Brezhneva S.N.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):509-512
pages 509-512 views

Controversy as a mechanism for search and approval of truth (the case of debate on ‘aqidah between Shihabetdin Marjani and his opponents in the Volga region in the last third of the 19th century)

Mardanova D.Z.


The article is focused on the theological debates on the issues of ‘aqidah between Shihabetdin Marjani and his opponents. The debate is viewed as a mechanism for the search and approval of truth. Being one of the possible answers of the Tatar Muslims to the imperial challenge, the religious debate is analyzed in the light of the changed political, economic and social conditions of the new era, when through theological discussions about the kalam and divine attributes, there were outlined new boundaries of the religious tradition. Within the framework of this problem the following issues are discussed: 1) the polemical genre in the Islamic world; Majlis as a forum for discussions and debates of Muslims in solving topical issues of the intellectual, religious and social character; the types of disputes are jadal and munazara ; 2) the reformation of Islam in the late 19th century among Muslims of the Russian Empire; 3) the discussion of the image of the “true” creed (‘aqidah) through dogmatic discussions about the kalam , mutakallims , the doctrine of the divine attributes and the connection of the attributes with Allah; 4) the sources of the creed (‘ aqidah ), the boundaries of the sources authority; forbidden innovations ( bidaat ); 5) the accusation of unbelief ( takfir ) and the boundaries of unbelief ( kufr ); 6) the return to the “uprightness” through a renewal (tajdid), which supposed, on the one hand, the introduction into the tradition of “necessary” and “true” conceptions, and on the other hand, the rejection of “irrelevant”, that is, allegedly, “untrue” views; 7) the criticism of Marjani as a legitimate participant in the dispute, the innovator of Islam ( mujaddid ) and a theologian and jurist capable of ijtihad ( mujtahid ). The study of the polemic as a reaction of Muslims to the imperial challenge in the new era conditions made it possible to trace the way Muslim scholars outlined the new boundaries of the religious doctrine and thanks to this adapted the religious tradition to the social realities of the Russian Empire in the last third of the 19th century, and simultaneously they reviewed the environment in the light of the sources.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):513-537
pages 513-537 views

“The golden mean” in views of mufti Galimjan Barudi: attitude to religious-legal schools in traditions of Russian Muslims

Abulhanov N.B., Nabiev R.A.


The article is devoted to the study of the topic of the day - the formation of the tradition of Russian Muslims on the issues of the attitude to the religious-legal schools on the example of the views of Galimjan Barudi, the outstanding religious figure of the 19th - early 20th centuries. The article touches upon his views on the important issues for Muslims of the Russian Empire, his reformist views on the attitude of Muslims towards the traditional religious-legal schools, in particular his view of the Hanafi religious-legal school, which is the most widespread among Russian Muslims. There are examined his achievements in the field of improving the Muslim education. The article demonstrates the scientist’s contribution to the formation of a new system of education of the Muslim peoples of the Russian Empire of the late 19th - early 20th centuries, based on the principles of reformation, “Jadidism”. Galimjan Barudi, the creator of the famous madrassah “Muhammadiya”, took an active part in these processes; he was the author of many scientific works devoted to reforming not only the educational system of Muslims of Russia, but the entire way of life of the Muslim peoples, especially the peoples of the Volga-Ural region of the country. The article reflects Galimjan Baroudi’s point of view on one of the most burning theological and legal issues - the possibility of ijtihad in the contemporary Muslim society, the “closing of the ijtihad gates”, since this issue was crucial in the theological disputes between the reformist direction of “Jadidism” and the traditionalist direction of “kadimism”. In addition to purely scientific research, these issues affected broad strata of the Muslim population, which was reflected in the publishing and educational activities of Galimjan Barudi. There is considered the issue of the possibility of changing the provisions of religious-legal schools in the spirit of the new time, in accordance with the circumstances of the changing socio-political and economic relations. The article provides Galimjana Barudi’s fatwas on various issues and analyzes their compliance with the traditional Hanafi law. There is reflected Galimjan Barudi’s general attitude to the Hanafi madhhab, as well as his attitude to reformation among Muslims of Russia in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):538-550
pages 538-550 views

Formation and development of the theological thought of Tatars: history and trends of development

Adygamov R.K.


The socio-economic changes in the territory of the former USSR, the processes of ethno-religious revival revealed the relevance of the traditional heritage, which in the process of historical heritage has allowed developing tolerant and good-neighbourly relations in the Russian Federation. In this regard, the second half of the 18th century - the first quarter of the 20th century is a special period for the social thought of the Tatars, as after three hundred years of stagnation it is reviving. But the study of the history of the revival of the Tatars’ social and theological thought and in particular the problems of Islamic law of this period involves primarily the identification of the main cultural, social and political factors that influenced its formation and development. The most important of these factors for the Tatars was Islam. The Islamic religious tradition was firmly established and maintained, despite the socio-political events that took place in the region. The Mongol invasion, the collapse of the Golden Horde, the conquest of the Kazan khanate did not change the religious situation in the region. After the capture of Kazan up to the end of the 18th century there was stagnation in the social life and social thought of the Tatars. Despite this, after the issuance of the decree on religious tolerance by Catherine II, there began a rapid process of the revival of the Tatars’ social thought. As the Tatars received religious education in the world’s famous religious centres, the ideas of theologians of the Islamic world had a significant impact on the formation of their views. The second most important factor that influenced the formation of the ideas of the Tatar thinkers was the ideas of European and Russian reformers. The Tatar thinkers got acquainted with them as a result of communication with the Russian intelligentsia, thanks to the development of the education system, as well as from the works of thinkers. Thus, the mentioned factors influenced the formation of the reform ideas in the Tatar theological thought, which contributed to the socio-economic development of the Tatar society.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):551-580
pages 551-580 views

Craft culture of guild crimean tatar master of manufacturing traditional leather shoes (on the manuscripts and published materials of

Nepomnyashchy A.A., Grushetskaya V.A.


Adstract: The authors consider the scientific works of the famous turkologist V.A. Gordlevsky (1876-1956), which are largely preserved in handwritten form, in particular, in the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and other archives. On the basis of the scientist’s work, there is carried out the comparative analysis of the guild organization of artisans in the Crimea and in Asia Minor, with the study of craftsmanship of the Crimean Tatar masters, who produced casual leather shoes on the territory of the Crimean peninsula in the late 18th - early 20th centuries. There is emphasized the leading role of the scientist in studying this problem. The authors point out the features of his life and scientific activity, which affected the formation of his fundamental and profound knowledge of this issue. There are formulated the conclusions reflecting the main aspects of the craft culture in the Crimea. The brotherhood of Akhi appeared and functioned in the Crimea as a voluntary union of the local professional and religious associations of guild craftsmen from the 13th century. In the opinion of V.A. Gordlevsky, these professional organisations played the leading religious, political and economic role in the region thanks to a “futuwwa”, the statute of the craft unions, which in Crimea were called “selef-name” and included ethical and moral codes, such as generosity, honesty and modesty. In the Crimea, there also was a hierarchy of guild craftsmen; it included three main levels of the craftsmen (the student “shekird”, apprentice “kalfa”, master “usta”) as well as administration headed by the supreme spiritual mentor of the guild “nakib” and the main masters “usta-bashi”.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):581-607
pages 581-607 views

Reflection of acculturation idea in the resettlement policy of the Russian Empire in Turkestan at the turn of the 20th century

Brezhneva S.N.


The article deals with the resettlement policy of the Russian Empire in the Turkestan region in the context of acculturation. It is noted that the resettlement of Russian peasants in Turkestan was regulated by the generally accepted Russian legislation, but it had its own local features. The peculiarity of the Russian colonization consisted in the following: firstly, in the region there lived foreign-speaking population with a different mentality and a different religion; secondly, in the most areas Turkestan was conquered by force of arms, and this fact did not add local population’s confidence in the Russian authorities. Nevertheless, according to the author, the grounds for acculturation were at the beginning of the resettlement process, when there began to establish economic relations between Russian settlers and local residents. The analysis of the further resettlement policy of the Russian Empire leads to the conclusion that both objective and subjective reasons were the obstacle to further acculturation. The latter ones consisted in the incorrect decision of the Russian authorities on the isolation of the Russian-speaking population from the indigenous population, the withdrawal of “surplus” land from the local population, the excesses in the work of the Resettlement Department, whose members often abused their power. The negative role was also played by the commitment to the Russian authority, the Turkestan administration, and even Russian settlers’ adherence to the “civilizing mission of Russia”, explaining the necessity of introducing “wild” peoples to the European civilization, which served as an argument for justifying the need to bear the “good” to “unenlightened peoples”. The author makes the conclusion about the imperfection of the resettlement policy of the Russian administration, which consisted in the absence of the legal framework and clear plan of resettlement.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):608-638
pages 608-638 views

Muslim representatives in self-government of Russian regions in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries (based on the materials of Vyatka province)

Subbotina A.M.


The author explores the issue of the participation of Muslim representatives in the zemstvo, volost (parish) and city self-government of the Vyatka province of the Russian Empire in 1860-1916. The study of the situation in the Vyatka province shows the legal status of Muslims in those Russian territories where Islam was spread. The main materials of the study were the documents of the State archive of the Kirov Region and local periodicals. Muslims in the region were Tatars and Bashkirs. Their number varied in different districts of the province. The author makes a comparative analysis of the participation of Muslims in the volost, zemstvo and city self-government. The researcher claims that in the Muslim districts of the province their representatives participated in the self-government of different levels. However, there was no direct correlation between the number of the Muslim population and the number of Muslim representatives in city councils, zemstvo and volost boards. Various factors influenced the election of Tatars and Bashkirs to self-government bodies. Legislative acts established legal norms for the formation of a representative office. The maximum proportion of non-Christians was only in city assemblies. The final result was also influenced by the number of Muslims among voters of different categories, the authority of candidates, the position of the electoral assemblies and the local administration. To a greater extent, the composition of the population reflected the zemstvo and volost self-government. It was a small number of Muslim citizens among owners of the property which became the reason for their weak participation in the city municipal Duma.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):639-660
pages 639-660 views

Siberian bukharans in the first post-revolutionary decade

Datsyshen V.G.


The article deals with the problems of the Siberian Bukharans’ community in the first decade after the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Bukharans played an important role in the history of Western Siberia for several centuries. But the significance of the Bukhara community in the economic life of Siberia decreased steadily; there took place rapprochement in the form of assimilation with Siberian Tatars. In the early twentieth century, the reforms, revolutionary changes and war became an ordeal for Siberian Bukharans. As a result of the state policy, both imperial and Soviet, the most important factor in preserving the Bukhara identity - the Bukhara volost - was destroyed. After the end of the civil war in Siberia, the Bukharans in the bulk were in opposition to the Soviet power. In many areas of Siberia in the early twentieth century there was a drop in the population of Bukharans. The largest and most organized community of the Siberian Bukharans in Soviet Russia was preserved in the Tarsky district of the Siberian territory - more than 11 thousand people. In the focus of the research there are problems of the economic, political and cultural development of the Bukharans in the Tarsky district in the mid-1920s. The documents found by the author indicate the degradation of the Siberian Bukharans’ economy. It was caused by the fact that after the victory of the Soviet government, a significant part of them did not connect their future with Siberia anymore, the Bukharans expected permission to leave the USSR, mainly to Turkey. The article introduces new scientific archival documents which reflect the policy of the state in connection with the desire of the Bukharans to leave the USSR. The central Soviet government did not allow this, but ordered to improve the work with this group of the population. Despite the fact that the Soviet leaders in Siberia tried to improve the economic and cultural situation of the Bukharans, they failed to completely eliminate the “resettlement sentiments”. From 1927, the Soviet government ceased to recognize the Bukharans as a separate ethno-social group, including them in the number of Siberian Tatars or for some time using the name “Tatar-Bukharans”.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):661-674
pages 661-674 views


Socio-economic characteristics of landed nobility of the Middle Volga region in the second half of 19th - early 20th centuries

Petrov V.I.


The article deals with the analysis of the socio-economic development of the landed nobility of the Middle Volga region. They grew in number due to the high birth rate in the families of the nobility by birth. In 1867-1897 the increase in the number of the personal nobility of the Middle Volga region considerably lagged behind the growth in the number of the nobility by birth. It should be noted that more than 80% of the nobility by birth of the region lived in cities. The government needed to strengthen its social support throughout all tiers of Russian society, with a clear attempt to restrict access to the nobility. The main process in the sphere of landowning among the noblemen of the Middle Volga region in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries was to mobilize the nobility landowning of the region under study, that is, to reduce the landownership of the gentry and to concentrate land in the hands of the merchantry, the business peasantry and other representatives of the rural bourgeoisie. Throughout the post-Reform period, the landlords retained the position of the main sellers, as well as the largest buyers of land. The redistribution of land among the nobility was influenced by the market development of agrarian relations in general and landlord production, in particular. At the same time, the transfer of land into the hands of capitalized landlords facilitated the development of their farms. In the first twenty years after the abolition of serfdom, the private landownership in the Middle Volga region accounted for a quarter of all agrarian areas. Judging by the wealth of the nobility in the region, it can be stated that in the second half of the 19th century the economic situation of the landowners was very stable, which served as the basis for the high positive dynamics of the growth of the gentry class in the three governorates under study. Therefore, in 1867-1897 the increase in the number of personal nobility and government officials in the Middle Volga region amounted to 106.7%.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):675-695
pages 675-695 views

Creation of inpatient ophthalmological care system in Ufa in the early 20th century

Galimova Y.S.


In the pre-revolutionary period, the care of disabled and other suffering people who did not have the necessary material support was carried out in the Russian Empire with the support of the imperial family and public participation. The guardianship of Empress Maria Alexandrovna of the blind was the only organization supporting blind people. Established in 1886, the Ufa department of guardianship charged itself with the care, education and employment of the poor with eyesight diseases in the province. To accomplish this task, there was opened an asylum for sight-disabled people, where the training of adult blind was conducted, which was later reorganized into the Ufa specialized school for blind children. From 1901, this institution became the basis for the first free eye clinic in Ufa. The significance of this project is that the clinic took up the issue of treating the provincial population that had suffered from eye diseases and had had no access to health care in the field of ophthalmology before. Despite the limited support of the provincial and town authorities, for 25 years of its existence the Ufa eye clinic broadened the scope of its activities, providing adequate medical care. As a result, it became the basis for creating the specialized research institute which continues to provide ophthalmological care to the population till the present day. The Department also headed the ophthalmological care service in the Ufa province, opening the first Ufa free eye clinic. To date, there has been no holistic study on the development of the ophthalmological care service in Ufa province. The basis of the work is archival documents from the Russian State Historical Archives, the National Archives of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the State Archives of the Republic of Crimea, the Moscow Central State Archives, the State Archives of the Tomsk oblast, the State Archives of the Saratov oblast, and the State Archives of the canton of Bern (Switzerland): statistical materials, legislative acts, documents of management and record keeping, etc. of the period under review, thanks to which it was possible to restore the chronology of the work of the Ufa Eye Clinic, the biography of the directors of the clinic, whose fates were closely linked with the history of the country.

RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):696-717
pages 696-717 views

Russian-Egyptian relations in terms of intercivilizational interaction

Lukyanova G.O., Paymakova E.A.


The article is devoted to the development of Russian-Egyptian relations in terms of intercivilizational dialogue; there are analyzed the dynamics of their development in various historical epochs as well as the factors that have had decisive influence on the nature of the bilateral interaction. The globalization processes in which the modern world lives are shaking all the models of national and cultural identity that have developed over many centuries. These processes jeopardize the existence of the peoples, nations and cultures in their present form. In these conditions the interethnic cultural dialogue acquires special significance. This article is devoted to the consideration of a similar dialogue between Russian and Egyptian cultures in which political, economic, cultural, scientific and spiritual ties played and continue to play a special role. The ideas of Leo Tolstoy, M. Gorky and other Russian writers got in Egypt a special popularity and had a significant impact on progressive minds of the Egyptian intelligentsia as well as on the Egyptian literature. Although Arab, in particular Egyptian historians and public figures for a long time considered Russia as part of the West, after the October revolution of 1917 in Russia the Soviet state began to be perceived as a force that opposes the materialistic West. From the fifties of the 20th century, the military-technical and economic cooperation with the USSR, subsequently with Russia is of great importance for Egypt. At the same time, the article analyzes the influence of Egyptian culture and art on the spiritual and intellectual life of Russia.
RUDN Journal of Russian History. 2018;17(3):718-734
pages 718-734 views

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