Model Calculations of Home Education Scale: The Case of Yaroslavl Province in the Late 18th - Early 20th Century

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Abstract

In this article the author reconstructs the dynamics of home education sector in monetary value terms as the case study of a province in Central Russia, with application of mathematical modelling methods. As the source base, the author employs evidence primarily from published memoirs, epistolary heritage, fiction, as well as from previous research literature. The findings are obtained by means of calculations including inter-, retro-, and extrapolations of the quantitative evidence from the sources. The principal findings are the set of methods for reconstruction of annual output in the home education services segment of a regional economy and the respective long time series for Yaroslavl Province. They support the hypothesis that the home segment was comparable in scale to the educational establishments or even could exceed them at the start of the period under study. The methods developed by the author may be employed directly for similar reconstructions based on materials from other regions of Central Russia; and they are applied to the materials from the regions of Siberia, Far East and national peripheries of Russia.

Full text / tables, figures

Table 1
Literacy rates of female nobility of 09 and 1019 age cohorts, %

Age groups

1897

1887

1877

1867

1857

1847

1837

1827

1817

1807

1797

Less than 10 years

25

25

24

24

23

23

22

22

21

20

20

10–19 years old

99

97

95

92

91

88

86

84

82

80

78

Up to 20 years

60

59

58

56

55

53

52

51

50

48

47

Calculations based on: Pervaia Vseobshchaia perepis' naseleniia Rossiyskoi imperii, vol. L (St. Petersburg, 1904), 52, 53, 57.

 

Table 2
Distribution of gentry (18341858), noble land owners (1877), gentry estates (1895, 1905), % of the item total

 Year

stratum

stratum

stratum

1905

56,7

32,3

11,1

1895

52,7

32,7

14,5

1877

47,9

38,3

13,8

1858

38,3

40,6

21,1

1850

44,5

38,2

17,3

1834

48,7

32,9

18,4

Calculations based on: Sizova, O.V. Dvorianstvo Iaroslavskoi gubernii, 66, 69, 70; Statistika pozemel'noi sobstvennosti… 1881, 96; Tsifrovye dannye… 1897, tabl. 5; Statistika zemlevladeniia… 1906, 24.

 

Table 3
Participation rate of male nobility in home education by strata, %

 Year

stratum

stratum

stratum

1914

20

35

100

1864

30

40

100

1834

50

70

100

1825

60

80

100

1795

50

75

100

Assessments based on: Kolosova, E.M. Home education, 71; Lotman, Yu.M. Pushkin, 500; Prokofieva, E.A. Legislative regulation 175–176, 180; Solodyankina, O.Yu. Foreign clerks, 46, 57, 63, 66–67, 462.

 

Table 4
Evidence provided by the sources on nobility household payments for home education services

Year

Data on payments
in annual terms

Sources

Pages

1883

480

Chekhov. 1975

62–63

1883

252

Chrkhov. 1977

341

1882

720

Goncharov. 2011

132

1879

228

Fausek. 2010

44–45

1865

300

Yangul. 2006

24–25

1859

500

Z-n А. Derevenskoe dvorianskoe vospitanie. Cit. on: Solodyankina. 2007

377

1848

1000

Fet А.А. Моi vospominaniia 1849-1889. Part 1. Cit. on: Solodyankina. 2007

108

1838

540

Khvoschinskaiia. 2016

32

1833

2000

Viazemskii, P.А. Pismo А.I. Тurgenevu. Cit. on: Solodyankina. 2007

123

1832

1200

Leontiev. 2019

196

1831

800

Leontiev. 2019

194

1831

144

Iz dnevnika yunoshi «tridtsatykh godov». Cit. on: Solodyankina. 2018

16–18

1830

2000

Pushkin, А.S. Baryshnia-krestianka. Cit. po: Solodyankina. 2007

371

1822

1500

Tri pis'ma P. Mukhanova kn. M.A. Urusovu. Cit. po: Solodyankina. 2007

300

1821

3000

Semenov-Tyan-Shanskiy, P.P. Memuary. Cit. po: Solodyankina. 2007

123

1820

3000

Manuylov, V.A. M.Yu. Lermontov. Cit. on: Sergeeva. 2010

203

1818

500–800

Pis'mo M.N. Aksakovoy k O.S. Aksakovoy. Cit. on: Solodyankina. 2007

124

1817

1150

Dolgorukov. 1997

63–64, 152

1815

600

Pecherin. 1989

152–153

1814

3000, 5000–6000

Batushkov. 1986

408, 411

1813

2000

Pis'ma iz Moskvy v Nizhniy Novgorod. Cit. on: Solodyankina. 2019

55–56

1812

1800

Yudin, P. Ssyl'nyye 1812 goda v Orenburgskom kraye. Tsit. po: Solodyankina. 2014

519–524

1806

400

Sbornik postanovleniy po Ministerstvu narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 1802–1825

Стб. 33–34

1805

650

1804

900

1802

150

Dolgorukov. 1997

63–64

1798

800

Baratynskii, Ye.A. Stikhotvoreniya. Pis'ma. Vospominaniya sovremennikov. Tsit. po: Solov'yov. 1998

70–75

1797

70

Dolgorukov. 1997

63–64

1797

1840

GARF, f. 219 (Оrlovy-Davydovy). Cit. on: Shokareva. 2017

51, 52

1796

 

Otgoloski XVIII veka. Cit. on: Solodyankina. 2007

121

1796

500

Engel'gardt  L.N. Zapiski.  Cit. on: Solodyankina. 2007

121

1795

60

Engel'gardt  L.N. Zapiski.  Cit. on: Solodyankina. 2007

121

Figure 1. Evidence provided by the sources on nobility household payments for home education services by strata group
Source: data from Table 4.

Figure 2. The modeled dynamics of nobility household payments for home education services by strata
Calculation based on: the data from Table 4; deflated for 1853–1913 by the Budget Index in: Strumilin, S.G. History of ferrous metallurgy in the USSR, vol. 1 (Moscow: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1954), 514–515; Until 1853 – according to the General Price Index in: Mironov, B.N. Welfare of the population and revolution in imperial Russia: XVIII – early XX century (Moscow: New Chronograph, 2010), 512.

Table 5
Consumers quantity by strata and volume of education services consumption in home segment (in credit rubles)

Year

Consumption volume

 

Year

Consumption volume

At current prices

In 1913 prices

 

At current prices

In 1913 prices

Nobles

Total

Total

 

Nobles

Total

Total

1914

581 907

785 574

777 796

 

1854

295 109

350 029

736 903

1913

600 535

808 521

808 521

 

1853

291 144

344 758

739 824

1912

620 792

833 543

858 438

 

1852

287 289

339 639

718 887

1911

588 835

788 520

865 555

 

1851

284 819

336 176

701 839

1910

565 979

755 903

849 329

 

1850

291 988

344 086

715 608

1909

580 583

773 368

854 550

 

1849

300 180

353 179

731 712

1908

585 919

778 438

864 932

 

1848

271 823

319 313

659 020

1907

583 226

772 854

897 623

 

1847

269 017

315 525

648 712

1906

532 368

703 647

849 816

 

1846

263 095

308 102

631 030

1905

496 107

654 048

808 465

 

1845

261 253

305 477

623 263

1904

473 729

622 966

778 708

 

1844

249 504

291 297

592 059

1903

483 131

633 737

784 328

 

1843

227 394

265 085

536 724

1902

484 941

634 528

790 196

 

1842

221 918

258 316

521 019

1901

486 740

635 310

803 173

 

1841

218 206

253 621

509 594

1900

488 855

636 507

818 133

 

1840

212 719

246 882

491 067

1899

500 300

649 826

819 453

 

1839

209 079

242 305

477 118

1898

503 340

652 200

836 154

 

1838

202 923

234 833

457 757

1897

467 454

604 253

836 915

 

1837

201 777

233 175

449 956

1896

418 077

539 145

741 603

 

1836

198 117

228 622

436 736

1895

416 056

535 276

738 312

 

1835

194 452

224 079

423 755

1894

421 413

540 904

749 174

 

1834

227 046

261 277

489 132

1893

458 598

587 271

786 172

 

1833

184 129

211 599

392 148

1892

499 447

638 114

857 680

 

1832

177 528

203 736

373 781

1891

475 430

606 047

852 386

 

1831

170 982

195 960

355 900

1890

435 102

553 387

819 833

 

1830

165 088

188 952

346 865

1889

433 011

549 495

782 756

 

1829

158 571

181 252

336 311

1888

455 672

576 969

848 483

 

1828

153 683

175 436

329 020

1887

414 739

523 983

783 233

 

1827

148 238

169 000

320 361

1886

397 029

500 514

702 969

 

1826

142 799

162 590

311 525

1885

405 673

510 303

686 814

 

1825

137 370

156 208

302 519

1884

410 746

515 575

673 075

 

1824

130 350

148 039

289 783

1883

423 027

529 859

659 029

 

1823

123 502

140 086

277 165

1882

415 690

519 571

644 629

 

1822

125 516

142 194

284 364

1881

407 770

508 604

613 516

 

1821

127 279

144 015

291 103

1880

392 282

488 270

622 001

 

1820

128 949

145 726

297 099

1879

378 974

470 735

619 388

 

1819

130 447

147 241

302 774

1878

365 774

453 411

618 569

 

1818

131 587

148 350

307 682

1877

353 576

437 404

609 198

 

1817

132 690

149 418

312 565

1876

350 133

432 275

602 894

 

1816

133 816

150 508

317 559

1875

343 182

422 851

606 672

 

1815

122 066

137 133

291 830

1874

337 882

415 498

596 980

 

1814

112 187

125 889

270 211

1873

330 438

405 550

600 815

 

1813

103 243

115 721

250 525

1872

327 611

401 300

585 840

 

1812

93 089

104 222

227 574

1871

321 433

392 975

593 617

 

1811

83 279

93 135

205 116

1870

314 419

383 667

590 258

 

1810

74 806

83 566

180 826

1869

332 458

404 913

629 724

 

1809

66 600

74 318

158 003

1868

346 605

421 352

687 361

 

1808

67 391

75 118

156 914

1867

361 822

439 033

759 573

 

1807

66 106

73 607

151 069

1866

365 887

443 148

791 336

 

1806

65 927

73 329

147 869

1865

374 223

452 416

821 083

 

1805

65 243

72 491

143 625

1864

371 220

447 974

843 642

 

1804

64 713

71 827

139 822

1863

382 717

461 019

845 907

 

1803

64 182

71 165

136 111

1862

333 132

400 575

724 367

 

1802

63 400

70 225

131 968

1861

326 769

392 231

741 458

 

1801

64 745

71 642

132 276

1860

319 381

382 693

754 819

 

1800

65 919

72 867

132 717

1859

313 588

375 102

757 781

 

1799

66 925

73 906

132 786

1858

311 328

371 758

746 503

 

1798

67 765

74 759

132 501

1857

312 376

372 375

723 058

 

1797

68 442

75 432

131 882

1856

303 249

360 885

729 061

 

1796

68 957

75 926

130 948

1855

296 628

352 414

737 269

 

1795

69 313

76 244

129 717

Own calculation based on: Bekker, S. Mif o russkom dvoryanstve, 299; Kabuzan, V.M., Troitskiy, S.M. Izmeneniya v chislennosti, 162, 166; Korelin, A.P. Dvoryanstvo v poreformennoy Rossii, 292–293, 298–299; Mironov, B.N. Rossiyskaya imperiya, vol. 1, 356; Seliverstova, N.M. Rossiiskoe dvorianstvo, 244–251; Sizova, O.V. Dvorianstvo Iaroslavskoi gubernii, 45, 46, 47, 66, 69, 70; Statisticheskie tablitsy Rossiyskoi imperii… 1863, 267, 276–277; Statistika pozemel'noi sobstvennosti… 1881, 96; Tsifrovye dannye … 1897. Tabl. 5; Statistika zemlevladeniia… 1906, 24. Data from Tables 2–4; deflated as in Figure 2.

×

About the authors

Dmitry V. Didenko

Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration

Author for correspondence.
Email: didenko-dv@ranepa.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5295-2538

Dr. habil. econ., Ph.D. in hist., Leading Researcher of the Research Laboratory of Economic and Social History, professor of the Department of Historical Economics

82, bild. 1, Vernadskogo prospekt, Moscow, 119571, Russia

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
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1. Figure 1. Evidence provided by the sources on nobility household payments for home education services by strata groups

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2. Figure 2. The modeled dynamics of nobility household payments for home education services by strata

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