Involvement in terrorist activities in Russia and in the world: from psychological to social-psychological factors

Bovin B.G., Kazberov P.N., Bovina I.B.


Terrorism is an extremely serious problem of our time: it is a real threat to society and to the existence of humanity as a whole. The purpose of the proposed theoretical and analytical study of the problem of terrorism is to consider the psychological and social psychological factors of involvement in terrorist activities. To achieve the set goal, the authors analyse a number of foreign works and suggest a research line of this problem in order to be able to form a system for monitoring the youth environment. This determines the novelty and significance of this work. The relevance of addressing this complex interdisciplinary problem is explained by the fact that measures to counter terrorism are necessarily based on knowledge of the psychological factors that lead to radicalisation; equally, the development of preventive measures aimed at various groups of the population as well as the creation of programmes for deradicalisation are based on an understanding of the mechanisms of social behaviour. The starting point in the work is the concept of modern terrorism proposed by J. Baudrillard, because this author gives a quite accurate description of the specifics of modern (global) terrorism, which is in harmony with the results of psychological research and concepts that explain why a person takes the path of committing acts of extreme violence. The paper discusses the existence of a terrorist profile and examines the specifics of terrorist motivation. Special attention is paid to the ideas of M. Hogg, in the framework of the uncertainty - identity theory, which outlines the prospects for further development of the problem of terrorism and radicalisation.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(2):227-246
pages 227-246 views

The construct of subjective occupational well-being: Russian sample testing

Oboznov A.A., Petrovich D.L., Kozhanova I.V., Bessonova Y.V.


Subjective occupational well-being, as shown by the authors of this article, is one of the key conditions for occupational health and career longevity in our time. Along with this, existing models associate the achievement of occupational well-being with the realisation of aspirations for personal self-development and autonomy subject to professional competence and favourable emotional and psychosomatic states prevailing in a comfortable working environment. However, these models do not take into account the social and occupational relevance of actors as a factor in their occupational well-being, although any professional occupation is initially aimed at obtaining the results required by society. Any activity, the results of which do not meet the expectations and requirements of society, become unclaimed, the demand for its participants is lost, and the problem of their subjective occupational wellbeing becomes irrelevant. Therefore, it would be incorrect to consider the assessment of personal occupational well-being without correlating it with the assessment of personal social and occupational relevance. As shown in the article, human well-being should also be considered in ethnocultural terms. In this regard, the aim of the present study was to provide a theoretical and empirical justification for the construct of subjective occupational well-being, including the component of social-occupational relevance, using a Russian sample. To verify this point, we conducted an empirical study that involved 285 employees of Russian territorial tax authorities. Their employment records in the tax service ranged from 1 to 34 years, with less than three years in 18% of the sample. Their age range was 22-62 years, with 25% of the sample on the right side of thirty. The sample included 70% of women and 30% of men. The study used The Professional Demand Questionnaire (Kharitonova, 2014), The Occupational Well-Being Inventory (Rut, 2016), The Prevalent Positive Emotional State Questionnaire (Kulikov, 2003), and the single-scale questionnaires - The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17) and Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS) in Russian adaptation (Schaufeli, Diystra, Ivanova, 2015). The research methods included factor analysis (principal component analysis, varimax rotation) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of the factor analysis showed that the newly proposed construct of subjective occupational well-being included three independent but, at the same time, interrelated components. The first component (27% of the variance explained) contained a set of self-esteems of the employees that reflected their awareness of their social and occupational relevance (“I, as a competent and sought-after professional”). The second component (19%) contained self-esteems that reflected the sustainable dominance of positive emotional states among the employees. And the third component (14%) contained self-esteems that reflected the degree to which the employees realised their aspirations for professional growth, satisfaction with their professional achievements and relationships in the work team. Two areas of further research on the problem of subjective occupational wellbeing are considered relevant. One area is the further elaboration of the ideas of the resource approach for developing and maintaining employees’ subjective occupational well-being (Schaufeli, Bakker, Van Rhenen, 2009). The other area is research in the framework of cross-cultural and cross-occupational approaches (Brauchli et al., 2013).

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(2):247-262
pages 247-262 views


The question of school language in multilingual societies: the example of Ghana

Appiah S.O., Ardila A.


The language used in school represents a crucial and polemic question in multilingual societies. Sub-Saharan Africa represents a world region with a significant linguistic diversity. Until recently, most of these countries were European colonies. During colonial times, the colonizer language generally dominated in schools. After their independence, many countries have continued using that language as the instructional language. It is observed that quite often, children are schooled in a second language, and teachers must teach in a foreign language. This situation results in potentially negative consequences affecting school learning. The specific example of Ghana is examined. It is pointed out that in Ghana during recent years frequent changes have been introduced in school language. Commonly, English is used as the primary school language. Because this association between language and school learning, speaking English provides not only significant social prestige, but also results in better working opportunities. The question of so-called “international schools” in Ghana is also examined; most of these schools do not teach any of the Ghanaian languages, but a foreign language, such as French, Spanish, or Portuguese. It is argued that these international schools may have adverse consequences on Ghanaian children who attend them. Ghana, however, has been a strong advocate of the so-called “African personality” and the use of English as the medium of instruction is in overt opposition to this ideology. It is concluded that children schooled in a second language, and teachers teaching in language that they do not master well enough may represent a potential barrier for the social, scientific, and economic development of sub-Saharan African countries, such as Ghana.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(2):263-272
pages 263-272 views

Adaptation of forced migrant children in general educational institutions: a case study of primary school-aged children from Ukraine

Konstantinov V.V., Mali N.A.


The unstable situation in the modern world leads to an ever-increasing number of forced migrants in Russia from different regions. In most cases, forced migration is a critical, traumatic, extreme and frustrating situation. The events in Ukraine caused the emergence in Russia of forced migrants, including school-aged children, who were given the opportunity to continue their education in Russian schools. It can be assumed that the stressful traumatic situation, in which these children found themselves, negatively affected their physical and mental state, which in the future may affect the process of their school adaptation. Studying the specifics of the school adaptation of children who experienced the stressful traumatic situation of forced migration at the stage of primary general education, it is possible to solve the problem of organising adaptation measures in a general educational institution. The aim of the research was to study the specifics of the adaptation of forced migrant children in general educational institutions (through the example of primary school-aged children from Ukraine). The study involved 241 children, of whom 121 were permanent residents of Penza studying in local educational institutions and 120 were forced migrant children from Ukraine who began their studies in Penza schools. To identify the indicators of the emotional and social-psychological components of their school adaptation, the “Draw-A-Non-Existent Animal” and “DrawA-Family” tests were used; and E. Wagner’s “Hand Test” was used for diagnosing aggressiveness. It was revealed that the school adaptation of forced migrant children from Ukraine as compared with that of their Russian peers has certain specific features, which are more evident in the characteristics of its emotional and social-psychological components. The results of the study can be used in organizing psychological and pedagogical support for forced migrant children during the process of their school adaptation.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(2):273-287
pages 273-287 views


Studies of insomnia psychophysiological aspects and etiopathogenesis: Russian and foreign approaches

Kemstach V.V., Korostovtseva L.S., Alekhin A.N., Milovanova A.V., Bochkarev M.V., Sviryaev Y.V.


The authors describe two approaches to the classification of insomnia - one was presented in earlier works, the other is currently accepted in the medical scientific community. The following three models of the etiopathogenesis of insomnia are considered: a 3-P model that identifies predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors as the key ones in the development and chronicity of insomnia; a hyperarousal model that defines psychological and neurobiological hyperarousal as a factor contributing to the development of insomnia; and a sleep reactivity to stress model, according to which the pronounced premorbid sleep reactivity to stress increases the risk of developing insomnia. Hyperarousal and sleep reactivity to stress are supposed to be autonomous yet equally predisposing factors of insomnia which act reciprocally and can simultaneously contribute to the development of stress-induced insomnia. It is noteworthy that the clinical usefulness of the sleep reactivity to stress model can extend beyond the preliminary assessment of the risk of insomnia development and be used for screening patients in remission who may be at increased risk of recurrence in future and should receive supportive treatment to minimise this risk. At present, it remains unclear whether hyperarousal is the core of the disorder, its cause, risk factor, or epiphenomenon. Further investigations are required to clarify the psychological and biological basis of chronic insomnia and confirm its current theoretical and conceptual models.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(2):288-309
pages 288-309 views

Dynamics of psychoemotional characteristics in patients with coronary heart disease after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: Russian sampling specifics

Velikanov A.A., Stoljarova A.A., Protasov E.A., Zelenskaya I.A., Lubinskaya E.I.


Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is known to be one of the most important surgical methods for treating coronary heart disease (CHD) which significantly reduces mortality and improves the quality of life of patients. In most cases, surgical intervention is a serious lifethreatening event and also a strong stress factor that affects the patient’s mental state. For this reason, there is an urgent need for psychological support for patients with CHD who are preparing for CABG. Therefore, when developing rehabilitation programmes and optimising psychodiagnostic and psychocorrectional measures, it is very important to study the psychoemotional characteristics of patients with CHD prior to CABG surgery. The objective of the present research was to study the dynamics of psychoemotional characteristics (including manifestations of asthenia, anxiety and psychopathological symptoms) in the patients with CHD during their stay in the cardiology hospital prior to CABG surgery. The study used a clinical-psychological method and an experimentalpsychological method, including the “Scale of Asthenic State” (SAS), “Integrative Anxiety Test” (IAT), “Symptom Check List-90-Revised” (SCL-90-R), and the “Big Five Personality Test”. A comparative study of the asthenic state in the patients with CHD before and after myocardial revascularisation during inpatient treatment revealed the presence of a more pronounced asthenic component in the postoperative period as compared with the results obtained at the preoperative stage. The patients with CHD prior to CABG during inpatient treatment had a higher level of anxiety as compared with the postoperative stage, especially regarding the general level of state anxiety, including emotional discomfort and social defence reactions. In the postoperative period, a higher rate of the asthenic component was observed in the structure of state anxiety. A comparative study of the severity of psychopathological symptoms in the patients with CHD prior to CABG surgery and during the postoperative period recorded more intense manifestations of anxiety, obsessiveness and compulsiveness as well as paranoid tendencies before the operation. In the structure of personal characteristics of the patients with CHD during their stay in the cardiology hospital prior to CABG surgery, the lowest indicators, on average, were “Agreeableness” and “Conscientiousness”. The results obtained are crucial for planning psychological intervention for patients with CHD.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(2):310-329
pages 310-329 views

Psychosocial characteristics of tuberculosis patients in Russia and treatment compliance factors

Zahkarova E.V., Filshtinskaya E.G.


The authors of the article analyse approaches to treatment for tuberculosis (TB), which have become widespread throughout the world. Scientists from different countries have made attempts to study the influence of psychological, social, cultural, ethnic, and geographical factors on the spread of tuberculosis and the effectiveness of its treatment. But so far little is known about personal or sociocultural factors that lead to a violation of treatment compliance, which significantly actualises the problems stated in this article. The relevance of the study is also determined by the fact that all measures currently used for treating tuberculosis do not lead to its complete eradication and elimination of the epidemic in the world as well as in the Russian Federation. The purpose of this work was to study the psychosocial characteristics of TB patients in Russia and their interrelationships, which will provide an opportunity to predict the patients’ behaviour in a disease situation and their treatment compliance. The study involved 1600 respondents aged 19-60 years: 800 women and 800 men, residents of Samara (Russia), of which 800 persons were TB patients and the other 800 were conditionally healthy. The following psychodiagnostic techniques were used: The World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL) Questionnaire (core module), The Level of Social Frustratedness Questionnaire, The Neurotic Disorders Questionnaire (Russian modification of H.D. Hansgen’s BVNK-300), M. Bond’s Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in Russian adaptation by E. Tunik, The Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WSQ) by S. Folkman and R. Lazarus in a modified and adapted Russian version, The Type of Attitude Towards the Disease (TATD) Questionnaire, and The Level of Compliance Questionnaire. It was found that the TB patients had a significantly decreased quality of life, especially in the spheres of social relations, psychological state and spirituality. Characteristic features of the TB patients in Russia were disorders of the digestive and cardiovascular systems, sleep and motor disorders, affective instability, mental exhaustion, excitability, impaired working ability, fears, and social-psychological maladaptation. The respondents tended to use more maladaptive psychological defence mechanisms. As the leading coping ways for the TB patients, search for social support and acceptance of responsibility were identified. The prevailing types of attitudes toward the disease were characterised by an intrapsychic orientation, causing impaired social adaptation of these patients. The authors constructed regression models of compliance to determine strategies for TB patients psychological support. The results of the study as well as the constructed models can be used for training professional personnel in the field of medicine, clinical psychology, social work and social pedagogy in order to optimise the provision of medical, social, psychological and pedagogical assistance to TB patients in Russia and in other countries of the world: studies show that the factors identified and analysed in this paper are similar in TB patients in different countries, regardless of their geographic location or the level of economic development and cultural features.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(2):330-347
pages 330-347 views


An outstanding scientist, psychologist Viktor P. Sheinov celebrates his 80th anniversary!

Znakov V.V., Pochebut L.G., Losik G.V.


The article is dedicated to the anniversary of Viktor P. Sheinov, a prominent modern psychologist, active author and member of the editorial board of the “RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics”. Viktor P. Sheinov is rightfully considered ‘a man of the world’: his works are very popular among scientists and practical psychologists in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Armenia, Latvia, and many other countries. It is impossible to overestimate his contribution to the development of such areas of modern science as personality psychology, general, social, pedagogical and cross-cultural psychology, conflict resolution studies, psychodiagnostics, and psychometrics. Viktor P. Sheinov is the author of over 350 scientific and practical works, including 21 monographs (6 of which are translated into English and published abroad), as well as 40 books on practical psychology.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(2):348-356
pages 348-356 views

Ruth Hubbard Cousins: saluting her centenary

Takooshian H., Denmark F.L., Tracy C., Cousins J.


May 21, 2020, marks 100 years since the birth of the legendary Ruth Hubbard Cousins (1920-2007). This salute is in two parts: (1) it recounts the extraordinary career of Ruth Cousins, and how her 33 years of leadership of Psi Chi has now touched the lives of over 750,000 Psi Chi life members at over 1,150 campuses world-wide; (2) Ruth’s two daughters Carol and Joan recount how they helped their recently-widowed mother since 1959 to expand Psi Chi. Psychology world-wide is not the same because of the remarkable legacy of Ruth Cousins.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2020;17(2):357-364
pages 357-364 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies