Authorial neologisms and occasionalisms. The phenomenon of the novel “The Little hero” by F.M. Dostoevsky

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The purpose of the study is to identify neologisms and occasionalisms as special words and phrases that characterize the author’s idiostyle; to show their origin; to explain their difference and similarity; to clarify the terminology. The aim of the study is to show new words and combinations of words in the General fabric of the author’s text and explain their use and purpose; to trace the dependence of the number of neologisms and occasionalisms on the conditions of creation of the work and the initial idea of the author. The method of linguistic research is the use of electronic and corpus technology in the study of literary text. Standard spelling program allows you to see in the text of neologisms and occasional, which stand out as different from the norm of literary language. Then the linguistic analysis of innovations is carried out and their classification is made on the basis of similar signs on etymology, word formation and morphological, semantic and phraseological modification. Take into account the precedent of the creation of the neologism occasionalism or due to the Cabinet technology. Clarification of terms to describe the language of the writer and his creative manner leads to a unification of understanding neologisms and occasionalisms in context due to the usage of the author, allowing you to create a special vertext in understanding any text. This is expressed in the anticipation of the perception of the text and in a concise and capacious characterization. Quantitative picture of neologisms-occasionalisms in all the works of Dostoevsky and every in the long term makes it possible to compare how different works of the writer and of works of different authors in the synchrony and diachrony of the Russian language. The research initially is the text of the story “Little hero”, which was written during the imprisonment in the Peter and Paul fortress, that is special for a person and writer extreme conditions of stress, and then drawing the material of other works presenting meaningful, chronological and quantitative interest on the use of neologisms and occasionalisms. This fixation of the reader’s attention on the vanishing moment makes it necessary to create a new word or phrase in the event that the main character of the story becomes invisible, small, almost disappearing. Psychologically, this technique can be explained by the revival of the author’s self-consciousness after severe stress. The phenomenon of the “The Little hero” is in the vanishing hero, and therefore in the vanishing author.

About the authors

Elena A Osokina

The V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
Moscow, Russia

Ph.D. philology, Research Fellow


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