APPLICATION OF ICT FOR FOSTERING TOLERANCE THROUGH IMPACT ON EMOTIVITY OF LEARNERS

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Abstract


The search for ways and means of solving the tolerance problem is now extremely urgent for the world community. In Russia due to a number of circumstances for a considerable time some experience has been accumulated and proposed various approaches to solving such problems. Based on the research of V.I. Shakhovsky, who has studied the phenomenon of the emotivity and the possibility of impact on the personal qualities of the individual by means of it and wide spread of information and communication technologies, the author suggests an innovative method for fostering and development of tolerance by influence on emotivity of learners with situative vocabularies and linguistic quasi-corps in the telecommunicative media. Situative vocabulary is an ICT tool that contains lexical structures used in specific communicative situations as well as modern ICT tools (blogs, chats, forums, mail, etc.) to supplement existing material and to discuss the ways and situations of use of various linguistic constructions or meanings of the words. Linguistic quasi-corps is an array consisting of a text (or texts), selected on any basis and includes a small (2-20) number of elements. The main task of linguistic quasi-corps is to help the user in analyzing the structure and/or vocabulary of a document while drafting own document. Experience in application of the ICT tools gives evidence of increase in motivation of students by involving them in active work in familiar to them media in particular social networks.


Relevance. In the article tolerance is understood as active moral position and psychological readiness for bearing in the name of mutual understanding between peoples, social groups, positive interaction with people of different cultural, national, religious or social environment. Psychologists have proved that by means of emotions emotional attitude to reality of a man is reflected in his mind. Thinking a man as a linguistic personality (LP) “learns” and “interiorizes” information about the surrounding world, reflecting the results of the “interiorization” in the language. Emotions being a mediator between reality and its linguistic reflection regulate the process. V.I. Shakhovsky [12] started to work out approaches to solve the problems of emotional conceptosphere and other emotional determinants of intra and intercultural communicative factor (for example, emotional behavior, emotional tolerance etc.). According to him [12] emotion is a category of psychology, and the linguistic level emotions are transformed in emotivity. The emotive meaning of a word is not a reflection of the emotions just this speaker. It is not an individual, and is a generalized reflection of the social emotions. And in this respect it also has a social nature, as an indicative value and is correlated with the appropriate emotions of any native speaker. The main characteristic for attribution of the word to the category of emotive is a functional characteristic, if the word expresses or can express emotions, it is emotive. Meanwhile the primary function of emotives is an emotional expression: the speaker does not seek to evoke any emotion from the listener (this is the fundamental difference between the emotives of expressive vocabulary, aimed at the addressee). The number of vocabulary emotives especially functional in any language cannot be determined. This suggests the dynamic nature of the emotive component of words semantics that can be reduced, minimized, potentialized. To sum up emotively is “inherent to the language the ability to express by system of its means the emotion as a fact of the psyche; social and individual emotions reflected in semantics of language units” [10]. Based on psycholinguistic studies it is logical to assume that if a language being a way to gain social experience, any experience is fixed in the language units, with the help of which people express and perceive emotions impact on (introduction or substitution, for example) can result in fostering certain behavior or even traits of personality. During its long history Russia has been facing a lot of problems of inter-ethnic and intercultural communication and has gained some experience in the field of fostering tolerance. Formation of tolerance includes the following fields: 1) definition of general goals and specific objectives; 2) making acquaint with the system of scientific knowledge on the rights and freedoms of man and peoples, of Nations and their relations, the races and religious denominations; 3) creation of civil and human senses and consciousness; 4) development of positive experience of culture for communication with people of different nations, races, religious denominations [9]. For the successful formation of tolerant attitudes on a personal level it’s important to know what are the major differences between tolerant and intolerant individuals. G.U. Soldatova designed following the criteria of tolerance and intolerant behavior. They are suitable for a variety of groups, ranging from families and school class and to society as a whole, but unfortunately, they do not always appear explicitly, therefore some of them can be seen only by trained and interested observers. Tolerant approach (by G.U. Soldatova) - coverage of events of public character, as many people as possible, if it does not contradict their cultural traditions and religious beliefs; - ability to maintain their traditions for all cultures, presented in the society; - positive vocabulary in the most vulnerable areas of ethnic, race relations, in gender relations. Intolerance: (G.U. Soldatova) - insults, ridicule, an expression of neglect; - ignoring (denial of conversation, recognition); - negative stereotypes, bias, prejudice (drafting the generalized opinion of the man belonging to a different culture, gender, race, ethnic group, usually on the basis of negative characteristics); - ethnocentrism (understanding and appreciation of the phenomena of life through the prism of values and traditions of one’s own group as the standard and best compared to other groups); Considering direct communication (or telecommunication) in any community (class, group, business, friends, etc.), you can highlight certain components of the manifestations of tolerance/intolerance. As an example let us take a piece of advice given to a classmate (see Table). Table Tolerant/intolerant way of giving advice to a classmate Tolerance Intolerance Attentive listening to and hearing Interruption, inability to listen to the interlocutor, impatience Desire to understand Indifference Advice, offer Detachment Praise, agreement Insult Encouragement Critisism Goodwill Condemnation Consolation Morals Respect Threats Empathy Caution, warning Support Order, insructions Certain words and expressions correspond to each of this manifestation. It has been proved in linguistics, that in many languages the emotive lexical units with negative meaning predominate in their quantity over emotive lexical units with positive semantics and often intolerant words and expressions are used not out of speaker’s desire to offend but out of his not knowing positive variants. Based on this fact gives we can come to a conclusion that linguistic impact via emotive lexical units with positive meaning can psychologically shift personality to positive attitude. Effective teaching tolerance and people of different age groups is a challenge. In its decision can be involved in modern means of information, traditionally used in the education system [1; 2]. At the same total computerization of society is accompanied by distribution of problems associated with the necessity of tolerance. It is important to understand that, on the one hand, the widest dissemination of information and communication technologies (ICT) has become a catalyst of globalization, when the economic, political and cultural activities go beyond the individual territorial jurisdiction and, accordingly, beyond the nation-state. Modern information technologies give a powerful impetus to expand access to education and training and allow you to create new effective individualized methods of education and upbringing, but the spread of information technology is a threat to the dehumanization of society and the replacement of spiritual values and technological concepts and principles. In this situation, all sectors of education should play a key role in countering the “virtualization” of the world. One can see nearing education and fostering to user, but also the individualization of programs of training and education, through the use of means of information takes place [8]. The authors propose to use ICT tools for fostering and development of tolerance by impact on the emotive component of personality. Earlier innovative means of situative vocabulary and linguistic quasi-corps were offered, which appearance was possible thanks to the widespread use and development of information and telecommunication technologies. Situative vocabulary is an ICT tool that contains lexical structures used in specific communicative situations (vocabulary for the situation), (sometimes short extracts from rules of behavior in such situations) and modern ICT tools (blogs, chats, forums, mail, etc.) to supplement existing material and to discuss the ways and situations of use of various linguistic constructions or meanings of the words. More information about the tool and ways of its use can be found in relevant works [3-5]. Linguistic quasi-case is an array consisting of a text (or texts), selected on any basis and includes a small (2-20) numbers of elements. The main task of linguistic quasi-corps is to help the user in analyzing the structure and/or vocabulary of a document in drafting their own document. More information about the ways of creation and the possibilities of this innovative ICT tool can be found in [6] and other works by the author. Experience indicates a relatively high effectiveness in application of such tools for fostering and development of tolerance [7]. The appropriate application of such tools in social networks can improve the efficiency of methods of fostering and development of tolerance through the creation of relevant linguistic environment, which in turn, according to the laws of neurolinguistics forms a world outlook, a positive or negative attitude towards certain events and phenomena. The authors are sure that use of such tools will bring factors important for development of tolerance into all age groups, especially young people. However, studies identifying the tools and methods of fostering personal qualities, including tolerance, using the widest opportunities offered by the ICT tools are currently only at the phase of start. This promising and highly relevant direction of research and practical activities will receive dissemination in the nearest future.

O V L’vova

Moscow city pedagogical university

Author for correspondence.
Email: olglvova@yandex.ru
Sheremetyevskaya str., 29, Moscow, Russia, 127521

Lvova Olga Vladimirovna, candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor for the chair of informatization of education of the Moscow city pedagogical university.

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