers, managers, business elites, social workers, etc. However, in Russian sociology professionalization is usually defined as an individual professionalization, i.e. professional growth of an individual, so professional self-realization is a form of self-actualization. Professionalization is often defined as a special professional training, i.e. professional education. Individual professionalization in a broad sense is a necessary part of socialization. Despite the importance of the psychological aspect, individual professionalization is mainly a social process and an integral part of socialization. The social nature of professionalization is determined by the social meaning of professional activities due to the social division of labor and its institutional nature. Individual professionalization in the narrow sense is professional socialization of the individual, i.e. internalization of professional norms, values, knowledge, getting skills necessary for successful professional activity, and a ‘professional worldview’. Professional socialization is a process through which a person learns certain professional values, internalize them, and acquires professional consciousness and culture necessary for professional activities. Individual professionalization is a multilevel and multistage phenomenon. Primary professionalization turns a man into a specialist through acquisition of professional skills necessary for successful professional activities. By its nature, primary professionalization is directly related to vocational education aimed at formation of a specialist, therefore it can be defined as specialization. Thus, the indicator of the successful primary professionalization is finishing vocational training with professional qualifications, which makes an individual a subject of professional activities and professional relations, provides him with a professional status and an opportunity for active and functional participation in social processes. Secondary professionalization aims at transformation of a specialist into a professional, i.e. psychological, social and ideological development, acquisition of professional skill, a creative approach to professional activities and a professional worldview with relevant moral components. Secondary professionalization means development of a professional in the course of working activities by getting professional experience and a broad approach to solving professional problems. Thus, on the one hand, professionalization reaches a certain degree of completeness when the individual is professionally mature (high professional skills and status); on the other hand, professionalization continues throughout the life of a person for improvement of professional skills and development of professionalism are not limited. Individual professionalization is a continuous process if it takes place within one type of professional activities. However, contemporary information society is a mobile and dynamic system. Intensification of production due to computerization and introduction of new technologies lead to changes in professional functions, integration of certain types of labor and their mutual enrichment, emergence of new professions and disappearance of old ones. Differentiation of professional activities are so intense that they require changes in professional values: poly-professionalism replaces mono-professionalism [18]. The professional world needs professionally mobile specialists capable of successful and effective adaptation to the changing social-economic conditions to plan and organize their own professional lives. This problem is urgent in information society today for the dynamics of its professional structure makes people change their professions during their working life. Reprofessionalization is a long and complex process of transition from one profession to another based on the already acquired professional and personal qualities. This process involves choosing a new profession, mastering it, developing a strategy for new professional activities and implementing it based on the personal experience, knowledge, skills, education, personal and professional needs. Reprofessionalization depends on the objective contradiction between the professional potential of the employee and the requirements of the labor market. The subjective reason for reprofessionalization is dissatisfaction with the profession, and inability to realize one’s potential. Reprofessionalization is the result of changes in the profession demanding new professional knowledge, skills and habits and a change in attitudes to previously learned professional norms and values. However, reprofessionalization is not limited to professional retraining, it is much more complicated and involves changes in the professional identification, which usually involves certain psychological difficulties. Changing one’s profession and subsequent reprofessionalization involve mastering a new profession and a change in the professional status, which often has negative psychological and social consequences. Psychologists say that reprofessionalization is often painful, and the change of profession is often regarded as an indicator of professional incompetence. Thus, the success of reprofessionalization depends on one’s psychological state, i.e. on understanding one’s needs and readiness to realize one’s potential in a new professional sphere. Individual perception of the change in profession and reprofessionalization also depends on the public opinion and traditions. Monoprofessionalism as a socially approved orientation that developed in the industrial era, when professionalism presupposed a narrow specialization within a single profession. Information society defines professionalism differently and includes in its definition ability to professional mobility and professional dynamics in accordance with changing social needs. At the same time, one of the social requirements for professionals is a broad field of professional activities, and ability to realize one’s creative potential in the related professional fields. Under such polyprofessionalism, the change of profession and reprofessionalization is not considered an exceptional phenomenon, but rather as a direction of secondary professionalization. According to its social nature, individual professionalization takes place within certain social structures and institutions. Social agents of professionalization are the family, educational institutions, social organizations, labor collectives and the state. Primary professionalization: essence and basic agents Primary professionalization begins in childhood, during pre-school and school activities. It consists of accepting universal social and professional values, such as the prestige of a particular profession, and its social significance. Many authors emphasized that already in childhood it is necessary to reveal abilities of the individual and develop initial professional orientation, which will contribute to the successful professional future. In the preschool period, the main agent of professionalization is one’s family for it ensures internalization of primary professional norms and values mainly through training. The role of the family, in particular, the nature of the relationship between children and parents in professional self-identification was studied by many researchers. A. Roe argues that individual needs are determined mainly by the atmosphere of the parental home and parents’ upbringing style that shape future professional orientations, interests, inclinations and abilities of the child [14]. The role of family in professionalization is unique due to the specific functions of the family as a social institution and a small group. Today the family is a social group with different age, sex and professional subsystems. The family ensures the initial introduction of universal and professional values and forms of their implementation. Moreover, the initial professionalization in the family sometimes takes place without any purposeful influence of parents, just by the child’s perception of family everyday norms and values. Such a direct assimilation of professional norms and values in the family sometimes leads to the formation of professional dynasties, when several generations of the family deliberately choose a profession/business of the parents. Not only relations between parents and children are important, but also professional ties of the family with the social world. The professional status of parents and their professional communication influence the child’s perception of one’s home, which often includes not only parents and other close relatives, but also a broader social environment of parents’ colleagues and friends. This social environment influences individual professionalization. However, professional education in the family is not yet a common norm. Many parents believe that professional self-identification should be formed by school and other educational institutions. At the same time, many families try to influence their children professional preferences. Some parents in the very early age of their children try to identify their natural inclinations and abilities to direct them to a specific profession. Certainly, such a desire is justified, but the child should not become a hostage to parental ambitions and ideas of a ‘better future’. Family is important in the professional development but rather as a social institution that shapes personality, determines internal orientations and lays the foundations of the worldview. School period is also important for individual professionalization for a person not only receives the systematized and generalized knowledge, but also acquires communicative skills, and, most importantly, the ability to work. Various subjects in the school make a significant contribution to the future professional activities of the child. Professional orientation as a complex of psychological, pedagogical and other measures aimed at optimizing the process of employment of young people in accordance with their desires, inclinations, abilities, and social needs, is an important task of high and specialized schools. The teachers should strive, among other things, to form professional self-awareness of students. Professionalization at school can be considered successful if by the time of graduation students understand the relationship between schooling and further professional activities. Education in comprehensive schools assumes a broad professional orientation of students. The curriculum should combine natural sciences with social sciences and humanities to develop the personal worldview. Teachers of general subjects, including teachers for labor training and physical activities should involve students in public and production activities to develop certain professionally significant qualities, communication skills and moral principles. The specialized schools often focus on the narrow professional direction or a specific profession emphasizing the importance of relevant courses. Recently, the Russian society has accepted the role of schools in individual professionalization such as the development of professional consciousness, which led to the profiling high school, introduction of specialized classes with focus on the subjects necessary for further professional training. All these changes are significant and positive for strengthening the role of the school in professionalization. The core of primary professionalization and its key stage is professional training at university and other educational institutions. The main goal of vocational training is acquisition of certain knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for the successful implementation of a specific type of professional activities. However, receiving the specialty is not the only goal of this stage of professionalization for the university courses are to develop a system of social and professional qualities, ideas and attitudes of future specialists, professional interests together with universal moral values. The main form of professionalization at the university is professional education as mastering of professional experience and skills for a specific type of professional work. However, the content of professional education is not limited to such tasks for a specialist with certain professional qualifications will become a professional only if he acquires qualities and attitudes to solve the task of transition to an active, independent, creative and a responsible profession. The individual must acquire not only knowledge and skills but also master the cultural heritage of society as elements of one’s worldview. Thus, vocational education has the following objectives: 1. Ensuring conditions for mastering professional activities. Vocational training has two main functions: a) it is a means of self-realization in the profession; b) it is a means of ensuring the stability of professional career in market economy. 2. Training of active members of society for creative participation in production and responsibility for the results of the work, environment, etc. 3. Teaching methods of continuous self-education to stay competitive in the labor market and realize all individual abilities. The system of professional education today must solve a two-fold problem: first, to fulfill the social order - to train specialists needed to meet the social needs in labor and professional resources; second, to focus on the professional, moral and spiritual development of the person [21. P. 168]. Harmonization of these two tasks and their successful solution by every vocational institution is a social condition for the development of professionalism. Another prerequisite for the transformation of educational process into a professionalization factor is implementation of the person-centered approach to learning, strengthening interests of students in obtaining professional knowledge and skills, in moral and humanistic development. Despite the widespread introduction of computer technologies into the educational process, in the university professionalization a special role belongs to the teacher. Features of primary professionalization in information society: computer technologies in education Under computerization of social-cultural reality in information society, informatization of all forms of professionalization and the wide introduction of computer technologies became features of educational processes. Contemporary social reality is based on information and knowledge and requires a person with the skills to learn new knowledge and creatively use it to solve complex problems. Competently organized educational process with the innovative technologies allows to form necessary skills and abilities contributing to the development of such important professional qualities as intuition, flexibility, creativity, and analytical thinking. Therefore, the use of computer and information technologies should become a priority tasks of the educational policy of our society and the state. A fundamentally new quality has been acquired by education with the spread of computer networks, which has radically changed the way information is received - today it is the Internet with the access to global information resources (electronic libraries, databases, etc.). In the network, other common means of communication are available to the user including e-mail, mailing lists, newsgroups, and chats. Special programs for real-time communication have been developed, which allows to send texts, sounds, images and any files. These programs allow to organize the work of remote users with the program on the local computer. To provide effective information exchange in telecommunication networks, there are automated search tools that collect data from the global computer network and provide users with quick engines to search the World Wide Web, multimedia files and software. Computer technologies in education allow to solve important didactic tasks. First, it is the organization of the educational process, acceleration and intensification of learning, ensuring its flexibility and individual approach. In addition, computer technologies can significantly improve the productivity of self-training, ensure the development of their personal research activities and increase their independence in learning. Network tools provide wide access to educational and scientific information, consulting assistance, model research activities and virtual training sessions (seminars, lectures) in the real time mode. Powerful technologies allow to store and exchange study materials in electronic publications both distributed in computer networks and recorded on electronic media. The technologies allow to adapt existing courses to individual needs, provide opportunities for self-learning and self-examination. Unlike traditional books, electronic publications allow to submit material in a graphic form [7]. Introduction of computer technologies determined a qualitatively new educational environment as a basis for the development and modernization of the educational system. At every stage of cognitive activity, scientific research and in all branches of knowledge computer technologies became both tools and objects of the study. Thus, innovations in computer technologies lead to revolutionary developments in education by the rapid accumulation of intellectual potential, which guarantees the sustainable social development. The computer revolution significantly changes the traditional methods of learning gradually displacing the teacher from the educational process. The computer introduces fundamentally new moral and educational-methodological rules making some routine functions of the teacher unnecessary (especially verbal methods of teaching). This changes the very meaning of the term ‘pedagogical impact’ by reducing its external part (the teacher’s impact) and strengthening the role of the individual activities (self-education, independent search for the most acceptable computer solutions, self-control, etc.) [21. P. 112]. However, it is completely wrong to consider the current transition of education to the electronic digital methods in purely romantic colors. The global nature of computerization has led to many social and moral problems that affect education and lead to new negative collisions. Computerization affects economic and psychological orientation of the man in the world, forms a completely new ethical situation in the society, changes the behavior of people and not only for the better. Transformation of computer technologies into an integral part of education determined some new moral problems. The global introduction of computer technologies into education and especially the desire to replace traditional educational technologies create many problems and lead to the serious impoverishment of education, which can turn the most complicated creative process of personal development into a primitive accumulation of disparate data. Among negative consequences of the use of computer technologies in all forms of education one can name its negative impact on the health of both teachers and students. Many hours of work with computers, printers, e-mails, etc. is dangerous for health. Those who often deal with computer processing of information have the so-called ‘information fatigue syndrome’ - lose the ability to adequately perceive information and make right decisions on its basis. However, the most dangerous consequence of computerization of education can be the reduction of live communication of the participants in the educational process for such communication is essential for speech abilities and independent creative thinking development. Without dialogues of the teacher with the student and between students it is impossible to develop abilities to correctly and accurately formulate one’s thoughts in the professional terms. ‘Dialogue with a computer’ is a surrogate for live human communication that cannot replace it. By minimizing the live direct contact of the teacher and students, replacing their communication in the traditional forms of teaching, such as lectures, seminars, and consultations, by various ‘advanced’ educational technologies (computer programs, audio and video courses, etc.) we risk to lose the chance to develop creative thinking as based on dialogue [20. P. 386]. Thus, like any technical achievement, computer technologies have negative consequences including those in the field of professionalization. In the cognitive-mental aspect, it is the formation of non-linear, associative, mosaic thinking, an overabundance of information, weakening of creative thinking. In the humanitarian aspect, information technologies mechanize and standardize educational activities, impersonate learning, weaken the humanitarian aspects of education in general and produce a ‘partial’ personality. Secondary professionalization under informatization of professional activities Graduation from the vocational school is the final step of primary professionalization and the starting point for entering the world of professional relations. Secondary professionalization is based on the professional activities of the individual, continuous self-development, accumulation of professional experience, and adoption of professional ethics standards. The transformation of a specialist into a professional demands the professional work, which is possible only if during primary professionalization the person not only received appropriate professional training, but also developed a humanistic worldview, an active and creative personality. The psychological factor of professionalism is one’s orientation to perfection and creativity, and the social factor is adoption of a wide range of norms, values and orientations, both professional and universal. The specificity of secondary professionalization consists in that, first, it is not formalized and not limited by time or organizational framework (the only formal aspects of secondary professionalization are various forms of training, certification, etc.); second, the main form of secondary professionalization is professional self-education, and its key social agent is the subject of professional activities, while other agents are labor collectives of business organizations. Professional activities of subjects take place mainly in business organizations, which also perform the function of socialization with information, educational and professional components. Labor collectives usually do not teach a profession though such an option is possible if the vocational education does not provide necessary professional skills. The role of labor collectives in the professional development is significant for they create a professional environment that determines the professional morals of all members of the collective. The moral and psychological climate in the organization significantly affects one’s creative activity and aspirations for the professional growth. However, the organization of professional work in information society undergoes significant changes, such as transformations of the traditional concept ‘work’ as including direct interpersonal communication with colleagues. Today a specialist communicates with a computer terminal at home, does not appreciate the direct communication with colleagues, thus, does not feel pride in the final product and loses skills of team work [18]. Despite some influence of the professional environment on the individual professional development, at this stage professionalization implies mainly self-education and self-improvement. The success of professional self-education depends mainly on one’s striving for excellence, desire to reach the professional heights, general humanistic orientation, and ability to develop a broad and profound vision of professional and social problems. Thus, the formation of the professional in the course of secondary professionalization depends not only on professional knowledge and skills, but also on spiritual, moral and ideological foundations laid by primary professionalization. A special role is played by the spiritual and moral foundations and the broad social and humanitarian views in the professional realization in information society. ‘Digital revolution’ forms a new class of specialists with high global mobility. Until recently, the Russian state employment policy guaranteed every citizen a lifetime occupation; today the situation has changed dramatically and made unemployment and the need to change profession quite widespread. The labor market puts one in the situation when he is forced to begin his professional development anew, i.e. not due to one’s psychological capabilities or desires but under the restrictions imposed of the labor market [8. P. 12]. However, a radical change of profession in adulthood does not mean impossibility to master it provided that there are ideological and moral grounds for the professional development. Successful reprofessionalization is facilitated by the appropriate state policy, development of professional counseling and employment services, i.e. infrastructure for providing educational services for the unemployed or those wishing to get a new profession. Computer technologies in education created unprecedented opportunities for secondary professionalization and reprofessionalization. Learning in the distant form that previously faced numerous problems due to the lack of communication of the teacher with the student, poor control of the learning process, etc. has received a new impetus to develop as a distant education available to everyone with computer skills. Distant learning was made possible by the Internet and computer technologies, it consists of exchange of educational information with the help of electronic and computer devices, thus, significantly expanding opportunities for the high-quality vocational education [21. P. 143]. Computer technologies provide students with information via electronic educational resources; ensure interactive interaction of students and teachers, for example, during on-line discussions, round tables and seminars; provide a quick assessment of one’s achievements and skills during training. For the integral part of distant learning is self-learning with the help of computer technologies, a student can study using not only prints, but also videotapes, electronic textbooks having access to electronic libraries and databases containing a huge amount of diverse information. *** Professionalization has a diverse and multilevel impact on the social-cultural dynamics. Professional self-realization demands active labor activity, in which the choice of profession and ‘life in the profession’ acquires special significance in determining individual interests, orientations and lifestyle. Professionalization in the Russian society leads to the growth of the impact of professionalism as an important criterion of social stratification, a factor of social mobility and social-cultural dynamics. Today, in information society, computerization affects individual professionalization at all stages. Globalization of informatization changed not only the content of our knowledge, but also the ways in which we obtained, reproduced and transfer it. Professionals that were trained by the old school and old type of universities differ by their psychological characteristics from those that play computer games at the kindergarten, go to computer classes at school, work at the computerized workplace and communicate with friends via satellites. New information technologies change the style of thinking, ways of communication, assessments of others and self-concept. Computer technologies provide us with unprecedented opportunities for educational growth and professional development, which largely depends on the person himself. However, accepting the need and usefulness of computer technologies in education, we must harmoniously combine them with traditional educational practices. Russian educational system retains its high positions today only due to the reasonable combination of innovations with traditions preserving the humanistic, ethical, and moral components of learning. This very combination if the key to successful modernization of the system of individual professionalization in information society.

V A Tsvyk

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Email: tsvyk_va@rudn.university
Miklukho-Maklaya St., 6, Moscow, 117198, Russia -

I V Tsvyk

Moscow Aviation Institute

Email: tsvykirina@mail.ru
Volokolamskoe Shosse, 4, Moscow, 125993, Russia -

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