Reorganization of Diplomatic missions of the Russian Empire in North-East China During the Early XX Century: based on Materials from the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire

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In their article, author considers previously little-studied aspects of the activities of Russian diplomatic missions in China in the late XIX - early XX century in order to explore the features of the daily life of the consular offices of the Russian Empire in China. The study is based on the copies of the answers of the Russian consular office employees in Manchuria to the questionnaire compiled by a special Commission for the Reorganization of the Foreign Service under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1907. These documents are stored in the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, and have been introduced used publicly for scientific use for the first time here. From the available material, it is apparent that in addition to the difficult living conditions in unusual climate, Foreign Ministry officials in China faced a large number of domestic difficulties, a lack of working materials, and funding. Disagreements over the delimitation of consular districts and the powers of diplomats led to inconsistency in the activities of Russian consuls in China. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties, under any circumstances Russian diplomats remained committed to their duty and did their best in the interests of their state, at the same time striving to establish friendly and equal relations with their Chinese counter-parts.

About the authors

Elena O. Starovoytova

Saint Petersburg State University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8283-2238

PhD in History, Assistant Lecturer of Theory of Social Development of Asian and African Countries Department

11, Universitetskaya Naberegnaya, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia


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Copyright (c) 2023 Starovoytova E.O.

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